First Exam Study Guide for Physical/ Biological Anthropology
First Exam Study Guide for Physical/ Biological Anthropology ANT 2551-0001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Stephenson on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 2551-0001 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Geoffory Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas Exam 1- Physical and Biological Anthropology Introduction to Anthropology What is Anthropology? It is the study of human beings. **NOT THE STUDY OF DINOSAURS** Subfields of Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Study of the diversity among cultures. Ethnography: Studying of a specific culture/ society. Ethnology: Crosscultural study using ethnographic data. Linguistic Anthropology Study of change in a language for social or cultural reasons. Sociolinguistics: The variations of social and linguistic relevance. Archaeological Anthropology Study of the remains of a society. o Materials include: Mostly garbage, artifacts, and burial sites. o Famous sites include: Macchu Pichu, Peru Tatankhamun, Egypt Biological/ Physical Anthropology “What causes differences among different populations?” Topics of Biological/Physical Anthropology: o Genetics o Fossils o Osteology o Forensics o Paleopathology What makes humans so un ??e Bipedalism o Long legs and short arms. This has no always been true. Non honing Chewing o Teeth do not sharpen when they are chewed with. o *The first trait to tell whether hominin or not* Complex Culture and Tools o Complexity over time Hunting o Increase of calorie intake with more hunting. Developed bigger brains and bodies. Speech o Vocalization AND Language Domestication of Food 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas o Led to the domestication of plants too. Lucy Humanlike shape Climbing with long arms Bipedalism Chimpsize brain No projecting canine Chapter 1: Origins of Evolutionary Thought Important Vocabulary Words: Hypothesis: An explanation for an observation made that needs to be tested. Theory: Explains existing observations and also predicts new ones. Law: Universally accepted fact; a proved theory becomes a law. Catastrophism: The World’s landscapes are formed from catastrophes. Artificial Selection: Selection based on human interference. Natural Selection: Selection based on nature. People That Impacted Evolutionary Thought: th Aristotle (4 century B.C) “Fixity of species” o Chain of species. Nicolas Copernicus (1473 1543) Earthcentered solar system to Suncentered solar system. Archbishop James Usher (1581 1656) Calculated date of creation based on the book of Genesis. John Ray (1627 1705) Made Aristotle’s thought of species chain more complex. Creates groups of plants and animals. Species and Genus terms in classification. Carolus Linnaeus (17071778) Wanted to classify every living species. Created Binominal Nomenclature. Added Class and Order terms into classification. Comte de Buffon (1707 1788) Studied the response of organisms to changes in the environment. o Bears in cold and hot environments. Polar bears and Black/ Brown bears. Erasmus Darwin (1731 1802) He wrote poetry about evolution. He was Charles Darwin’s grandfather. JeanBaptiste Lamarck (17441829) *inheritance of acquired traits* 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas o The giraffe and its long neck. Georges Cuvier (1789 1832) Catastrophism o For example: Noah’s Ark. Thomas Malthus (17661875) He said that there have been big growth rates of populations than the carrying capacity. o This creates competition. Charles Lyell (17971875) He said geological processes have been occurring at the same rate since the start of time. Uniformitarianism Charles Darwin (1809 1882) Influenced by Charles Lyell Studied and collected knowledge while he was on the H.M.S Beagle. o He was the ship’s naturalist. o He collected samples from the Galapagos and South America. Artificial selection and natural selection. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823 1913) Studied Indonesia. His and Darwin’s hypothesis were very similar dealing with natural selection. o They wrote Origin of Species together. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825 1895) He was Darwin’s wingman. o He defended Darwin when people reacted surprised to his hypothesis. John Scopes (trial in 1925) He taught evolution in Tennessee where it was considered illegal He was found guilty but the verdict was overturned. The Basic Processes of Natural Selection 1. There is biological variation. 2. Competition occurs. 