MSC 230 Final Review Guide
MSC 230 Final Review Guide MSC 230
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Date Created: 09/19/16
MSC230 FINAL EXAM CREATURE FEATURES 1. ZOOXANTHELLAE (SYMBIODINIUM MICROADRIACTUM) a. Classification i.Kingdom: Protoctista ii.Phylum: Dinophyta b. Unicellular, symbiotic dinoflagellates c. Live in endodermal tissues of corals and sea anemones d. Coral provide shelter and CO2 for photosynthesis e. Zooxanthellae increase deposition of calcium carbonate skeleton (by 90-95%) 2. RHIZOPHORA MANGLE (RED MANGROVE) a. Classification i.Kingdom: Plantae ii.Division: Trachaophyta iii.Class: Angiosperm b. 60 species of trees and shrubs c. Produce propagules (not seeds); embryo develops directly nourished by mother, hangs from branch tip, develops for 1-3 months, then leaves tree d. Prop roots: special roots anchor to sandy and muddy substrates 3. SARGASSUM (PHAEOPHYTA) a. Brown macroalgae, floating or attached to substrate b. Gas-filled bladders allow floating to surface where photosynthesis occurs i.Creates large floating mats that are habitat for many organisms c. Sargasso sea: i.Western North Atlantic ii.Jungle bounded by gulf stream and canary currents iiiCan be a navigational hazard 4. MELAMPUS COFFEUS (COFFEE BEAN SNAIL) a. Classification: i.Kingdom: Animalia ii.Phylum: Mollusca iii.Class: Gastropoda iv. Subclass: Pulmonata b. Assymetrical, single spiral coiled shell i. Small, pale brown shell with 3 cream bands c. Lives in mangrove forests; feeds on floor during low tide and climbs during high tide- no gills d. Torsion: during development, visceral and mantle rotates for balanced shell growth and protection 5. HISTRIO HISTRIO (SARGASSUM FISH) a. Classification i. Kingdom: Animalia ii. Class: Actinoptergyii (ray-finned) b. Found from tropics to subtropics and Atlantic to Indian c. Greens, yellows, and browns (camoflauge) d. Generally in sargassum mats but can be carried to coast where predators on crustaceans and small fish e. Produce egg rafts that are fertilized externally by males 6. SEA GRASSES (THALASSIA TESTUDINIUM&SYRINGODIUM FILIFORME) a. Classification i. Kingdom: Plantae ii. Division: Trachaeophyta iii. Class: Angiosperm b. Interface between corals and mangroves c. Few species numbers but vast meadows d. Salinity tolerant, reproduce while submerged e. Thalassia Testudinium: Turtle Grass i. Bigger (1-20cm), parallel-veined ribbon-like leaves ii. Heavily overgrown by epiphytic organisms iii. Predominant in Caribbean sandy environments f. Syringodium Filiforme: Manatee Grass i. Smaller (1-10cm), cylindrical leaves ii. Found mixed in with turtle grass 7. FUNDULUS LINEAUS (KILLFISH, SALT WATER MINNOW, MUMMICHUG) a. Classification i. Kingdom: Animalia ii. Class: Actinoptergyii (ray-finned) b. Pale to dark dependent on location, large rounded scales that develop contact organs when mating c. Known for survival in foul waters; tolerant of high CO2 and low O2 i. Burry in sediments during winter d. Omnivorous: eel grass, diatoms, mollusks e. Found: North American shores, Gulf, near Texas (not near Turtle Grass), estuaries f. Used: experiments, bait, mosquito control 8. APLYSIA CALIFORNICA (SEA HARE) a. Classification i. Kingdom: Animalia ii. Phylum: Mollusca iii.Class: Gastropoda iv. Subclass: Opisthobranchia b. Anatomy i. Small, flat vestigial shell ii. Mantle: main muscular region on back 1. Parapodia: 2 winglike structures that channel water over gill 2. Siphon: tubes that direct water out iii.Rhinophores and Anterior Tentacles: eat and locate danger 1. Eat red macroalgae that give it its color c. Hermaphroditic: alternate sex (organs) during mating d. Used to study neurobiology; large neurons, simple behavior 9. NERITA VERSICOLOR (FOUR-TOOTHED NERITE) a. Classification i. Kingdom: Animalia ii. Phylum: Mollusca iii.Class: Gastropoda iv. Subclass: Prosobranchia b. Common in intertidal rocks of SF c. Low-spired, globular shells with dark bands d. Four teeth near operculum e. Adapted to resist strong microgeographic gradients in rocky intertidal i. Thick shells avoid overheating ii. Odd shaped operculum seals moisture when exposed to air SUBJECTS PRIOR TO MIDTERM 10. INTRODUCTION a.History i. Expeditions 1. HMS Beagle: 1831-1835. Charles Darwin and Captain Fitzroy. Natural selection and evolution 2. US Exploring (Wilke’s) Expedition: (1838-1842) Many new species 3. Challenger Expedition: (1873-1876) British, deep sea drilling, 50 new volumes of information. 4. Agassiz: father (Louis) and son (Alexander) map coral reefs ii. Labs 1. Stazione Zoologica: 1872. Marine lab in Naples. 2. Woodshole: 1888. Lab in Massachusetts. 3. Carnegie Dry Tortugas Lab: 1905-1939. Tropical lab in Keys destroyed in a hurricane. 4. Palau: 1934-1943. Japanese. 5. RSMAS: 1940 6. Sputnik I: 1957, success, lots of funding SUBJECTS AFTER MIDTERM 1. INTERTIDAL ECOLOGY a.Moon and Sun Tidal Forces i. Moon dominates since much closer to the earth ii. Determined by differences in gravitational attraction of either side of the earth relative to the moon and the sun iii.Spring Tide: maximum high and low tides, during full moons and new moons, when the gravitational pull of the sun amplifies that of the moon. iv. Neap Tide: minimum high and low tides, during quarter moons, gravitational pull of sun cancels out some of that of the moon v. 2 spring tides and 2 neap tides each lunar month vi. Lunar day lasts 24 hours and 50 minutes; this is why the tide bumps back about an hour each day vii. Tidal Periodicity 1. Semi-Diurnal: 2 high and 2 low tides each day of equal height (East coast of the US) 2. Diurnal: 1 high and 1 low tide each day (Gulf of Mexico) 3. Semidiurnal Mixed: 2 high tides and 2 low tides of unequal height each day b. Adaptions of Intertidal Organisms i. Heat balance: larger body volumes and smaller surface areas ii. Resistance to water loss: closed shells, produce mucus iii. Mechanical stress: shells, resilient flat bodies, attach to substrates iv. Respiration: quiescent at low tide v. Feeding: stop feeding at low tide (melampus coffeus) vi. Reproduction: in tune with lunar/tidal cycle (reproduce at times of more light like full moon- horseshoe crab and grunion fish) c. Zonation i. Based on color 1. White Zone: splash 2. Grey Zone: upper 3. Black Zone: mid 4. Yellow Zone: lower ii. Based on tide 1. Splash/Spray Zone: 2. High Tide: tolerant to extremes. Crustaceans and mollusks. 