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Human Development Chapters 1-4 Study Guide

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development Chapters 1-4 Study Guide HD 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Human Development > HD 101 > Human Development Chapters 1 4 Study Guide
Meghan Skiba

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About this Document

Notes from chapters 1-4 compiled into a smaller, condensed study guide
Intro To HUman Development
Erin Miller
Study Guide
Human Development
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Erin Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Intro To HUman Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Human Development  Chapters 1­4 Study Guide CHAPTER 1 The Scientific Method: Begin with curiosity Develop a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Draw conclusions Report results Replication Nature: influence of inherited genes Nurture: environmental influences Developmental Periods: Infancy 0 to 2 years Early Childhood 2 to 6 years Middle Childhood 6 to 11 years Adolescence 11 to 18 years Emerging Adulthood 18 to 25 years Adulthood 25 to 65 years Late Adulthood 65 years and older Human Development is: Multi Directional Multi Contextual Multi Cultural Plastic CHAPTER 2 The Beginning of Life DNA molecule containing chemical instructions for cells to make proteins Chromosomes molecules of DNA; each person has 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs Zygote two gametes (sperm and ova) produce a new individual once combined Gamete reproductive cells (sperm and ova); each gamete has 23 chromosomes Genetic Variation Genotype vs. Phenotype genetic inheritance vs observable characteristics Allele variation of a gene (hair color, eye color, etc) Female vs. Male XX vs. XY Twins: monozygotic vs dizygotic Dominant Recessive Heredity Dominant gene is more influential than the recessive one Recessive genes are occasionally noticed Zygote to Newborn Three main periods of prenatal development Germinal (1­2 week, rapid growth) Embryotic (3­8 week, formation of brain, spine, body shapes) Fetal (9­birth, genitals and sex hormones cause brain differentiation) Apgar Scale: assessment of newborn’s heartrate, breathing, muscle tone, color, etc. Birthing Practices Home births Hospital Births Doula Harm To The Fetus Taratogen: an agent resulting in birth defects or complications Behavioral Teratogens: agents that can impair the future child’s intellectual and  emotional functioning  Preterm or Slow Growing preterm: birth that occurs at 35 or fewer weeks after conception low: <5.5 lbs very low: < 3 lbs, 5 oz extremely low: < 2 lbs, 3 oz CHAPTER 3 Infant Growth Weight at birth: 7 lbs at 24 months: 28 lbs Length at birth: 20 in at 24 months: 34 in Sleep  15­17 hours a day high REM (rapid eye movement)  The Brain Cortex: outer layers of the brain where thinking, feeling, and sensing occurs Prefrontal Cortex: area of cortex at the front of the brain that manages anticipation,  planning, and impulse control Neurons: one of billion nerve cells in the CNS Axons: fibers that extend from neurons and transmit impulses from neuron to  dendrites of other neurons Dendrites: fibers extending from neurons that receives impulses from other  neurons via axons Synapses: intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of  another neuron Neurotransmitter: brain chemical that carries info from axon of a sending neuron to  dendrites of receiving neuron Moving and Perceiving: Senses Sensory development: precedes intellectual and motor development Sensation: response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus Perception: mental processing of sensory information when brain interprets sensation Perception follows sensation: infants’ brains are attuned to their own repeated social  experiences and perception occurs Reflexes Necessary for Survival Oxygen: breathing, hiccups and sneezes, thrashing Body Temperature: crying, shivering, pushing away blankets when hot Feeding: sucking, rooting, spitting up Gross Motor Skills vs. Fine Motor Skills basic motor skills developed over the first two years of life vs. physical abilities  involving small body movements (picking something up) Infant Cognition: Piaget Assimilation: type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or  assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation: type of adaptation in which old ideas are restructured to include, or  accommodate, new experiences Sensorimotor Intelligence: Piaget’s term for the way infants think – through senses and  motor skills – during the first period of cognitive development Information Processing Theory: modeled on computer functioning, involves step by step  description, adds insight to understanding of cognition at every age Early Memory: memory improves monthly – very young infants can remember  CHAPTER 4 The First Two Years Birth – distress, contentment 6 weeks – social smile 3 months – laughter, curiosity  4 months – full responsive smiles 4­8 months – anger 9­14 months – fear of social events 12 months – fear of unexpected sights 18 months – self awareness Emotional Development Early emotions: high emotional responsiveness, pain, pleasure Crying: typical – hurt, hungry, tired, frightened; colic: uncontrollable, reflux and  immature swallowing Smile and laughing: social smile (6 weeks), laughter (3 to 4 months) Anger: first expressions at around 6 months, healthy response to frustrations Sadness: indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol,  stressful experience for infants Fear: emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations Stranger Wariness: infant cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too  close Separation Anxiety: tears, dismay, or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves Development of Social Bonds Synchrony: coordinated, smooth exchange of responses b/w caregiver and infant Synchrony in the first few months becomes more frequent and elaborate  Attachment: lasting emotional bond that one person has with another; begins to form in  early infancy and influences a person’s close relationships throughout life Attachment Types Insecure Avoidant Attachment (A) Secure Attachment (B) Insecure Resistant/Ambivalent Attachment (C) Disorganized Attachment (D) Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development Psychoanalytic Theory FREUD: oral (first year) and anal stages (second year) Psychosocial Theory ERIKSON: trust and autonomy stages trust vs mistrust: infants learn basic trust if world is secure place  autonomy vs shame and doubt: toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a  sense of self rule over their actions and their bodies early problems: creation of adult who is suspicious and pessimistic  Behaviorism BANDURA: social learning theory parents mold an infant’s emotions and personality through reinforcement  and punishment gender roles are learned behavior patterns acquired by observing the behavior of others Cognitive Theory working model: set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize  perceptions and experiences the child’s interpretation of early experiences is more important than the  experiences themselves new working models can be developed based on new experiences or  reinterpretation of previous experiences Effects of Parenting Proximal parenting caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent  holding and touching Distal parenting caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys,  food, and face to face communication with minimal holding and touching


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