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Medical Microbiology Exam #1 Study Guide

by: Michelle Hatherley

Medical Microbiology Exam #1 Study Guide SCI 281

Marketplace > University of Southern Maine > SCI 281 > Medical Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide
Michelle Hatherley
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Chapters 2-3, 5-10, 13
Medical Microbiology
Blake Whittaker
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Hatherley on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCI 281 at University of Southern Maine taught by Blake Whittaker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Exam #1 Study Guide –  What is the structure of the cell wall?  What is the differences between Gram +/Gram­? Gram­positive: purple  Thick cell wall & minimal periplasm  Thick layer of peptidoglycan  Gram­negative: red  Extensive periplasm plus an outer membrane (asymmentrical bilayer  membrane) attached to peptidoglycan by lipoprotein o inner portion of membrane: integral proteins &  phospholipid bilayer o outer portion of membrane: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS),  which is an endotoxin and released from dying bacteria  Thin layer of peptidoglycan  Outside membrane is called asymmetrical bilayer membrane   What two types of viruses are there?   Describe one complete line of a specific virus.  Describe the process of viral multiplication  Know the differences between chemicals (Carbs, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids)  Remember Glycine   How does the growth of bacteria develop? Mostly done by binary fission: process in which a cell grows to twice its normal  size and divides in half to produce two daughter cells of equal size.   What is the growth curve?  Lag phase ­   Little increase in reproduction  Actively synthesizing enzymes (metabolically active)  Can last for less than 1 hour or up to days Log Phase ­   Period of growth at a genetically & environmentally determined maximum growth  rate  Rapid chromosome replication, growth, reproduction (RRGR = Rude Roommates Go Running?)  DNA and protein syntheses are maximized  Population increases logarithmically (shortest generation time observed)  Limiting factor appears to be rate of ATP production Stationary phase ­   # of new bacteria = # of dying bacteria (no net increase in population of viable  cells ) o  New cells that produced at the same rate as old cells dying  Nutrient supplies limited  Toxic by­products (alcohols may be produced) o Metabolic rate of surviving cells decline Decline phase (aka “death phase”)  Population reaches a point @ which cells die faster than produced  Nutrient supply is exhausted  Cells assume unusual shapes due to involution  Attempt to maintain by self­digestion & cannibalism   What activities do bacterium take part in? I.e. leading/lagging strands, “zipper  demonstration”  Describe RNA’s 3 phases of transcription (mRNA, protein synthesis, nucleic acids into  amino acids into peptides  Always remember 5’ prime to 3’ prime direction no matter what  Fmet = first amino acid  Exchange of gene material  When DNA is ‘naked’ and has no destination, bacteria takes it up and takes over o Transduction  Bacterial Sex (Conjugation)  4 Types of Cells o F + Cell o F ­ Cell o HFR Cell o Fprime cell  Describe Plasmids  Importance of generating ATP and what bacteria’s main goal is  Know the function and process of glycolysis  Electron Transport Chain  Aerobic vs. Anaerobic activities o 19x more ATP aerobically vs. anaerobically to grow as fast as possible  Control of microbial growth in environment or in human bodies


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