MIE 330 EXAM 1 Study guide!
MIE 330 EXAM 1 Study guide! 330
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 330 at North Carolina State University taught by Paul Mulvey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Resource Management in Business Administration at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
▯ Exam 1 Study Guide ▯ ▯ TOPIC 1: ▯ ▯ Human Resource Management is the policies, practices and systems that influence employee behaviors, attitudes and performance. ▯ Practices are important and contribute to many things such as… o The satisfaction of Employees and customers o Innovation o Productivity o Development of a favorable reputation ▯ Administrative services and transactions: compensation, hiring, staffing. o An emphasis is placed on resource efficiency and service quality. Business partner services: developing effective HR systems and helping implement business plans, talent management. o An emphasis is placed on knowing the business and exercising influence— problem solving, designing effective systems to ensure needed competencies. Strategic services: contributing to business strategy based on considerations of human resources. o An emphasis is placed on knowledge of the competition, the market, and business strategies. ▯ Corporate responsibility refers to businesses’ efforts to act sustainably and/or to consider outcomes relating to a broad variety of stakeholders. Sustainability Surviving and succeeding in a competitive environment. Stakeholders Shareholders, community, customers. Activities that are used to benefit company outcomes. o Corporate Social Responsibility o Creating shared value o Triple bottom line ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Analysis and design of work ▯ ▯ ▯ The human resource recruitment Any practice or activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. ▯ ▯ ▯ Selection ▯ Training and development ▯ Compensation and benefits ▯ Performance management ▯ Employee relations ▯ ▯ Shared service model The goal of a shared services delivery model is to allow each business division to focus its limited resources on activities that support the division’s business goals. o Technology has often been the driver for shared services within an organization because it can be expensive to purchase, maintain and train employees to use. ▯ Self-service refers to giving employees online access to information about HR issues such as training, benefits, compensation, and contracts. ▯ Outsourcing Outsourcing is the practice of having another company (a vendor, third party, or consultant) provide services. o The major reasons that company executives choose to outsource HR practices include cost savings, increased ability to recruit and manage talent, improved HR service quality, and protection of the company from potential lawsuits by standardizing processes such as selection and recruitment. ▯ Sustainability The company’s ability to meet its needs without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. ▯ Talent management is the systematic, planned strategic effort by a company to use bundles of human resource management practices, including acquiring and assessing employees, learning and development, performance management, and compensation to attract, retain, develop, and motivate highly skilled employees and managers. A balanced scorecard gives managers an indication of the performance of a company based on the degree to which stakeholder needs are satisfied. o It depicts the company from the perspective of internal and external customers, employees, and shareholders. o The balanced scorecard differs from traditional measures of company performance by emphasizing that the critical indicators chosen are based on the company's business strategy and competitive demands. ▯ ▯ TOPIC 1 (Section 2) ▯ ▯ High-performance work practices: ▯ These involve organizing social systems (people) in productive and efficient ways alongside technical systems (written procedures, computer software, etc.). Important high-performance work practices include: 1) Work analysis 2) Systematic selection/hiring 3) Extensive training 4) Pay for performance ▯ ▯ Customer Service and Quality Emphasis The effects of emphasizing customer service in human resource development are experienced when business owners realize greater customer retention. Knowledge of the correlation between maximizing customer service and repeat business has prompted HR development professionals to find ways to strategically create high levels of service through their employees. When HR development systems are in place and functioning effectively, you can raise your customers’ expectations and easily meet them to the advantage of your business. ▯ Changing Demographics and Diversity of the Workforce Diversity can be a range of different personal backgrounds… o Age o Race o Gender o Ethnicity o Nationality o Cultural values Managing a Diverse Workforce includes… o Communicating effectively o Coaching and developing others o Providing fair and impartial performance feedback o Creating an inclusive work environment ▯ ▯ Diversity trends in today’s and tomorrow’s workforce The labor force of current employees is often referred to as the internal labor force. Employers identify and select new employees from the external labor market through recruiting and selection. The external labor market includes persons actively seeking employment. As a result, the skills and motivation of a company’s internal labor force are influenced by the composition of the available labor market (the external labor market). ▯ Trends in generations of employees Because employees are working longer the workforce now has five generations, each one with unique characteristics and characteristics similar to the others. Diversity is important for tapping all employees’ creative, cultural, and communication skills and using those skills to provide competitive advantage ▯ Sarbanes-Oxley Act The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 sets strict rules for corporate behavior and sets heavy fines and prison terms for noncompliance: organizations are spending millions of dollars each year to comply with regulations under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which imposes criminal penalties for corporate governing and accounting lapses, including retaliation against whistle-blowers reporting violations of Security and Exchange Commission rules. ▯ Globalization and Technology are always increasing. U.S. companies must do a better job of preparing employees and their families for international assignments, especially given the current high failure rate. Advances in technology have changed how and where we work, including by: o Requiring new skills of employees o Increasing the frequency and type of communication collaboration, and teamwork (e.g., virtual teams) o Replacing forms of human work with robotics. ▯ TOPIC 2: ▯ Strategic human resource management (SHRM): this is the pattern of planned HR activities and deployments intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals. Strategic management is a process to address the organization’s competitive challenges by integrating goals, policies and action sequences into a cohesive whole. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Five major components of the strategic management process are relevant to strategy formulation. The mission is a statement of the organization’s reason for being; it usually specifies the customers served, the needs satisfied and/or the values received by the customers, and the technology used. Five major components of the strategic management process are o 1) mission o 2) goals o 3) external analysis o 4) external analysis o 5) strategic choices ▯ SHRM process model: During strategy formulation, the strategic planning groups decide on a strategic direction by defining the company's mission and goals, its external opportunities and threats, and its internal strengths and weaknesses. o They then generate various strategic alternatives and compare those alternatives' ability to achieve the company's mission and goals. During strategy implementation, an organization follows through on a strategy chosen in the strategy formulation stage. o This consists of structuring the organization, allocating resources, ensuring that the firm has skilled employees in place, and developing reward systems that align employee behavior with the organization's strategic goals. The human resource management (HRM) function's attention is focused on day-to-day activities. o The HRM department simply engages in administrative work unrelated to the company's core business needs. External analysis and internal analysis combined constitute what has come to be called the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis. o After going through SWOT analysis, the strategic planning team has all the information it needs to generate a number of strategic alternatives. ▯ ▯ Strategic types: The differentiation strategy attempts to create the impression that a company's product or service is different from that of others in the industry. o The perceived differentiation can come from creating a brand image, from technology, from offering unique features, or from unique customer service. ▯ ▯ ▯ TOPIC 3: The Legal Environment: Equal Employment Opportunity and Safety ▯ The Constitution establishes fundamental rights for U.S. citizens and establishes three governing branches on the federal (national) level: o The legislative branch of the federal government consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. These bodies enact laws that govern many HR activities o The executive branch consists of the president of the United States and the regulatory agencies the president oversees. The president can propose bills, veto bills, and choose how laws are enforced; o The judicial branch consists of the federal court system, which is made up of three levels. District courts, courts of appeal, and the Supreme Court. ▯ ▯ Equal employment opportunity Equal employment opportunity (EEO) is a general term which describes the government’s efforts to ensure that individuals have an equal chance for employment, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. o 3 major types of employment discrimination are: 1) Disparate treatment exists when individuals in similar situations are treated differently based upon their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability status. 2) Disparate treatment is often intended. Disparate impact occurs when an employment practice thought to be neutral disproportionately excludes a protected group from employment opportunities. Disparate impact is often unintended. 