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Sociology Exam One Study Guide

by: Alyssa Friedberg

Sociology Exam One Study Guide 2020

Marketplace > Bowling Green State University > Sociology > 2020 > Sociology Exam One Study Guide
Alyssa Friedberg
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Study Guide for Chapters 1-4 in "Social Problems"
Gwen Z
Study Guide
race, ethnicity, Gender, socialclass, Theory
50 ?





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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Friedberg on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2020 at Bowling Green State University taught by Gwen Z in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see SOCIAL PROBLEMS in Sociology at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Study Guide- Exam 1 Social Problems Fall ‘16 Zugarek Sociology- the systematic study of individuals, groups, and social structures Social Problems- a social condition that has negative consequences for individuals, our social world, or our physical world Social innovation- policy, program, or advocacy that features an untested or unique approach Hypothesis-statement of a relationship between variables Dependent variable- the variable to be explained Independent variable- the variable expected to account for the cause of the dependent variable Applied research- pursuit of knowledge for program application or policy evaluation Basic research- exploration of the causes and consequences of a social problem Functionalism- a theoretical perspective that examines the functions or consequences of the structure of society; functionalists use the macro perspective, focusing on how society creates and maintains social order; Emile Durkheim Conflict theory- considers how society is held together by power and coercion for the benefit of those in power; Karl Marx Feminist theory- defines gender as a source of social inequality, group conflict, and social problems; Interactionist perspective-micro level perspective; believe that through our interactions, social problems are created and defined; George H Mead Similarities and differences in Class/Caste systems- US- underclass, working poor, working class, lower middle class, upper middle class, upper class; have the ability to move class throughout life Caste System- untouchables, farmer/laborer, merchant/trader, ruler/warrior, priest; no ability to move up or down in system throughout life. PRWORA- Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act; goal was to help people become self sufficient; required those on assistance to take a job within a certain period of time; TANF included in this Wealth- the value of one’s personal assets Income- money earned for one’s work Poverty threshold- measure developed by the SSA used to estimate the number of people in poverty in the US; How Many? Study Guide- Exam 1 Social Problems Fall ‘16 Zugarek Poverty guidelines- issued each year by the US Department of Health and Human Services to determine eligibility to federal programs; Do they qualify? Absolute poverty- a lack of basic necessities such as water, shelter, medical care, diapers Relative poverty- a situation where a person is not able to achieve the average lifestyle or income enjoyed by the rest of society around them Food insecurity- lacking the access to sufficient food for all family members Groups most likely to experience poverty- Age: Children and elderly make up most of the poor Race: 9.9% of the white population are in poverty, 27.2% blacks, 23.5% Hispanics American dream- No matter where you come from, you have the ability to get to the top, “ rags to riches”, “pull yourself up from your boot straps” Race- a group defined by a society because of certain biologically inherited physical characteristics such as skin color, blood, hair Ethnicity- group based on cultural factors such as language, religion, dress, foods, customs, beliefs, values, norms and other factors Ethnocentrism- the belief that one’s own group values and behaviors are right and even better than all others Media income by race-ethnicity- in 2014 Blacks median income was 59% of White non-Hispanic hosehold median income. Hispanic household income was 70% of WNH, Asian income was 115% of WNH income. In order: Black, Hispanic, White Non-Hispanic, Asian Race-ethnicity categorization- Hispanic, Native Born, Foreign Born, White alone, Black alone, Asian alone, Other non-hispanic Affirmative action- an action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination. White privilege- the fact that white people have the privilege of not being viewed by race, while minorities are; whites are “regular”, while minorities are put into a group Islamophobia- a fear or dislike of Muslims and Islam; hate crimes toward Muslims tripled in 2015; fueled by ethnocentrism, fear of the unknown, misinformation Different types of discrimination- Individual Discrimination- Prejudiced actions against minority members by individuals; may include avoiding contact or physical or verbal attacks Study Guide- Exam 1 Social Problems Fall ‘16 Zugarek Institutional Discrimination- Discrimination practiced by a political or social institution Different types of segregation (in race and in gender)- De Facto segregation: subtler processes of segregation that are not because of official policy Horizontal Segregation: the separation of women into non-manual labor and men into manual labor sectors Vertical Segregation- the elevation of men into the best paid positions and most desirable jobs while woman maintain less desirable positions and lower pay Illegal immigration- most illegal immigrants came here legally and overstayed their visa; Pro: fill underpaid, overworked jobs that most Americans aren’t willing to fill, pay more in taxes than they take advantage of, expand economy and need for goods Con: break the law by entering/staying without permission, damage occurred to farms and property migration streams pass through, drugs are smuggled Sex-difference between male and female based on physiological characteristics Gender- differences based on society, identification Second shift- idea that you go to work for first shift and come home and fulfill second shift by doing housework, taking care of children, etc Gender roles Higher education in U.S. and gender Femininity Masculinity Reproductive rights Sexual assault Domestic violence


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