Study Guide 1
Study Guide 1 SWRK 330
Popular in Human Behavior in the Social Environment
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Social Work
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SWRK 330 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Mallinger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Behavior in the Social Environment in Social Work at Western Kentucky University.
Reviews for Study Guide 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/16
SES: Education x Income = Socioeconomic Status Privilege: having access to certain advantages and opportunities; you can be born/married into it and/or have it taken away from you easily. Privilege is based on: • Neighborhood (urban/rural) • Economic • 2 parent home • Education • Religion (certain holidays off/not off) • Sexual orientation • Gender/sex • Race • Age • Immigration status • Veteran status What is a theory? • A general statement about the real world whose essential truth can be supported by evidence obtained through the scientific method • Must explain in a provable way why something happens o Ex: Learning Theory • Theory and practice are intertwined EBP: evidence based practice • Studies are done that provide information about techniques that work/don’t work o Proven research • Empirical evidence: information acquired by observation or experimentation; data is recorded and analyzed TBP: theory based practice • Evidence Based Practice can be based off of this What is a model? • A blueprint for action • Models effect change • Model is based off a theory • Describes what happens in practice in a general way o Ex: learning theory gives rise to behavioral model, which suggests guidelines to effect change Social Learning Theory: I’m learning because of modeling • Ex: children who are abused at home, bully others at school What is a perspective? • A way of perceiving the world • Flows from a value position • The perspective will influence choice of theory and model Theories that Inform Human Behavior in the Social Environment • Social workers use this theory to understand clients who are experiencing oppression in some form or another o Systems o Psychodynamic o Social learning Perspectives that Inform Human Behavior in the Social Environment • Strengths • Feminist Practice Models that Inform Human Behavior in the Social Environment • Problem solving o Understanding the problem o Brainstorming possible solutions o Having the client pick a solution o Having the client try out a solution o Evaluating how the solution worked • Task centered o This model focuses on breaking down the problem into small tasks that the client can accomplish § Rehearsal § Deadlines § Contracts • Solution focused o Miracle question (start with solution) Developmental Theories • Focus on how behavior changes and stays the same across the life cycle • Stage theories are usually characterized by the following o Human development occurs in clearly defined stages o Each stage is qualitatively different than other stages o Stages are universal o All environments provide the support needed to develop • Psychodynamic • Moral development • Cognitive development Psychodynamic Theories of Development • Freud o Model of personality development o Method of psychotherapy o Identified dynamic factors that motivate behavior o Focused on role of unconscious o Developed first therapeutic procedures for understanding and modifying structure of one’s basic character • Freud’s perspective o Behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, biological and instinctual drives as they evolve through the six psychosexual stages of life • Personality structure (Freud) o The ID: the demanding child § Ruled by the pleasure principle o The EGO: the traffic cop § Ruled by the reality principle o The SUPEREGO: the judge § Ruled by the moral principle Defense Mechanisms • To protect the ego against the painful and threatening impulses arising from the id we distort the reality • The processes that distort the reality for the ego are called defense mechanisms Transference and Countertransference • Transference o The client reacts to the worker as he/she did to an earlier significant other § This allows the client to experience feelings that would otherwise be inaccessible § Analysis of transference: allows the client to achieve insight into the influence of the past • Counter-transference o The reaction of the worker toward the client that may interfere with objectivity Erikson • Differed from Freud o Psychosocial, not psychosexual o Lifespan development • Similar to Freud o Stage like o Predominant themes o Conflicts or psychosocial crises • Themes o Development of “ego identity” o Competence and personal adequacy Developmental Stages • Sigmund Freud (Drive) o Oral: 0-18 months o Anal: 18mths-3 years o Phallic: 3-5/6 years o Latency: 6-12 years o Genital: 12 yrs-death • Erik Erikson (Ego Psychology) o Trust vs. Mistrust: first year o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 2-3 years o Initiative vs. Guilt: 3-5 years o Industry vs. Inferiority: 