3) Lack of reasonable accommodation – when employers do not affirmatively accommodate an individual’s disability or religion. Disparate treatment: Disparate treatment exists when individuals in similar situations are treated differently and the different treatment is based on the individual's race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability status. o If two people with the same qualifications apply for a job and the employer decides who to hire based on one individual's race or religion, the individual not hired is a victim of disparate treatment. ▯ Proof of disparate treatment: ▯ 1. Plaintiff belongs to a protected group; ▯ 2. Plaintiff applied for and was qualified for ▯ the job. ▯ 3. Plaintiff was rejected; ▯ 4. After rejection, the position remains open ▯ ▯ Proof of disparate impact: ▯ 1. Four-fifths rule (80%) or standard deviation rule. ▯ Goals and timetables in an affirmative action plan specify the percentage of women and minorities that an employer seeks to have in each job group and the date by which that percentage is to be attained. o These are not to be viewed as quotas, which entail setting aside a specific number of positions to be filled only by members of the protected class. Sexual Harassment in the workplace: Quid pro quo harassment: When some type of benefit or punishment is made contingent upon the employee submitting to sexual advances. A hostile working environment: When someone's behavior in the workplace creates an environment that makes it difficult for someone of a particular sex to work. ▯ ▯ Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Authorizes the federal government to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standards for all places of employment engaging in interstate commerce. Under this, employees have a right to: o 1) Request an inspection. o 2) Have a representative present at an inspection. o 3) Have dangerous substances identified. o 4) Be promptly informed about exposure to hazards and be given access to accurate records regarding exposures. o 5) Have employer violations posted at the work-site. ▯ TOPIC 4: The Analysis and Design of Work Work analysis (also known as job analysis) is the process of getting detailed information about the work that is assigned to individuals or groups in an organization. Work analysis has been called the building block of everything that the personnel department does. 1.Work redesign 2.Recruitment 3.Selection 4.Training 5.Performance appraisal 6.Job evaluation. ▯ ▯ Work-flow design The process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service, prior to allocating and assigning these tasks to a particular job category or person. In a work-flow design, consideration is made of o Inputs o Resources o Human capital o Work activities o Outputs ▯ Types of work information: Job description is a list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a job entails. Job specification is a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform the job. o Sources of work information: Incumbents Supervisors Coworkers Job experts Main methods of information collection: o Questionnaires o Interviews o Observation Job design is the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job. Major approaches to designing jobs: o Mechanistic approach – this approach has its roots in classical industrial engineering and focuses on designing jobs around the concepts of task specialization, skill simplification, and repetition. o Motivational approach – the job characteristics model which emphasizes the importance of motivation job characteristics, including: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. ▯ Organizational Structure Organization structure: the relatively stable and formal network of vertical and horizontal interconnections among jobs that constitute the organization. Two dimensions of organizational structure are: o 1) Centralization o 2) Departmentalization Two major types of organizational structural configurations: o 1) A functional structure employs a functional departmentalization scheme with high levels of centralization. o 2) A divisional structure that employs a workflow departmentalization and low levels of centralization. ▯ ▯ Centralization Centralized authority is decision-making authority residing at the top of the organizational chart. o When authority is distributed through the lower levels, an organization has a decentralized decision-making structure. ▯ ▯ Functional structures are most appropriate in stable, predictable environments, where demand for resources can be well anticipated and coordination requirements between jobs can be refined and standardized over consistent repetitions of activity. o This type of structure helps support organizations that compete on cost, because efficiency is central to making this strategy work. ▯ ▯ Divisional structure Units in divisional structures act almost as separate, self-sufficient, semi-autonomous organizations. o Divisional structures combine a divisional departmentalization scheme with relatively low levels of centralization. o Divisional structures are most appropriate in unstable, unpredictable environments, where it is difficult to anticipate demands for resources and coordination requirements between jobs are not consistent over time. This type of structure also helps support organizations that compete on differentiation or innovation, because flexible responsiveness is central to making this strategy work. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) was born during the 1930s. The Department of Labor abandoned the DOT in 1998 and developed an entirely new system for classifying jobs, which is referred to as the Occupational Information Network, or O*NET. o Instead of relying on fixed job titles and narrow task descriptions, the O*NET uses a common language that generalizes across jobs to describe the abilities, work styles, work activities, and work context required for various occupations that are more broadly defined. ▯
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