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Organic Chemistry 201

by: Janice Prieto

Organic Chemistry 201 CHM 201-02

Marketplace > La Salle University > Science > CHM 201-02 > Organic Chemistry 201
Janice Prieto
La Salle
GPA 2.65

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About this Document

This review covers what was on the practice test and some of the material discussed in class.
Organic Chemistry 1
Judith A. Straub
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janice Prieto on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 201-02 at La Salle University taught by Judith A. Straub in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Science at La Salle University.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Review For First T est: Review of Old Material:  Periodic Table 2 e in outer shell / s-block - 10 e-in outer shell / d-block 6 e in outer shell / p-block 14 e in outer shell / f-block Least electronegative to most  Formal Charge Formal Charge = group number – non-bonded e - number of bonds *This is the charge of a single element *The net charge is the sum of all the formal charges in a bond  Lewis Structure  Electronegativity and bond polarity New Material:  Condensed Structures CH 3H C2CH 3 is the same as CH CH3CHB2CH 3 Br *Had the Br been written as (Br) it would belongs directly to what’s in front of it  Line-Angle Drawing This is the simplest way to draw a structure Carbon Group OH with 3 Hydrogens Double Bond Oo between two Carbons OH group (anything that isn’t C or H is written) *Unlike Lewis Structures electrons don’t need to be drawn  Resonance Form *Resonance forms only happen through bonds *Pay attention to how many bonds each element wants H + + H C N Carbon likes 4 bonds but nitrogen likes 3 so the electron they share keeps H H moving back and forth between them as shown by the dashed line  Stable Resonance Form *The most stable resonance for is the one to fulfill the octate rule meaning all elements have 4 bonds *The Major contributor in resonance is the one with the greater amount of bonds, it will have as little charge separation as possible, will have as many octet as possible, and the charge is on the most electronegative atom.  Calculating Empirical Formula o Given % composition for each element, assume 100 g. o Convert the grams of each element to moles. o Divide by the smallest number of moles to get the ratio. o The molecular formula may be a multiple of the empirical formula. o Example: Assume the sample was 100g: 40.0% C = 40.0 g of C Calculate moles of each element: 40.0g/12.0 g/mol = 3.33 mol C 6.67g/1.01 g/mol = 6.60 mol H Remaining weight can be assumed to be Oxygen: 53.3% = 53.3 g/16.0g/mol = 3.33 mol O Divide through by smallest number to get the ratio: 3.33 mol C = 1 6.60 mol H = 2 3.33 mol O = 1 3.33 mol O 3.33 mol O 3.33 mol O Empirical Formula = ratio of elements = C2 O  Molecular Formula o Find the MW, divide how much you have by the MW and multiply that whole number by the whole Empirical Formula  Molecular Shapes 3 5                           sp d                     trigonal bipyramidal    3 2 6                           sp d                     octahedral  Isomers (cis-, trans-) o Molecules that have the same molecular formula but differ in the arrangement of their atoms o Cis vs Trans  Dipole-Dipole Moment, London Dispersions, and Hydrogen bonding o Dipole Dipole is when there is a polar bond where most of electrons are being pulled into one direction (lone electrons contribute to this) o London Dispersion is the main force in nonpolar molecules and it only happens for a fraction of a second (weakest of the three) o Hydrogen bonding is only when a Hydrogen bonds with a Nitrogen, Oxygen or Fluorine. It is the strongest force. Two hydrogens are strongly attracted to each other. F-H is stronger than O-H which is stronger than N-H due to electronegativity.  Polarity effect on solubility o Same polarities dissolve o Different polarities do not dissolve or mix o Same polarities and liquids mix/dissolve  Acids and Bases o Acid:  Forms H O3in H O 2Arrhenius)  Donates H (Bronsted)  Accepts an electron to form a new bond (Lewis) o Base:  Forms OH in H O 2Arrhenius)  Accepts H (Bronsted)  Donates an electron to form a new bond (Lewis) o Strengths:  The higher the pKa of an acid the stronger it is and the lower the pKs of a base the stronger it is  As you move to the right and down the acids become stronger o Conjugated:  A conjugated acid or base is the result of a reaction  A conjugated acid comes from a base and a conjugated base came from an acid.  A strong acid has a weak conjugate base and vice versa. o Equilibrium:  The acid-base reaction equilibrium favors the weaker acid/base which are always on the same side  Nucleophiles and Electrophiles o Nucleophiles are Lewis bases and Electrophile is a Lewis acid  Classification of Organic Compound (Based on functional groups) o Hydrocarbons  Alkanes: single bonds between carbons with sp3 orbital  Cycloalkanes: a class of alkanes that form a ring of carbons. Sp3  Alkenes: They contain carbons with double bonds sp2, names end with –ene, and a number added to the name indicates the position of the double bonds.  Alkynes: They contain carbon – carbon triple bonds, they names end in –yne.  Aromatic: Cyclic (ring form) compounds with sp2 orbitals  Cycloakenes: ring with a double bond o Compounds containing Oxygen (Heteroatomic)  Alcohols: Contains hydroxyl group as the main functional group.  Ethers: Contain two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen.  Aldehydes and Ketones: Contain the carbonyl group, -C=O. Ketone has two alkyl groups bonded to the carbonyl and aldehyde has one.  Carboxylic Acid: Contain the carboxyl group, -COOH as their FUNTION group o Compounds containing Nitrogen (Heteroatomic)  Amines: they may be cyclic, aromatic, or alkylated.  Amides: have a C=O adjacent to an amine and are derived from a combination of an acid with ammonia or an amine.  Nitriles: contain a cyano group (carbon triple bonded to nitrogen) o Ester: A carbon double bonded to an Oxygen and single bonded to another Oxygen *In table bellow* *Functional groups in next page*


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