6-11 years o Identity vs. Role Confusion: 12-18 years o Intimacy vs. Isolation: 18-35 years o Generativity vs. Stagnation: 35-55 years o Integrity vs. Despair: 65yrs-death Behavioral Theory • Classical conditioning o Unconditioned stimulus o Conditioned stimulus o Unconditioned response o Conditioned response o Ex: Pavlov’s • Operant conditioning o Antecedent o Behavior o Consequence o Ex: BF Skinner History of Behavior Therapy • Social cognitive theory o Reciprocal interaction system involving § Environment § Personal factors § Behavior o Ex: Bandura Murray Bowen • Bowen family systems theory is a theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking to describe the complex interactions in the unit • Bowen and Differentiation o Families and other social groups tremendously affect how people think, feel, and act, but individuals vary in their susceptibility to a “group think” and groups vary in the amount of pressure they exert for community o These differences between individuals and between groups reflect differences in people’s levels of differentiation of self o A person with a well-differentiated “self” recognizes his realistic dependence on others, but he can stay calm and clear headed enough in the face of conflict, criticism, and rejection to distinguish thinking rooted in a careful assessment of the facts from thinking clouded by emotionality o People with a poorly differentiated “self” depend so heavily on the acceptance and approval of others that either they quickly adjust what they think, say, and do to please others or they dogmatically proclaim what others should be like and pressure them to conform • Bowen and Triangles o A triangle is a three-person relationship systems considered the building block or “molecule” of larger emotional systems because a triangle is the smallest stable relationship system § A triangle can contain much more tension without involving another person because the tension can shift around three relationships § Paradoxically, a triangle is more stable than a dyad, but a triangle creates an “odd man out” which is a very difficult position for individuals to tolerate • Bowen Family Therapy Minuchin • A family is functional or dysfunctional based upon its ability to adapt to various stressors (extra familial, idiosyncratic, developmental); which, in turn rests upon the clarity and appropriateness of its subsystem boundaries Structural Family Therapy • Family structure o Rules o Subsystems • Family subsystems o Parental o Siblings o Mixed • Boundary permeability o Highly permeable: enmeshed families o Not permeable: disengaged families • Alignments • Coalitions • Triangulation Minuchin’s Family Mapping • Clear boundary • Diffuse boundary • Rigid boundary • Affiliation • Over involvement Social Environment • Individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities are in constant transaction with each other in the physical and social environmental context • People and environments reciprocally affect one another Ecological Perspective Basic Concepts to Define • Ethnicity • Race • Gender • Racism • Anti-Semitism • Ethnocentrism • Sexism • Heterosexism • Ageism • Classism • Xenophobia Understanding Prejudice and Discrimination • Prejudice is the tendency of individuals to think and feel in negative ways about members of other groups • Discrimination is the unjust treatment (actions and behaviors) of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex Prejudice has Two Dimensions • Affective (emotional): feelings we associate with other groups o Fear o Hatred o Anger Stereotypes • Cognitive aspects of prejudice • Overgeneralization or assumption about a group o Stress a few traits and assume these characteristics apply to all members of the group • Selective perception: tendency to see only what one expects to see Minority Groups • Members of group experience patterns of disadvantage or inequality • Members of the group share a visible trait that differentiates them from the majority group • Not limited to mathematical minority (blacks in South Africa) • Foucault’s theory is that power is seen in terms of inclusion and exclusion Oppression • Methods of oppression o Exploitation o Exclusion o Domination Stratification • Unequal distribution of goods and services • Society is divided into social class layers (strata) Minority Groups Status and Stratification • Minority group status affects access to o Wealth o Income o Prestige o Power Intersectionality • Intersectional theorists argue that race, class, and gender are interrelated systems of oppression with no single axis being more fundamental than the others • Reaction against other theoretical perspectives that argued that one of these categories was the fundamental source of oppression • Recognizing oppression is experienced by white middle class women differently than those experienced by women who were black, poor, or disabled • Feminists sought to understand the ways in which gender, race, and class combined to “determine the female destiny”
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'