3. Mid Tide: not as much exposure. Echinoderms 4. Low Tide: intolerant organisms with minimal exposure iii. Algae 1. More microfilamentous algae: tropics and subtropics 2. More macroalgae: temperate and subarctic iv. Causes 1. Physical a. Low tide exposure, UV radiation, wave assault, osmotic stress b. Significant in upper shore regions 2. Biological a. Competition, predation, nutrients, larval settlement. b. Significant in lower shore regions d. Stephenson & Stephenson i. English couple that mapped intertidal zonation in the 1940s. Qualitative not quantitative, no species by list e. Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis: Joseph Connel i. Maximum diversity at time of intermediate disturbance (in terms of frequency, time after a disturbance, and size of disturbance) ii. f. Keystone Species: Robert Paine i. A species that controls an ecosystem ii. Usually small biomass in relation to the environment iii. Example: Plisaster starfish eats militus muscle which frees space for other organisms g. Effects i. Predators (whelks) ii. Herbivores (limpets) iii. When predation is weak, competition is strong iv. Indirect predatory effects 1. For example, a carnivore eating an herbivore indirectly benefits the vegetation that the herbivore consumes h. Unstable Intertidal Habitats i. Beaches (Sandy) 1. Reflective Beach: higher wave energy; hits shore and reflects back out 2. Dissipative Beach: minimal wave energy 3. Suspension feeders; create currents and trap with lopophores ii. Muddy shores (fine grain) 1. Anaerobic low O2 conditions 2. High organic matter 3. Deposit feeders; ingest sediment and extract organic matter (suspension feeders cause TGA trophic group ammensalism; clog deposit feeders) i. Soft-Sediment Organisms i. Macrofauna: >1 mm ii. Meiofauna: 62μm- .5mm iii. Microfauna: <.1mm j. Research Developments i. California: global warming causing northward shift of intertidal organisms ii. New Zealand: eastern down-welling region has more free space while western upwelling region has more filter feeders 2. ESTUARIES AND SALT MARSHES a. Introduction i. Estuaries: where freshwater and saltwater meet ii. Generally tropical and subtropical iii. Silty and muddle substrates; fine particles 1. Low competition because of no firm substrate iv. Low wave action, but high turbidity because of fine particle suspension v. Oysters; ecological engineer vi. Productivity; primary producers are minute phytoplankton (diatoms and algal mats) that are limited by nitrogen 1. Food web is detritus based b. Types of Estuaries i. Coastal Plain: (most of East coast US) sea level rises and fills plain ii. Tectonic: caused by seismic activity. Part of a bay subsides with an earthquake and sea water fills in iii. Semi-Enclosed Bays and Lagoons: buffered by reefs and sand bars (structures prevent full coastal circulation) iv. Fjords: occur in areas subject to glacial erosion (New Zealand and Scandinavia) v. Positive Estuaries: 1. A lot of freshwater input that moves seaward 2. Deep seawater layer moves inland 3. Low evaporation vi. Negative Estuaries: 1. Little freshwater input (dry areas) 2. Seawater flows outward 3. High evaporation vii. European Estuaries: 1. Mudflats with few large plants 2. Allochthonous: nutrients come from outside sources viii. American Estuaries: 1. Large plants, high organic matter 2. Autochthonous: nutrients come from within c. Flushing Rate: how long it takes for water to be flushed into the ocean i. Location dependent ii. The longer the flushing rate, the more productive the estuary d. Zonation i. Tidal Flat: no vegetation ii. Low Marsh: infauna and Spartina cord grass iii. High Marsh: small grasses (salt spray) iv. Upper Border: larger plants that prevent erosion v. Upland: trees and bushes e. Biota i. Stenohaline: cannot tolerate salinity changes (echinoderms) ii. Euryhaline: can tolerate salinity changes 1. Halophytes: tolerant of salt iii. Bimodal Curve: 1. 2. Many salt tolerant and fresh water tolerant organisms 3. Few estuarine species because… a. Evolution is difficult since estuaries are so inconsistent b.Lack topographic diversity for diversification c.Some estuarine species; mullets, jacks, oysters, crabs- all osmoregulate iv. Anadromous: spawn in fresh water but live in salt water (salmon) v. Catadromous: spawn in salt water but live in fresh water (Atlantic eel) f. Physiology i. Osmosis: water passing through a semi-permeable membrane in response to salt concentrations 1. Water flows from hypotonic to hypertonic ii. Salt water fish are hypotonic in response to environment iii. Fresh water fish are hypertonic compared to environment iv. Marine invertebrates are isotonic compared to environment g. Salt Marsh: grassy shrub regions adjacent to estuaries i. More temperate and subarctic ii. Zonation (just like estuaries) 1. Spartina cord grass at low tide 2. All herbs and grasses are halophytes iii. Diseases; abundant biting insects 1. Mosquitos: yellow fever and malaria 2. Sand Flies: (biting midges, noseeums) leishmaniasus disease 3. Estuarine Impoundment: block water flow because mosquitos have a difficult time breeding in still water 4. Gambusia Affinis: killfish, eat mosquito larvae 3. BIRDS, REPTILES, AND MAMMALS a. Marine Birds i. Intro 1. Breed