Psychology Study Guide Exam 1
Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 Psyc 2301
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kailey Mathews on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2301 at West Texas A&M University taught by W staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at West Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Exam 1 Study Guide 1.1 What Do Psychologists Investigate? Psychology teaches us to think critically o Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions best supported by evidence o News articles and reporters often submit their articles written with biased so you need to ask yourself: 1. What am I being asked to believe or accept? 2. What evidence is provided to support the claim? 3. What are the most reasonable conclusions? Psychology helps us succeed in school o 1. Learning how to set goals o 2. Stress management o 3. Learning not to cram for tests o 4. Learn to study actively o 5. Learn by using examples and illustrations o 6. Find out what kind of learner you are (visual, aural, kinesthetic) o 7. Self-quiz to make sure you are understanding the material Psychology helps us succeed at work o Understand other and their thought pathways o Social abilities o Understanding behavior and mental processes of others We experience psychological issues every minute of our lives, but we cannot understand them based on common sense alone Psychology is the scientific study of mental activity, behavior and the brain Studying psychology helps improve critical thinking skills and study skills. It also helps develop skills that make people successful in their jobs 1.2 What do Psychologists Investigate? Psychology originated in philosophical questions o Nature V.S. Nurture Debate on whether thinking and behavior result from a person’s biological nature or learned through education, experience and culture Psychologists recognize that both nature and nurture influence our psychological development o Mind V.S. Body Are the mind and body separate and distinct? Is the mind simply our own personal experience of the physical brain’s activity? Rene Descartes (invented latitude and longitude): Dualism The mind and the body are separate yet intertwined 2 The mind directs the body but the body also influences the mind (2-way street) Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener (student): Structuralism Identify the basic parts, or structures and components of the conscious mind Looking for the structure of thought (periodic table) Introspection- measured the conscious mind William James & Charles Darwin: Functionalism Describe how the conscious mind aids adaptation to an environment Purpose of the conscious mind Psychoanalytic theory Understand how unconscious thoughts cause psychological disorders (unconscious conflicts) Gestalt psychology Study subjective perceptions as a unified “whole” Behaviorism Describe behavior in response to environmental stimuli Humanistic psychology 3 Investigate how people become happier and more fulfilled; focus on the basic goodness of people (focus on Positives) Cognitive psychology Explore internal mental processes that influence behavior (mental activity) o Early psychological schools of thought explored the conscious mind and the unconscious mind o Structuralism examined the content of thought, whereas functionalism examined the purpose of thought. Psychoanalytic theory focused on unconscious forces 1.3 Who Are Psychologists Psychologists work across levels of analysis o Biological Brain systems, neurochemistry, genetics, hormones o Individual Individual differences (personality, gender), Perception and cognition (thinking and memory), Behavior (observable reactions) o Social Interpersonal behavior (groups), Social cognition (attitudes, stereotypes, perceptions) o Cultural 4 Thoughts, actions, behaviors in different societies and cultural groups (values, beliefs) Culture- the beliefs, values, rules and cultures that exist within a group of people who share a common language or environment Subfields in Psychology o Biological psychology Systems give rise to mental activity How do the brain cells change during learning? o Cognitive psychology/neuroscience Study attention, memory, problem solving What makes some problems harder to solve than others Distracted driving o Developmental psychology How people change from infancy through old age Learning to speak o Personality Psychology Characteristics over time under circumstances Why are people shy How does circumstances shape personality o Social psychology How people are affected by others 5 Impressions Intimate relationships o Cultural psychology How people are influenced by social rules Culture shapes the sense of self o Clinical psychology Factors that cause mental disorders Depression How to change depression o Industrial/organizational psychology Issues in workplace Building morale = help motivate workers Equipment designed to enhance duty and prevent accidents o Institutional review boards (IRBs)- Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to endure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants. o Psychologists must adhere to all ethical guidelines when conducing scientific research 1.4 How do psychologists conduct research? Scientific method o A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why 6 o Focus on a theory o State a hypothesis o Test with a research method o Analyze the data o Report results and embark on further