U.S. History Exam 1 Study Guide
U.S. History Exam 1 Study Guide
Popular in US History Up to 1865
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Saint Mary's College taught by Carol Halperin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
History Exam 1 Study Guide Date of test: 9/23/2016 About the exam: Expect a question from each chapter If you have been in class every day you have all the info you need Not concerned with Dates just know the reasons behind and the effects of the past events and how impacted future events Format: ● Multiple choice questions ● True/False Statements ● Fill in the blanks ● Short Answer section ○ Be able to make a list reasons/implications of two separate events The Beginning 1. Colonization and Exploration a. Spanish vs English vs French vs Dutch i. Two main players were Spanish and English b. Motivation for exploration 2. The English in Virginia a. Colony of Roanoke b. Jamestown i. Who paid for these colonies? ii. What motivated settlers? iii. Why did this colony almost fail? iv. What does Virginia need? 1. Farmers 2. Labor supply 3. A good to produce/sell 4. A way to deal with indians/native americans 5. System of self government v. Powhatan Indians c. Tobacco d. Indentured Servants a. Virginia lacked a sense of home and permanence at this point.Finally started to gain performance and community when they built: Taverns, churches, and county courts. e. Need for Land → expansion f. Social class at the time 3. 1676 Bacon’s Rebellion → Development of Slavery a. Shift from indentured servants to slaves b. Racisms begins to develop 4. 1688 Glorious Revolution a. Monarchy is no longer in full power b. White landowners gain ability to vote. c. Based on an unjust and racist system 5. Virginia Agriculture Independent Society a. Virginians → ideal citizens b. All farmers/landowners were seen as equal regardless of size of land c. Slaves strengthened the master's ability to be independent in order to eventually gain freedom as a country. i. Eventually became too dangerous to free the population of slaves due to size A separate adventure 1. Pilgrims and Puritans. a. Pilgrims Mayflower Compact. b. Puritans John Winthrop. i. “city on a hill” c. New England. Healthier than Jamestown. a. Puritans meant for these colonies to be permanent settlements and were family based from the beginning. d. Puritans and Pilgrims i. Calvinists 1. “Visible saints” 2. Predestination ii. Contacts with God: 1. Covenant of works (this failed) a. Able to gain salvation through good deeds 2. Covenant of Grace a. Salvation is predetermined iii. Saw marriage as a contract. Not married in the eyes of God. 1. Divorce was possible. 2. Reproduction was key. e. Punishments = public humiliation i. Success deterrent f. Only “visible saints” were able to gain full membership to church g. No vanity. No luxury items allowed. Due to the exclusivity of the Puritan Church → People lost interest and motivation 1. New generation not being converted. 2. Church did not seek out converts. 3. No longer a “beacon of light” 4. Closed ranks and perceived outside threats 5. Problem for the church: Prosperity and Luxury Items. a. Those with simple lives did not want to give up lifestyle in return for the faith. 6. People began to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony a. Anne Hutchinson b. Roger Williams c. Thomas Hooker 7. Colonies were expanding. a. No longer close enough to keep track of people Witch Trials ● Hysteria ● People actually practiced witchcraft → Form of rebellion against church ● Mainly female witched (4:1 female to male) ● KNOW WHO WAS TARGETED AND WHY ● KNOW WHO ACCUSED THEM Salem Witch Trials ● Oyer and Terminer Courts ○ Allowed spectral evidence in courts ■ 1692 disbanded in favor of a rational court By the end of the 17th century church influence was basically nonexistent Expansion of Colonies ● 1630s Thomas Hooker → Hartford and New Hampshire → Eventually Connecticut ○ Fundamental Orders of Connecticut ■ Allowed regular men to hold office. Not restricted by religion. Many colonies were not controlled by the king. They were funded by stock companies. Colonies had diverse backgrounds and diverse religions. ● 1640 English Civil War Neglected Colonies ● Did not pay attention to colonies until 1660 Restoration In England ○ Due to the success of the colonies Parliament wants to take control again ■ Restoration Colonies ■ 1660s Navigation Acts. ● All goods in colonies are subject to English Tax ■ 1685 Dominion of England gov of the colonies were combined to create one district ■ 1688 Glorious Revolution colonies restored to peace Original 13 Colonies (in no particular order) 1. New York 2. Massachusetts 3. New Jersey 4. Rhode Island 5. New Hampshire 6. Connecticut 7. Pennsylvania 8. Viginia 9. Maryland 10. Georgia 11. North carolina 12. South carolina 13. Delaware ● Division between rural and city life ○ Different appearances ○ Different lifestyles ○ Different levels of education Great Awakening ● Roots pietism ○ Philosophy that you can have a personal relationship with God without the need of church as an intermediate. ● Enlightenment Science ○ Includes Newton’s laws ● Development of Rational beliefs ● Important thinkers that influenced the revolution: ○ John Locke ○ Francis Bacon ○ Cotton Mather's ● No Predestination. Salvation is attainable to everyone. George Whitefield ● Came to colonies in 1740 evangelist ○ Preached methodism ■ Assurance of salvation through salvation This swept the nation! The colonies were in need of a revival! They needed hope! French and Indian War ● French and English conflict over land ● 1754 Battle of Fort Necessity (Beginning of War) ○ French and indians begin to attack english settlements that they considered near their territory ● 1756 William Pitt starts to send over British troops to protect Colonists ○ Start to force enlistment of American colonists ○ Began to force americans to pay for the occupation of british soldiers ● 1763 Treaty of Paris ○ French surrender all land claims in American mainland ● What were the results of the war? The Radicalism of The American Revolutionary War ● Idea that all men are created equal was very radical ● BEFORE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR: Ordinary people were looked down upon and gentlemen were praised. ● What were the differences between common men and gentlemen? ● NOW: All men are seen to be equal. They value personal ability and work ethic over hereditary status. ● Voting right: all white male property owners (earliest known voters) ○ Essence of Democracy What make all of this possible? ● The great awakening ● Lack of loyalty to england ● Rise of middle class ● French and Indian War ● transition : subject → citizen ● Colonists were very protective of liberty and their lifestyles Heading into the American Revolution Why was American colonists in the mindset to have a revolution? Why was George Washington an ideal public servant? Setting the Stage ● Revolution was inevitable. ○ Why? ● What were the advantages/disadvantages of the British and Americans? Revolutionary War ● Lose Battle of Brooklyn ● Major Victory Battle of Saratoga ○ Americans have the dense wilderness to their advantage. ● America gains the support of the French. ○ This is the Turning point of the war!
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