3. There is variability, some in which are better than other traits. 4. Traits become inherited. 5. Traits become successful overtime. 6. Population of species begin to evolve. *Individual people do not evolve* Chapter 2 and 3: Genetics DNA and Mendel Important Vocabulary Words: Somatic Cells: Body cells. Gamete Cells: Sex cells. Double Helix: Uncoiled DNA. Nucleotide: Basic structural unit of DNA. Replication: DNA copies and replicates. Mitosis: During replication only with somatic cells. Meiosis: During replication only with gamete cells. 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas Protein Synthesis: RNA carries information from DNA. Transcription: DNA is copied into mRNA. Translation: mRNA is translated into sequence of amino acids. Genes: Segments of DNA that code for specific proteins. Alleles: Describes traits (dominant or recessive). Chromosomes: They carry DNA. Diploid: Contains two complete sets of chromosomes (46). Nonjunctive Errors: When chromosomes do not separate properly. Genotypes: Unique combination of genes. Phenotypes: Characteristics physically shown. Dominant: expressed trait. Recessive: Non expressed trait unless they are present in both copies. Recombination: Rearrangement of genes when cross over occurs during meiosis. Linkage: Linked genes are not likely to separate because they are found on the same chromosome. Polygenic Traits: Physical trait cause many genes. Polytrophy: When multiple traits are affected by one gene. Parthenogenesis: Both chromosomes are passed along during Mitosis. DNA Nucleotide o Adenine and Thymine (thymine changes to Uracil when dealing with RNA) o Guanine and Cytosine The Functions of DNA 1. Replication a. Mitosis: i. Production of somatic cells. ii. Begins with 23 cells and replicates into 46 chromosomes (diploid). b. Meiosis: i. Production of gametes. ii. Cell divides into 4 daughter cells (haploids). 2. Protein Synthesis a. Transcription: i. Happens in the nucleus. ii. DNA uncoils. iii. RNA strands match with DNA 1. (no thymine) b. Translation: i. Happens in the ribosome. ii. The RNA is grouped in 3’s matching up with anticodons creating amino acids. Chromosome Abnormalities: Monosomy 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas o Tuner Syndrome One X chromosome. Trisomy o Down’s Syndrome 47 chromosomes instead of 46 Mutations Bad Mutations: o Point Mutation: Amino acid is changed at active site. o Insertion Mutation: Shift in amino acids. Lethal Neutral Mutations: o Point Mutation: Codon replaces amino acid, causing no shift in sequence. o Point Mutation: Change to amino acid outside protein. Good Mutations: o Point Mutation: Amino acid is changed at active site of protein increasing fitness. Mendel Explanation for variation. o Inherited characteristics are in pairs controlling specific functions of organism. o One part of the pair is dominant while the other one is recessive and is hidden. Mendel’s Law of Segregation: o There is an equal chance of boy/ girl when gametes are separated because it is random. Mendel’s Law of Individual Assortment: o Gametes form while pairs are independently sorted. The Red Queen Hypothesis With clones from asexual reproduction, it is easier for parasites and pathogens to attack because they are used to the same genotype; With sexual reproduction, there are new genotypes every generation making it hard for parasites and pathogens. Chapter 4: Forces of Evolution and Speciation Important Vocabulary Words: Immigration: Moving into a place. Emigration: Moving out of a place. Point Mutation: Affects a few nucleotides in a sequence. Substitution: Bases are changed. Insertion: Extra DNA is added. Deletion: Part of a chromosome is deleted. Altruistic Behavior: The less related, the less of an effort to do a behavior. Fitness: Producing the most offspring. Direct Fitness: The number of surviving offspring. Indirect Fitness: The direct fitness times the fitness of the kin. Niche: A group surviving a certain way. Hybrid Zones: Separation of a niche. 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas Taxonomy: Organizing species ancestry. Phylogeny: Tree of descendants. Systematics: Construction of a species tree. Cladogenesis: There is a line that represents the original population and then there are branches. Anagenesis: Variability of a species from thousands of years ago up until today. Morphology: The physical characteristics. Genetic Similarity: The homologous traits. Homologous: Similar traits because of common ancestors. Analogous: Similar traits but no common ancestor. Four Ways Change Occurs: 1. Selection: a reduction of variability. a. Modes of Selection: i. Stabilizing Selection: 1. The average is reinforced. ii. Directional Selection: 1. Traits are pushed in a direction. a. Example: giraffe necks. iii. Disruptive Selection: 1. Creates two totally different populations. 