offshore islands 2. Salt glands exclude salts from food and water and then blow out nostrils 3. Live in colonies ii. Feeding 1. Surface: fly over surface, prion cheeks vibrate when fish are in water beneath 2. Underwater: penguins 3. Land: marine birds insert beaks and vibrate to make substrate thixotropic(gel-like), and then grab infauna and meiofauna iii. Breeding 1. Colonial nesting: increases nutrients and territorial disputes 2. Courtship: head bobbing and strutting 3. Parents regurgitate food for babies 4. Long term migrations: avoid predation, mate selection, food sources iv. Thermoregulation 1. Homeothermy: maintain heat with feathers a. Plumes: rachis is hollow shaft with anterior and posterior barbs with barbules that then have barbacels that are hooks that interlock with the next feather i. Keep out water with oily coating substance b. Downs Feathers: keep heat in core 2. Circulation in legs a. Lose heat with exposed legs b. Arteries (with warm blood from body) surround and insulate veins that have returning colder blood [heat transfer from arterial blood to venous blood; blood vessels in close proximity] v. Classification 1. Penguins: a. Flightless but swim underwater b. Only found in southern hemisphere c. Huddle to keep warm d. Males incubate female eggs 2. Petrels: a. Albatross, fulmars, prions, and shear waters b. Large external nostrils and hook bills c. Very oceanic, only move inland to reproduce d. Feed on zooplankton and fishes 3. Pelicans a. Tropic birds, frigates, cormorants b. Colorful, most found in tropics c. Dive down at schools, fill pouch, squirt out water i. Must dive correctly or break necks d. Rob from other birds- force regurgitation 4. Gulls/Terns/Auks a. Wide distribution b. Can go far inland- very opportunistic c. Collect clams and drop on surface to break b. Reptiles i. Sea turtles 1. Species: Kemp’s Ridley, Loggerhead, Hawks Bill, Leatherback (large), Green Turtle 2. Diet a. Green Turtle; only herbivore (algae and sea grass) b. Kemp’s Ridley and Loggerhead; benthic invertebrates c. Hawk’s Bill; sponges d. Leatherback; jellyfish 3. Reproduction a. Breed on specific beaches; migrate b. Females lay about 100 eggs that incubate for 2 months c. Temperature of sand determines sex; the warmer, the more females d. Hatchlings hatch about 40 cm below the surface i. Orient themselves toward the horizon ii. Swim perpendicular to water motion ii. Iguanas 1. Herbivores (algae) 2. Can stay under water for 10-15 minutes iii. Crocodilians 1. Found in mangroves, swamps (not high salinities) 2. Alligators: broad snout 3. Crocodiles: pointed snout, can grow large c. Mammals i. Order Cetacia: whales, dolphins, porpoises 1. General information a. Nearly hairless, layer of blubber for insulation b. Fluke: posterior fin in horizontal position c. Homeotherms d. Blowhole: nasal opening e. Countercurrent circulation warms limbs 2. Suborder Odontoceti: toothed (smaller) a. Sperm whales, beluga whales, dolphins, porpoises, killer whales b. Good divers (sperm whale especially) c. Locate prey via echolocation: send out sounds that reflect back and are received by the melon: a chamber filled with oily substance that concentrates received sounds and also stores nitrogen to avoid decompression sickness d. Communicate via ultrasonic clicking e. May use sonic boom to stun prey f. Sperm whales empty lungs when diving to avoid decompression sickness 3. Suborder Mysticeti: rorqual, baleen whales (bigger) a. Grey whale, blue whale, humpback b. Ram feeders; move through water, take in mouthful, baleen plates filter out zooplankton, lick the organisms off and eat them c. Migrate great distances i. Humpback: Antarctic to South Pacific ii. Grey whale: Arctic to California iii. For food and mating purposes ii. Order Carnivora (seals, sea lions, and walruses) 1. General information a. Thick coats of hair, less blubber b. Flippers c. Good divers d. Small (1-6m long) 2.Suborder Pinnipeda a. Family Phocidae (true seals) i. Small earhole, no flaps ii. Backwards pointing flippers, poor movement b. Family Otariidae i. External ear, longer necks ii. Rear flippers to walk and run c. Family Mustellidae i. Sea otters and badgers ii. A lot of hair (hunted for it) iii. Eat urchins, mollusks, and fishes iv. Use tools; break urchins with rocks v. Trophic cascade: (estes Aleutian islands) seal decline with over fishing, whales start eating otters, more urchins to graze on kelp, impact fisheries since kelp is a major habitat iii. Order Sirenia (dugongs, manatees, sea cows) 1.General information a. Blunt, broad b. Vegetarians c. All endangered, sea cows extinct 2.Stellar Sea Cow a. Arctic b. Meat and blubber sources c. Last seen 1741-1768 d. Exterminated by Russians 3.Florida Manatee a. Population fluctuates being endangered/threatened i. Endangered: 80% decline in 45 years ii. Threatened: 50% decline in 45 years iv. Marine mammal diving adaptations 1.For O2 shortages a. Greater artery and vein volume b.Attach O2 to hemoglobin and store in muscles c.Greater red blood cell density d.Decrease heart beat when diving e.Restrict peripheral circulation f.Apheustic breathing: rapid breathing before diving to accumulate O2 2. Narcosis (N2 shortages) a.Small lung capacity of divers to avoid nitrogen filling air spaces b.Seals and whales collapse lungs to avoid decompression sickness 4. HUMAN IMPACTS a. Obvious Problems i. 7 billion humans now, project 10 billion humans by 2100 ii. Ppm CO2 constant until 1800s (280395) iii. 1.4-5.8°C increase in temperature predicted by 2100 iv. Sea level rise by 1 meter by 2100 b. Fisheries and Shit i. Maximum Sustainable Yield: maximum obtainable catch per unit at appropriate rate 1. Issues: the population of food sources increases with more fishing of higher trophic levels, and this also assumes growth and size are closely