inquiry Descriptive methods- A research method that provides a systematic and objective description of what is occurring Observational Studies o With intervention o Without intervention Observer bias: errors in observation that occur because of the observer’s expectations Reactivity: may act differently when they believe they are being observed Self-reports o Surveys and questionnaires o Interviews Self-report bias Case Studies- involve intensive examination of a few unique people or organizations Correlational methods o A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world o Measure the two factors and then determine the degree of association between the two variables 7 Experimental Methods o A research method that tests causal hypotheses by o manipulating independent variables and measuring the effects on dependent variables o Independent variable- the manipulated variable Random Assignment o Control group and experimental group o Each person has an equal chance of being assigned to either group Random Sample o Selected at random from the population Chapter 2 Central Nervous System o Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral nervous system o nerve cells in the soft organs in the rest of the body Know the structure of neurons page 42-43 Know the Brain areas page 50-61 Also review notes over chapter 2 on Study soup or your own notes *This chapter is a lot of terms and processes that for you to really understand you need to read over the book while 8 looking at the correlated pictures. For that reason, it is in your best interest to read or reread this chapter for the test. * 3.1 What Does It Mean to Be Conscious Consciousness is a subjective experience Objective is when something is seen by all the people Subjective is how everyone individually interprets what they saw Consciousness o The combination of a person’s subjective experience of the external world and the person’s mental activity; this combination results from brain activity Most psychologists reject dualism for materialism, this idea that the brain and the mind are inseparable and that the processing of the brain allows for the experiences of the mind o When we are fully conscious, we are very alert (attention) Have you ever begun daydreaming while reading and then realized you had no idea what you had just read? You were going through the motions of reading, but you were essentially unconscious of what you read Salient stimulus- light blinking demands attention Continuous – changing of alertness: not paying attention to what you read Subliminal Perception 9 o Refers to times when our sensory systems are processing stimuli but, because the stimuli last only a short time or are subtle, we are generally not aware of them o In lecture this was represented by placing your picture on the screen and flashing it to you so quickly that you did not understand what it was. However, when measuring your brain, the part of your brain that is responsible for recognizing your own face lit up o This shows how even though you do not consciously understand, you brain can still processes what it saw This is an example of Unconscious Processing Page 83-86 is another section that should be read along with the aid of the provided pictures in the book. This is over the area’s of the brain and what they do * 3.2 How Does Sleep Affect Consciousness? Circadian rhythms- The regulation of biological cycles into regular, daily patterns Circadian Rhythms o Day o Around o The regulation of biological cycles into regular, daily patterns Changes in light register in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, witch triggers the production of melatonin o Hypothalamus- fast o Pineal gland- slow 10 o Pineal Gland: secretes melatonin a sleep hormone Four Stages of Sleep o Stages of sleep 1. Alert wakefulness: Beta waves 2. Just before sleep: Alpha waves 3. Stage 1: Theta waves 4. Stage 2: has K-complexes 5. Stage ¾ Slow-wave sleep: Delta waves 6. REM: Beta waves The electroencephalograph (EEG) records electrical brain activity during different stages of sleep EEG- What has happened and what is related to is Reason we sleep cannot be totally put to the responsibility of rest o Slow wave sleep would be about 3 hours o When deprived from REM sleep you make up for it Confusion the next day Double REM sleep the next night Physiological need for REM sleep o REM: very high rates of dreaming Major muscle groups are paralyzed Major activity in the occipital cortex Making up a story to the firing that are occurring in the occipital during REM sleep o Activation-Synthesis theory 11 Dreams are the result of the brain’s attempts to make sense of random brain activity by synthesizing the brain with activity o Sleep Disorders Insomnia- in ability to go to sleep when you wish Sleep Apnea-problem with breathing while you are asleep (gasping snore) Narcolepsy- sleep periods that occur unannounced during conversation REM Behavior Disorder Those with the disorder act out their dreams while sleeping Do not have normal paralysis Sleepwalking (Somnambulism)- not aware of engaging in moving or speaking during sleep o Psychoactive drugs are mind-altering substances that change the brain’s neurochemistry by activating neurotransmitter systems Caffeine largest used drug Essay Question: * Explain the different ideas and theories the need for sleep * Strong points Supporting points Express in standard English Bonus Essay 12
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