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Intro to Stats: Study Guide Exam 1

by: Amanda Furtick

Intro to Stats: Study Guide Exam 1 ESC_PS 4170 - 06

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Math > ESC_PS 4170 - 06 > Intro to Stats Study Guide Exam 1
Amanda Furtick
GPA 3.8

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These notes cover the main concepts from the chapters we have studied.
Intro to applied statistics
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Furtick on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESC_PS 4170 - 06 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Beiner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Intro to applied statistics in Math at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Intro to Applied Statistics: Exam 1 Study Guide    This includes the main points from chapters 2­7. The yellow highlight is the keyword and  the orange highlight is the definition or description of the key word.    Chapter 2:  ­ The ​scientific method​ involves 1) defining a problem, 2) reviewing the literature, 3)  dealing with the problem, 4) formulating one or more hypotheses or questions related to  the problem, 5) collecting data to test each hypothesis empirically, 6) analyzing the data,  7) determining if each hypotheses is or is not supported and, 8) interpreting the results of  the investigation.   ­ Qualitative research​ is used to answer questions ​verbally​ and show how the participants  perceive and interpret aspects of the environment ­­ ​unstructured, words and images​.  Quantitative research​ is more standard and examines questions in ​numerical form ­­ data​.  ­ Empirical research ​­­ carryout out a firsthand investigation   ­ Basic research​ ­­ carried out to address one or more theoretical questions simply for  purpose of addressing the questions  ­ Applied research​ ­­ carried out to solve real­life problems. (obtaining knowledge)  ­ Action research​ ­­ carried out to find what works in a particular situation with particular  group of people (no generalizations)  ­ Evaluation research​ ­­ carried out to determine effectiveness of existing programs  Chapter 3:  ­ Non­directional hypotheses​ make no attempt to specify direction; indicates ​differences or  relationships exist.  ­ Human subjects need to be protected both ​mentally​ and ​physically​ from stress. The  benefits must outweigh the negatives.   ­ Validity​ ­­ how accurate the measure is   ­ Reliability​ ­­ the degree of consistency of measurement (if the test was given multiple  times, the same result would always occur)  ­ Concealment ​occurs when the researcher t​ells the truth but omits information​, and  deception​ occurs when the researcher ​purposefully gives false information  Chapter 4:  ­ A, B, X, and Y​ are used to represent a ​quantity, score, or value ​in a variable and ​N​ stands  for ​“number.”  ­ An ​independent variable​ is the main variable that is used to determine if it has an effect  on another variable. The ​dependent variable​ is the outcome, determined by the  independent variable.   ­ Descriptive stats classify numerical data and inferential stats make a guess about the  population based on a smaller sample or portion.  ­ Nominal data ​is ​categorica​l, simply an identification number and not a number of value.  Ordinal data​ is the ​order or category of numbers​, but the differences between the ranking  do not need to be the same. ​Interval data​ means that the ​space between each number of  ranking is equal but zero does not reflect the absence of something​. ​Ratio​ measures the  same as an interval, but ​zero does mean the absence of something​.   ­ Parameter ­­ description of a population  ­ Sample ­­ subset of a population   Chapter 5:  ­ Probability ­­ the likelihood or chance that something will or will not happen.  ­ Experiment ­­ a situation involving chance or probability that leads to results called  outcomes  ­ Outcome ­­ the result of a single trial of an experiment   ­ Sample Space ­­ the set of all possible outcomes (ie: sample space of rolling a die is 1, 2,  3, 4, 5, 6)  ­ Event ­­ one or more outcomes of an experiment (ie: rolling a 3 is an event)  ­ 1 ­ P(E) = probability of something not happening  ­ P(E)​ = ​number of outcomes corresponding to event E/total number of outcomes  ­ All probabilities between zero and 1 are inclusive. The sum of all the probabilities in the  sample space is 1. The probability of an event which cannot occur is 0. The probability of  an event which must occur is 1.   Chapter 6:  ­ When ​organizing data​, 1) ​organize data in column form from highest score to lowest  score, 2) develop a frequency distribution, 3) create a grouped frequency distribution if  necessary, 4) create a cumulative frequency distribution, 5) create a cumulative  percentage distribution.  ­ Raw data ­­ data collected in random form   ­ Grouped data is used when there is a large number of scores and it is easier to group the  intervals together.  ­ Cumulative frequency and cumulative percentage distribution are additional ways of  looking at data sets.   ­ Graphs display data sets.   ­ In a bar graph and histogram, the ​x (horizontal) axis​ represents the ​independent variable  and the ​y (vertical) axis​ represents the ​dependent variable​. ​Bar graphs​ are good for  nominal data​ and​ histograms ​are good for​ interval and ratio data.   ­ Normal bell curves are symmetrical. (leptokurtic, platykurtic, multi­modal). Positively  and Negatively skewed curves are not symmetrical.   Chapter 7:  ­ Percentile ranks indicate the relative position of an individual in a group.   ­ Ungrouped Data: 1) create a frequency distribution, 2) create a cumulative frequency  distribution.  ­ Formula for ​calculating percentile rank in ungrouped data​: ​PR = cum f/n X 100  ­ Upper limit in grouped data: add .5 to the highest value specified in the limit (ie: if the  group was 100­109, add .5 to 109). Lower limit in grouped data: subtract .5 from the  lowest value of the limit (ie: subtract .5 from 100)  ­ Formula for ​calculation percentile rank in grouped data: ​    ​PR = cumf​ n​ (X ­ Xii/i)(Fi)  ​   x 100                  N 


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