related ii. Consider life history; r-selected organisms can easily regenerate while k-selected cannot iii. Bycatch: unwanted catch caused by nets iv. Mariculture: organisms reared under controlled optimal growth 1. Criteria: simple reproduction, resistant of disease, fast growth, and in demand 2. Species: mahi-mahi, mussels, oysters, shrimp c. MPA: marine protected areas d. Monitoring Pollution i. Acute: short term pollution (oil spill) ii. Chronic: long term pollution (continuous sewage input) iii. Bioassays: measuring parameter of pollution via a single species iv. Opportunistic r-selected organisms more likely to survive e. Toxic Substances i. Metals: (heavy) Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu ii. Pesticides: kill insects but harm marine life when washed into water 1. DDT: chlorinated hydrocarbon that is magnified (malaria, killed birds) iii. PCBs: Polychlorinated Biphenyls; carcinogen from factory lubricant iv. PAHs: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; carcinogen for mammals from fossil fuels 5. CORAL REEFS a. Introduction i. Phylum cnidarian ii. Nematocysts: stinging cells that capture zooplankton iii. Found between 30 degrees north and south latitude iv. During the cretaceous period, tethes formed between Africa and Europe; currents and climate in this area encouraged coral reef evolution 1. Bridge between Americas separates and creates difference in reef types b. Environmental Conditions for Corals i. Light; few corals can photosynthesize enough to survive deeper than 100 m ii. Salinity; generally tolerant of salt conditions iii. Wave energy; want some to bring organic matter and evade a lot of sedimentation but too much causes fragmentation iv. Temperature; not tolerant 1. Q10 Effect: index of metabolic activity of poikilotherms/ectotherms a. Q10= activity at x°C/activity at (x-10) °C b. Generally a 2-3 factor change in biological activity with 10°C change in temperature (1-1.5 factor change for physical processes) c. Zooxanthellae will leave with too high/low temperatures c. Anatomy of Polyp (from interior to exterior) i. Mouth/Anus ii. Gastrovascular Cavity: holds sea water with ions (Ca +2) iii. Gastrodermis: digestion, hold zooxanthellae, take absorbed CO2 and transform into skeleton iv. Mesoglea: acellular layer separating gastrodermis from epidermis v. Epidermis: holds nematocysts vi. Skeletal matrix and skeleton vii. Other 1.Body cavities of adjacent polyps are connected via gastrovascular system that distributes food 2.Ciliated cells on surface trap food and prevent sedimentation 3.Mesenterial Filaments: go out on substrate and look for food 4.Coenostum: holds colony together d. Classification i. Cnidaria 1.Hydrozoans: benthic medusa that release egg and sperm that become planula larvae and then back to benthic medusa 2.Scyphozoa: large pelagic larvae 3.Anthozoa: (focus) sea fans, sea whips, anemones a. Octocorals: 8 tentacles, each with pinnate tentacles on them, flexible protein skeleton b. Hexacorals: multiples of 6 tentacles, less flexible ii. More 1.Acropora: branched coral, attract fishes that add nutrients, grow more quickly, tend to fragment 2.Massive Corals: form mound, build frame work, attract invertebrates, grow slowly a. Brain coral: grooves with polyps 3.Spurs: coral growth 4.Grooves: coral erosion e. Types of Reefs i. Based on physical location 1.Fringing Reefs: close to shore, channels of water (Hawaii) 2. Barrier Reefs: deep inner channel between reef and coast (Australia) 3. Atolls: central lagoon with surrounding reefs/islands 4. Darwin’s Evolution Theory: fringe reef begins to grow around tropical land mass, barrier reef forms as land begins to sink and corals continue to vertically accumulate, atoll reef forms with complete submergence of land leaving a rim of reef a. Can back step and elevate, not chronological necessarily ii. Based on material 1. Coral Reefs: built by scleractinian a. Also built by CCA: crustose coralline algae and halimeda: calcareous algae 2. Vermatid Reefs: built by gastrovascular mollusks, tubes of calcium carbonate that coalesce 3. Serpulid Reefs: built by polychaete worms 4. Bryozoan Reefs: lace corals, not true corals 5. Oyster Reefs: built by sessile bivalves 6. Stromatolitic Reefs: built by cyanobacteria 7. Rudist Reefs: built by bivalve mollusks, wiped out by dinosaur extinction allowing scleractinians to move from deep sea iii. Based on growth potential 1. Keep Up: grow fast enough to keep up with sea level rise, includes horizontal movement towards shore 2. Catch Up: sea level rises then stops rising, reef catches up 3. Give Up: sea level rises too quickly and reef cannot maintain vertical growth (act as platform for other reef if sea levels drop- Holocene reef on Pleistocene remnants) f. Zooxanthellae i. Unicellular symbiotic algae found in gastrodermis ii. Coral symbiosis is adapted to low-nutrient environments allowing them to outcompete macroalgae iii. Zooplankton to coral benefits 1. Photosynthesize carbs for coral 2. Give oxygen to coral 3. Use carbon dioxide which actually increases carbonate ion amounts available for calcification 4. Photosynthesis removes nutrients that can inhibit aragonite formation 5. MAA: mycosporine amino acids a. Aka S-320 b. Natural sunscreen, absorbs UV radiation (290-330 um) c. Palythine: first isolated MAA iv. Coral to zooplankton benefits 1. Habitat and shelter 2. Nutrient waste g. Ocean Acidification i. Equations 1. CO 2H O2H CO2 3 2. H2CO 3 H+ + HCO - 3 -2 3. HCO 3 H+ +CO 3 4. CO 3-+ Ca +2 CaCO 3 ii. Explanation 1. CO2 from the atmosphere enters the ocean and combines with sea water to form carbonic acid, and the concentration of carbonic acid increases 2. This carbonic acid disassociates to hydrogen ions and the bicarbonate ion, which increases the bicarbonate ion concentration 3. Bicarbonate disassociates yielding hydrogen ions and the carbonate ion, but bicarbonate is a strong base and latches onto the hydrogen and does not want to disassociate, so the carbonate concentration decreases 4. With fewer carbonate ions, calcium cannot react with it to yield calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate skeletons cannot be formed/deposited 5. Aragonite: the dissolved form of carbonate ions sequestered by corals to build skeleton (aragonite ) h. Biogeography i. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea Hawaii, most diverse, mainly scleractinians and alyonaceans 1. Golden (Fertile) Triangle: between Papa New Guinea, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Most diverse corals ii. West and East Atlantic: gorgonians and sea fans i. Organisms Responsible for Reefs i. Stony Corals 1. Class anthozoa subclass hexacorallia order scleractinia 2. Predominant in Indo-Pacific 3. Calcareous external skeleton, 60 genera with symbiotic algae 4. Fungiid: odd family, a solitary large polyp not cemented to sea floor ii. Soft Corals 1. Class anthozoa, subclass octacorallia, order alcyonara a. Alcyonacea: true soft corals (indo-pacific) b. Gorgonians (Caribbean) c. Blue Corals: anthozoa, octacorallia, density bands d. Organ Pipe: (1 spp; tubipora musica) i. Indopacific ii. Red, incorporates iron iii. Sponges: phylum porifera but can have calcareous skeletal spicules that can contribute to reef iv. Fire Corals: hydrozoans j. Polyp Budding i. Intratentacular: new polyp arises from binary division of existing polyp 1. Brain corals grow in this way; polyps share common oral disc that stretches into meandering canal with many mouths ii. Extratentacular: new polyp arises outside of others growing from tissues that join adjacent corals k. Growth Process i. Polyp pulls basal surface up from the corallite floor, secretes new platform of calcium carbonate sealing off small chamber in corallite 1. Massive corals grow 1-2 cm/yr 2. Branching corals grow about 15 cm/yr (less dense) ii. Accretion/Erosion: 1 step forward 2 steps back 1. Borers: internal bioeroders a. Microborers: algae, bacteria b. Macroborers: polychaetes, sponges, bivalves 2. Grazers: external bioeroders a. Parrot fish, puffer fish, hermit crab iii. Schlerochronology: dating coral colonies based on density bandings 1. Darker: slower, denser growth (cooler winter) 2. Lighter: faster growth (more sunlight) l. Reproduction i. Reproduction (new individuals formed) versus recruitment (newly formed individuals become part of community) ii. Stages 1. Gametes develop internally in mesenteries 2. Eggs and sperm form positively buoyant chambers and rise to surface 3. Fertilization, planulae larvae develop, dispersal, settle, metamorphosis, asexual polyp budding iii. Modes of reproduction 1. Asexual versus Sexual a. Asexual: one colony forms additional colony by fragmentation, intratentacular or extratentacular budding (identical to parent) b. Sexual: fusion of gametes to form embryos that develop into planulae larvae i. Gonochoric: species with separate sexes (25% spp), spawning must be in sync ii. Hermaphroditic: single individual of a species can produce eggs and sperm 1. Simultaneous: spawn eggs and sperm at same time 2. Sequential: corals become male at one time and female at another 2. Brooding versus Spawning a. Brooders: eggs internally fertilized, develop into planula larvae in polyp, i. Quick settlement, lower dispersal, local dominance ii.Larger and already have zooxanthellae iii.Fewer species iv. Can store unfertilized ova for a while; do not need to be in sync b. Spawners: sperm fertilizes egg in water column i. The majority of corals ii.Must be in sync iii.More dispersal and hybridization 1. Genetic similarities iv. Related to lunar cycles; cryptochrome pigment v. Beware allee effect: so few corals that if they spawn gametes may not come together m. Recruitment i. Settlement from planktonic to benthic ii. Criteria 1. Hard substrate 2. Some water motion, adequate light, evade low salinity 3. Limited sedimentation 4. Substances from CCA act as inducers for settlement (chemical messages attracting planulae larvae) iii. Behavior 1. Swim down, attach to substrate with inducer, lay down organic matrix, deposit basal plate (CaCO3 skeleton) n. Biotic Interaction i. Competition 1. Intraphyletic: between corals 2. Interphyletic: between corals and sponges/algae 3. Direct: overgrowth, mysenterial filaments, sweeper tentacles 4. Indirect: overtopping ii. Predation Corallivores 1. First thought corals were immune to predation 2. Now many species of corallivores a. COTS/Crown of Thorns Starfish/ Acanthaster Plancii b. Bristle Worm (Fire Worm) c. Snails o. Neo-Darwinian Natural Selection i. Allopatric speciation (geography based) 1. Isolated; limited gene exchange and divergence, when they reunite they can no longer mate and are new species p. Charlie Veron’s Reticulate Evolution i. Based on environmental and physical changes ii. Milankovitch Cycles (cyclical earth variations) 1. Eccentricity: stretch of earth’s orbit every 100,000 years 2. Obliquity: change in tilt of earth’s axis every 41,000 years 3. Precession: wobble of poles every 21,000 years 4. All influence heat input creating glacial and interglacial cycles iii. During glacial periods: hybridization and gene flow 1. Sea level drops in narrow sea ways allowing more surface circulation which encourages dispersal, low isolation, and hybridization iv. During interglacial periods: isolation and speciation 1. Sea level rises broadening seaways decreasing surface current, lowering dispersal, encouraging isolation and genetic divergence q. Diseases i. Definition: impairment of vital body functions, systems, or organs 1. Biologic: caused by physiology or living thing 2. Abiotic: caused by toxic