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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Summer Notetaker

Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 221

Summer Notetaker


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Covers Chapter 1-3 Exam Date: 9/23/2016 Organic Chemistry 221 Dr Feigl's Class
Organic Chemistry 1
Dorothy Feigl
Study Guide
organic, Chemsitry, Organic Chemistry
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 221 at Saint Mary's College taught by Dorothy Feigl in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Organic Chemistry at Saint Mary's College.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Exam 1 Review Sheet Date of test: 9/23/2016 Chapter 1 - Review from general chem. ● Important rules in structure:  ○ F is the most electronegative element  ○ Treat C and H like they have the same electronegativity  ● Polar Bond = unequal sharing of electrons  ● Non polar bond = equal sharing of electrons  ● Diple = how strong the difference in charge. The distance.   ● Shapes   Number of Domains  Arrangement  2  Linear  3  Trigonal Planar  4  tetrahedral    Tetrahedral Arrangement  Number of Domains  Number of Bonds  shape  4  4  tetrahedral  4  3  Trigonal pyramidal  4  2  bent  4  1  linear    Trigonal Planar Arrangement  Number of Domains  Number of Bonds  Shape  3  3  Trigonal Planar   2  2  bent  1  1  linear    Linear Arrangement  Number of Domains  Number of Bonds  Shape  2  2  linear  2  1  linat    ● Mechanism arrows   ○ Tail @ electrons. Point in the direction that they move.   ● Resonance Structures   ○ Also known as Canonical Structures (Artificial)  ○ You can only move electrons. Never move an atom!   ○ Better structure → negative sign is on the most electronegative element in the  structure  ● Acid and Base Chemistry  ○ Arrhenius Acid and Base  ■ Acid: produces hydrogen   ■ Base: produces hydroxide  ○ Bronsted­Lowry Acid and Base  ■ Acid: proton donor   ■ Base: proton acceptor   ○ Lewis Acid and Base   ■ Acid: Electron Pair acceptor   ■ Base: Electron pair donor  Chapter 2 - “Actual Organic Chemistry” ● Hydrocarbons   ○ Aliphatic or Aromatic         ​(only worry about aliphatic for now)  ■ Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes    Alkane  Alkene  Alkyne  Only single bonds  At least one double bond  At least one triple bond  (We are only worried about working with Alkanes for now)  ● Ground State → Promotion → Hybridization   ○ Sigma and Pi bonds  ○ MUST: End with the same number of orbitals that you started with  ● Isomers   ○ Constitutional isomers   ■ Same molecular formula but different structures  ● Chains and Branches (Know how to draw these)  Prefixes ­ determined by number of carbons in chain or branch  1  meth  6  hex  2  eth  7  hep  3  prop  8  oct  4  but  9  non  5  pent  10  dec  ● Rules for naming:   ○ Rule 1: Identify the straight/parent chain ­ the longest chain  ○ Rule 2: ­yl is the end of prefix for branch (ex. methyl)  ○ Rule 3: Number Parent Branch and give branches numbers to locate them  Possible Branches:  Methyl  butyl  ethyl  isobutyl  propyl  sec­butyl  isopropyl  tert­butyl  ● Rings follow these same naming rules   ○ Cyclo­ is the prefix in front of parent chain or the ring  ■ ex) cyclohexane  ● As the number branches increase, the BP decreases  ● As the number of branches decrease, the BP Increases  ● Solubility ­ Can the compound dissolve in water?  ○ Alkanes are not water soluble!  INTERMOLECULAR BONDS! (from strongest to weakest)  ● Ionic   ● Van Der Waals  ○ Dipole ­ Dipole   ■ Hydrogen Bonding   ○ Dipole ­ Induced Dipole  ○ Induced Dipole ­ Induced Dipole   ■ London Forces  Heat of combustion! ­ tells us about energy and stability  ● More energy = less stable   ● Less energy = more stable    Chapter 3 - Conformations ● Rotation around a single bonds   ● Newman Formula   ○ Staggered or eclipsed  ■ Staggered = stable   ■ Eclipsed = unstable. Temporary. Transitional state.  ○ KNOW HOW TO DRAW THESE  ● Types of Strain    Torsional Strain  Major strain on molecules. It is the increase  of potential energy that occurs when  molecules occupy the same space  Steric Strain  Based on bonds and size. It is the i​ ncrease in  potential energy due to repulsion of  molecules.  Baeyer Strain or Angle Strain  It is the increase in potential energy of a  molecule due to bond a​ ngles ​ hat are  different from the ideal angle value    ● Isomers   ○ Constitutional isomers (Structural isomers)  ■ Same molecular formula but different structures  ○ Stereoisomers   ■ Same order. Different in orientation and space.  ● Cis = bonds in the same plane/direction  ● Trans = bonds in different planes/directions  ○ Equatorial (most stable place to be)  ○ Axial      Important: KNOW HOW TO DRAW THESE STRUCTURES.  


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