2. Genetic Drift: variability is random a. Bottleneck Effect: i. The population suffers a random disaster causing the loss of most of the population, creating variability. b. Founder Effect: i. A small population migrates somewhere new. 1. Example: colonization 3. Gene Flow: causes variability to move around. a. Immigration b. Emigration 4. Mutation: *Only thing that adds variability to the population* a. Point Mutation b. Substitution c. Insertion d. Deletion Darwin’s Finches 14 species derived from 1 original. 1. Existing was a struggle to the Finches. a. Constant drought. 2. There was competition for variation. a. Bigger beaked birds had better chances at survival. 3. Inheritance a. Offspring inherited the characteristics. Sexual Selection 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas The whole point was to maximize reproductive success. Kin Selection Vigilantly towards offspring. Hamiltion’s Rule o Altruistic Behavior rb>c Species No single concept can classify everything Biological Concept: Used most of the time Offspring are able to grow up an reproduce themselves because they are the same species. Ecological Concept: When two populations breed, their offspring is sterile, which keeps distinctiveness. Fitness Direct and Indirect Reproductive Isolation: Premating/ Prezygotic: o Before mating takes place. Postmating/ Prezygotic o After mating but no fertilization occurs. Example: mule Postmating/ Postzygotic: o After mating and fertilization occurs. Speciation Allopatric Speciation: o There is a geographical obstacle that creates one population to split in two. Character displacement occurs. Phenology Patterns Cladogenesis o Daughter Species Anagenesis o Small changes over time. Morphology Genetic Similarity Convergence o Homologous o Analogous Ancestor Characteristics 1. Early Development a. Human embryos have tails. 2. Early characteristics in fossils a. Similar characteristics in ancestors 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas i. Example: body shape 3. Out Groups a. Similarities in different species. Chapter 5: Population Genetics and Modern Human Variation Important Vocabulary Words: Population genetics: Studying the genetic variation between organisms. Microevolution: Evolutionary change within a species. Discrete Variation: a noticeable difference. Continuous Variation: not clear differences. Adaptability: Positive changes in an environment to survive. Acclimation: short term changes in response to environmental changes. ABO Blood Types Polymorphism Type B: o Central Asia Type A: o Small unrelated populations Type O: o Indigenous and South American populations. Maternal Fetal Incompatibility A mother with a O blood type can have problems with a second baby and on because the body sees it as a virus. Lactose Digestion Lactose intolerance is very high among pastoral populations. o Not really found in European populations. Due to microevolution Sickle Cell Anemia In areas of Malaria o Africa Heterozygous people are the ones living to reproductive age. Types of Variation: Discrete Variation Continuous Variation Environmental Variation o Defined by culture Causes of Variation Within groups o Environmental Among Groups o Genetic Body Types: Variability due to genetics and nutrition Bergman’s Rule: o In cold climates, humans have heavier body masses. 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas Allen’s Rule o In cold climates, humans have shorter limbs. Drift in Group Variation Usually due to religion o Amish Creates an isolated population with very similar characteristics. Racism It was believed people were different races in earlier times. Linnaeus o Homo sapiens afer (Africans) o Homo sapiens americanus (American Indians) o Homo sapiens asiaticus (Asians) o Homo sapiens europeanus (Europeans) o Homo sapiens ferus (Wild Men) Johann Blumenach o Caucasoid o Negroid o Mongoloid o American Indian o Australoid Eugenics Movement o Sterilization Jews by the Nazis C. Loring Brace o Clines Done by phenotypes and politics. Polygenetic “Race” o Skin color Genetic Race o Variations within populations. Lewontin: blood groups Kelethford: genetic markers and DNA *Race is culturally constructed* Not biological o It is a way to justify superiority, 9/19/20 Dr. Geoffrey Thomas
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