chemical or nonliving thing ii. Must have two of the following 1. Identifiable group of symptoms 2. Recognizable etiologic (causing) agent 3. Consistent structural alterations iii. Result of interaction between host, environment, and etiologic agent 6. DEEP SEA BIOTAS a. Introduction i. 1000-10,000 m depth ii. Fauna 1. Benthic: abyssal and hadal (bottom species) 2. Pelagic: water column a. Mesopelagic: less than 1000 m b. Bathypelagic: 1000-4000 m c. Abyssal pelagic: 4000-6000 m d. Hadalpelagic: 6000-10,000 m iii. 79% of earth’s biosphere, least understood b. Sampling i. Benthos: epibenthic sleds and coring ii. Pelagic: mid water trawls iii. Submersibles, ROVs; remotely operated vehicles, ABEs; autonomous benthic explorers c. The environment i. Aphotic (except upper mesopelagic) ii. Pressure; 1atm decrease per 10m decline iii. Salinity; stable iv. Temperature; 3-5°C between 1000-5000 m depth v. Oxygen; generally adequate 1. OMZ: oxygen minimum zone, 500-1000 m deep 2. Dead zones: no oxygen, Cariaco trench, Santa Barbara basin d. Adaptations of Deep Sea Organisms i. Color 1. Fishes: silver and black 2. Invertebrates: red, orange, and purple ii. Eyes 1. Tubular 2. Dimorphic: upper region directs upwards and bottom region directs downwards 3. Large eyes; organisms 1000-2000 m deep 4. Small, vestigial eyes; organisms 2000-5000m deep iii.Sexual 1. Hermaphroditism is common iv. Gigantism v. Large mouths vi. Bioluminescence; communication and predation e. Hydrothermal Vents as Oases (black smokers) i. Emit hot sulfides (and carbonates and copper) 1. Equation: (chemosynthesis) CO 2 4H S2+ O 2H O +24S + 3H O 2 Energy (glycerol) from oxidizing sulfides ii. By edges of tectonic plates iii. Godzilla (massive hydrothermal vent) 1. On Juan de Fuca Ridge west of Seattle 2. Discovered in 1991 by submersible Alvin 3. 15 stories high, volcanic chimney is more than 1 mi deep iv. Food Web 1. Export production of bacteria and particulate organic matter (POM) 2. Suspension feeders 3. Grazers/scavengers; involve bacteria mats 4. Symbiotic chemolithoautotrophic bacteria inhabit large invertebrate hosts and convert sulfides to glycerol for host v. Associated organisms 1. Large hosts of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria a. Pogonophoran worms: red, concentrated hemoglobin with affinity for oxygen and reduced organic compounds b. Vestimentifera worms: tubular c. Annelid worms, giant clams, mussels, limpets 2. Enteropneust Worms: spaghetti worms 3. Brachyuran and Galatheid Crabs 4. Sponges, bacterial mats, vent plankton f. Cold Seeps as Oases i. Emit cold methane 1. Equation: CH 4O 2CH O 2 H O 2 Burning methane to yield glycerol ii. On active and passive plate boundaries iii. Examples; Gulf of Mexico, off of North Carolina, iv. Very salty v. Filter mussels and vestimentifera g. Carcasses as Oases i. Large; whales and sharks ii. Last a while since so cold (whale lasted up to 7 years) iii. Energy source (flesh and bone- lipids) h. Sea Mounts as Oases i. Underwater mountains create uplifting vertical current that can carry nutrients to euphotic zone where used for production ii. Trap part of deep scattering layer above sea mount where organisms can consume for food i. High Species Diversity Hypotheses i. Deep sea has higher species diversity and number of individuals when compared to shallow sea ii. Species Area Hypothesis: diversity increases with increasing area 1. More available habitats to adapt to and take advantage of, more refuge, lest extinction 6 iii. Stability-Time Hypothesis: extended time (10 years) of stable environment allowed for evolution of highly specialized species iv. Cropper/Disturbance Hypothesis: eurytrophic consumers inhibit species domination (everything eats everything) j. Origin of Life i. Thomas Gold: life originated in ocean ii. DHB: Deep Hot Biosphere; habitability of subsurface realms 1. Avoid harsh radiation 2. Abundant upwelling chemical energy 3. Concentrated organic soup in DHB increased the probability of organic reactions and chemical/biological evolution 4. Maybe extraterrestrial subsurface life k. Monetary Deep Sea Harp Sponge recent discovery 7. POLAR ECOSYSTEMS a. General for Antarctic and Arctic i. Cold year round ii. Sufficient light for photosynthesis only in summer iii. Extensive, permanent, seasonal ice cover iv. Research programs in ANT; US, Russia, France, Chile etc b. Oceanographic Comparisons ANT v ARC Antarctic Arctic Land surrounded by sea Water/ice surrounded by land Low freshwater and sediment High freshwater and sediment input input (from surrounding land) Thin, seasonal ice Constant, thick ice Narrow shelf Broad shel Low stratification (because of High stratification upwelling) High nutrients year round Seasonal depletion of nutrients (upwelling) Exposure to open ocean Exposer to Bering Strait and Fram Strait More anchor ice c. Biological Comparisons ANT v ARC Antarctic Arctic 2-3x more biologically diverse Lower biodiversity than Arctic Higher biomass Lower biomass High endemism (more unique species) - long evolutionary history - isolation from other oceans - soft and firm substrates Infauna and epifauna Mainly infauna Planktotrophic larvae Lecithotrophic and crawl away larvae More abundant euphasids (krill) Few fish species d. Important Parts of Antarctica i. South Pole, Little America, USA research station ii. Lake Vostok 1. High pressure of a lot of ice heats up bottom region causing ice to melt and form a lake 2. Protected from atmosphere- could hold many fossils 3. Surface area comparable to lake eerie, volume comparable to lake Michigan e. Anchor Ice i. Extends into shallow benthic environment and breaks off, floats, and kills benthic organisms ii. Brinicle; salt extends downward as ice and harms benthic f. Arctic Ice on Decline i. 1.4 degree Celsius increase over Alaska since 1961 ii. Vegetation growing where ice disappears iii. Accelerated melting (positive feedback) 1. Decrease in albedo (light reflection), more heat absorption by plants, heating up g. Disappearance of Antarctic Sea Ice Consequences i. Population reduction and extinction ii. Reduced primary productivity iii. Reduced production of euphasids iv. Trophic cascades on predators (benthic inverts, whales, squids, birds, seals) h. Community Types i. Sea ice communities mostly microbiota 1. Vertebrate associates a. Antarctic i. Seals; Leopard, Crabeater, and Ross ii. Penguins iii. Snow petrel b. Arctic i. Seals; Ringed and Bearded ii. Polar bear iii. Narwhal iv. Ross and Ivory gulls ii. Antarctic 1. Soft Sediment Communities a. Anemones, polychaetes, crustaceans b. Zonation i. Canopy- anemones and suspension feeders ii. Understory- crustaceans, deposit feeders, predators iii. Subsurface- polychaetes, deposit feeders 2. Hard Bottom Communities a. Zone 1; rare benthos because of anchor ice b. Zone 2- abundant benthos c. Zone 3- sponges and sea stars, regulated by predation 8. SYMBIOTIC INTERACTIONS a. Introduction i. Symbiosis defined as: the living together of unlike organisms by Anton de Bary (19 century German scientist) ii. Have a host and a symbiont b. Types of Interactions i. Mutualism: benefits both species 1. A form of facilitation: any positive species interaction ii. Commensalism: benefits one species and does nothing to the other iii. Amensalism: harms one species and does nothing to the other iv. Competition: negatively affects both species v. Positive effects to one, negative to other 1. Herbivory, predation, parasitism, allelopathy (secretes toxins) c. Serial Endosymbiosis Theory (Life is Symbiotically Complicated) i. SET says that over evolutionary time primordial eukaryots engulfed aerobic bacteria that became the mitochondria of ancestral eukaryots 1. Some went on to engulf cyanobacteria that became chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryots ii. Cilia and flagellae may have come from spirochaete bacteria d. Types of Mutualism i. Animal-Animal 1. Epizoites: attach to outside of host a. Cnidarians, mollusks, polychaete worms b. Include non-algal protists c. Example: lace coral on hermit crab shell 2. Endozoites: found within host a. Mainly non-algal protists, green sea urchin ii. Animal-Bacteria 1. Flashlight fish and luminescent bacteria 2. Riftia tubeworms and chemosynthetic bacteria (hydrothermal vents) iii. Animal-Algae 1. Abundance a. Abundant in tropics b. Common in temperate c. Almost absent from polar 2. 3 main groups a. Zooxanthellae (yellow brown) i. Host: cnidarians, mollusks, worms ii. Symbionts: dinoflaggelates, coccolithoporids, diatoms b. Zoochorellae (green) i. Host: worms, cnidarian ii. Symbionts: chlorophytes, prasinophytes c. Cyanellae (blue-green) i. Host: sponges, protists ii. Symbionts: cyanobacteria d. Random i. Prochloron symbiont in sea squirts ii. Chloroplasts in sea slugs e. Random Symbiosis i. Involving tube/burrow 1. Commensalism 2. Echiuran worm lives in U-shaped burrow pulling in water and secreting mucus 3. Animals take refuge; pea crab, arrow goby, scale worm ii. Involving defense 1. Lybia crab defends itself with anemones (stinging gloves), helps disperse anemones 2. Crustaceans (trapezia crab) guard corals from corallivores iii. Involving protection 1. Living in anemones (clown fish) a. Undergo acclimization; build up resistance to toxins 2. Remoras have dorsal fin that has sucking apparatus to hold onto sharks a. Shows symbiosis leading to evolution iv. Involving cleaning 1. Shrimp clean, advertise services by dancing 2. Fish offer cleaning services at cleaning stations f. Weird Case -Brachyuran Crab- Mutualism or Parasitism? i. Minute crabs form galls in corals where females raise offspring ii. Corals grow around female crabs iii. Very small crabs enter to reproduce g. Symbiosis in Coral Reefs i. Introduction 1. Animal-algal mutualisms underpin coral reefs which are among the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystems known 2. Holobiont: the collective community of coral host and its microbial symbiont ii. Reef Coral Nutrition 1. Reef corals are adaptively polytrophic: a. Feed autotrophically from zooxanthellae fixing inorganic carbon i. 95% of inorganic carbon fixed by zooxanthellae is translocated to the coral host as glycerol b. Feed heterotrophically from consuming and converting organic carbon i. Phagotrophy: tentacles grab passiong food items and pass to mouth where ingested ii. Ciliary Feeding: mucus sheath covering coral traps organic particles that are wafted to the mouth via cilia iii. Also take up dissolved organics from seawater iii. Coral-Algal Symbiosis Cost-Benefit Analysis 1.Coral Host a. Benefits: more calcification, photosynthetically fixed carbon from symbiont, algae sequester toxic compounds, increase growth and reproduction b. Costs: need to regulate algal growth, vulnerable to environmental stresses that effect the algae, restricted to photic zone, need defense against oxygen toxicity c. Indirect Effects: increase surface area to volume ratio 2.Algal Symbiont a. Benefits: shelter from grazers, nutrient waste and carbon dioxide from host, protection from UV radiation, uniform environment increases yield from algal photosynthesis b. Costs: must translocate significant amount of fixed carbon to host, could be expelled by coral host c. Indirect Effects: dispersal from corallivores 3.Holobiont a. Benefits: increased growth rates, high calcification and wave resistance b. Costs: compounded sensitivity to stresses that affect one, the other, or both (limited tolerance) iv. State of World’s Coral Reefs 1.20% of reefs have been destroyed with no immediate prospects of recovery 2.24% of reefs at risk of imminent collapse 3.Another 26% of reefs at risk of long term collapse 4.Warming trends indicate bleaching thresholds reached by 2030-2050 a. 2004 reefs show signs of adaption, increase in threshold temperature for bleaching v. Coral Symbiont Evolution (Symbiont D) 1. Adapted to be more resistant to bleaching (increases in abundance after recovery), found in warmer climates, shift in symbiont dominance 9. MOLECULAR AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS a.Factors Affecting Oceans and Human Health i. Human Population Dynamics 1. Currently 7 billion people, 300% increase since WWII 2. Increasing environmental footprint 3. More eutrophication (run off) and industrialization (chemical pollutants) 4. Forecast more drought: famine, water born diseases, civil unrest ii. Global Economic Growth 1. Europe and North America have had dominance since WWII 2. BRIC Nations (emerging economies); Brazil, Russia, India, China (more manufacturing and development, 40% of new economic growth) iii.International Trades 1. Seafood is most broad and intense commodity in global market; quality linked to environment 2. Changes in terms and directions of international trade are essential iv. International Touristic Development 1. 65-75% increase in tourism and travel since 1990s 2. 1 of 7 people travel internationally per year 3. Risk; exposure to pathogens and toxins (tourists have not developed antibodies present in resident population) 4. Development can destroy environment v. Information and Government Action metadiscipline b.Risks i. Physical Environment; warming 1.Increase spread of human diseases (pathogens limited to warm climates can migrate) 2.Extreme climate events: droughts, flooding, urban heat waves, hurricanes 3.ENSO and malaria (Africa) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (New Mexico) ii. Anthropogenic Substances 1.Oil; released into ocean via petroleum seeps and erosion of sedimentary rock 2.DDTs and PCBs; industrial pollution 3.Evolution has allowed organisms to adapt chemical defense mechanisms to xenobiotics: foreign chemicals a. With recent influx DDTs and PCBs; have not been able to adapt 4.Toxicology: study of the adverse effects of chemical or physical agents on biological systems 5.Environmental fate (exposure) a. Bioaccumulation: uptake of chemicals from abiotic (water) or biotic (food) environment b. Bioconcentration: accumulation of chemicals from abiotic environment into organisms resulting in concentrations higher than environment c. Biomagnification: accumulation of chemicals from biotic environment to higher concentrations than are in prey d. EDCs endocrine disrupting chemicals , weaker immune systems 6.Biological fate (toxicokinetic) a. Water soluble xenobiotics transported in plasma b. Deposits/Sinks: tissues in which compounds distribute but do not elicit a toxic reponse c. Lipophilic Compounds: absorbed and sequestered in body, accumulate, easily absorbed, poorly excreted d. Biotransformation: conversion of xenobiotic chemicals into different chemical structures with aid of enzymes i. Indirect effect; energy used for biotransformation limits energy and nutrients needed for growth and survival ii. Nonspecific effect; toxicants can go affect multiple tissues after being transformed iii. Specific effect; binding to biomolecules causing carcinogenesis and feminization iii. Metals 1. Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, As 2. Sources; volcanic erosion, run-off, atmospheric deposition 3. Sediments are sink for metals, disturbance (dredging) re-suspends metals 4. Accumulation (bioaccumulate in medium), bioavailable (converted to uptaking form- methylmercury), bioconcentration, biomagnification) iv. Pharmaceuticals/Personal Care Products 1. Pain relievers, cholesterol reducers, anti- depressants, antibiotics, sunscreens, detergents, perfumes, veterinary medicines 2. Ground water, surface water, drinking water v. HABS: Harmful Algal Blooms 1. Causes; excessive release of nutrients and rise in ocean surface temp 2. Releases toxins and depletes water of oxygen 3. Sicknesses >80$ million public health cost annually a. Diatoms (less harmful) i. Pseudonitzschia multiseries: a diatom that produces domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (gastrointestinal and nervous system problems) b. Dinoflagellates i. Paralytic, Dirrhetic, Neurotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (PSP, DSP, NSP) ii. CFP; ciguatera dish poisoning 1. No immunity 2. Coral reef ecosystems 3. Gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular systems 4. Ciguatoxin increases permeability of Na channels which depolarizes nerve cells vi. Infectious Microbes 1. Toxin producing, infectious 2. Multiply in human hosts; fecal pollution is stressor to coast 3. Capture, concentrate, biological sensing c. Remedies i. Marine Remedies 1. Toxins and poisons can be used to fight unwanted cell types (determine beneficial dose) 2. Supply; harvest, aquaculture, synthesis ii.Anti-Cancer Drugs 1. Cytotoxic drug therapy killing cancer cells (and some healthy cells) 2. Sponges are most important 3. Bacteria, fungi, algae, shark cartilage iii.Anti-Infectives 1. Sponges, invertebrates, macroalgae 2. Horseshoe crab proteins used to mark contamination (meningitis and UTIs) iv. Thermostable Polymerases 1. At high temperature, DNA fragments are amplified by repetition of denaturing step 2. Around hydrothermal vents, thermostable polymerases in organisms that are 50x more accurate in DNA replication (low error rate) v. Toxic Peptides and Proteins 1. Antisera to be applied after accidents with marine stingers vi. Bioluminescence 1. Measure gene activity, used in biomedical research marking gene expression vii. Aquatic Animal Models 1.Comparing biochemistry/physiology/pathology/toxicology ac
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