CAS 101 Exam 1 Study Guide
CAS 101 Exam 1 Study Guide CAS 101
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Introduction to Child and Adolescent Studies
Popular in Child and Adolescent Studies
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caru on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CAS 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Nathalie Carrick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Child and Adolescent Studies in Child and Adolescent Studies at California State University - Fullerton.
Reviews for CAS 101 Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/16
Principles of Child Development and Research Methods 1. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a research finding? ● Hypothesis ○ Possible explanation to predict an outcome; an educated guess ● Research finding ○ Data; may or may not support the hypothesis 2. What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous development? ● Continuous development slow, gradual change ○ Ex. tree’s growth ● Discontinuous development stagelike changes; change is very dramatic, quick, and sudden; after the change, things are very different ○ Ex. caterpillar > cocoon > butterfly 3. Explain the difference between correlational and experimental study. ● Correlational examines the relationship between variables ○ Ex. Are children who play violent video games more likely to be aggressive? ■ A correlational study would measure the amount of aggression and violent video games ○ Only shows association between variables, not causation(which one caused the other to happen?) ○ Nothing is manipulated(changed) = we don’t make someone do something to see if there’s an effect ● Experimental examines how a treatment effects an outcome ○ Groups: ■ experimental(receives treatment) ■ control(doesn’t receive treatment) ○ Correlation or Experiment? ■ Does Gender influence grades in math? ● correlation ■ Can eating a healthy breakfast improve performance in school? ● both ■ How does economic status influence parenting styles? ● correlation ■ Does vitamin C help a person’s complexion? ● both 4. Give two examples of individual differences and group differences. ● Group differences differences between groups of individuals ○ Ex. gender, culture, age ● Individual differences differences specific to an individual due to personal experiences, traits, characteristics, etc ○ Ex. genetic disorders, IQ, having gone to private vs. public school 5. What are the pros/cons of collecting data in a naturalistic setting and a laboratory? ● Naturalistic setting ○ Where children “naturally” act and behave ○ Ex. playground, their house, school ○ Pro: natural behavior ○ Con: less control over other variables ● Laboratory ○ Can do an observation, experiment, etc. ○ Pro: Controlled environment ○ Con: less natural behavior 6. What is the difference between a longitudinal and crosssectional research design? ● Longitudinal ○ Follow same children across a period of time ■ Ex. test 3yearolds for two years ● CrossSectional ○ Compare different children of different ages ■ Ex. test a group of 3yearolds and 5yearolds 7. What is niche picking? ● Niche picking is a child choosing activities based on their genes 8. What topic areas fall under physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development? ● Physical ○ How we grow ○ How our brain works and develops ○ Our motor skills(ex. Ability to walk, run, jump, or use our hands to move small objects) ● Cognitive ○ How we think ○ How we use logic or reasoning ○ How we problem solve ○ Our ability to process different info ○ Our language ○ Our ability to learn ● Social ○ How we interact with other people (friends, parents, peers, larger community) ○ How our larger community affects and influences us ● Emotional ○ Emotions ○ Feelings ○ Ability to regulate our emotions ○ An infant’s ability to form a bond with his/her caregiver(attachment) 9. What is a case study? ● a process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time Prenatal Development and Heredity 1. What are the stages of prenatal development? ● Germinal Stage(fertilization to 2 weeks) ● Embryonic Stage(28 weeks) ○ Different growth patterns occur during this stage: ■ Cephalocaudal ● Growth occurs from top to bottom ● Accounts for a baby’s head being large in comparison to the rest of its body ● Logical ~ makes sense for our body to be more focused on developing our brain than our toes ■ Proximodistal ● Growth happens earlier and more rapidly in our interior than our exterior ● Ex. digestive system, respiratory system ● Major organs developing ○ Heart, brain, lungs ● Most vulnerable stage of development ○ When most miscarriages occur ○ If something isn’t developing correctly, the body can terminate it ● Fetal Stage(8 weeks to birth) ○ Organs become differentiated and connected ○ Brain development occurs ○ Exterior develops(ex. Hands, fingers, toes) 2. Describe how fraternal and identical twins occur. ● Fraternal twins ○ Multiple ova released at the same time and both are fertilized ○ Dizygotic twins ~ share 50% of genes ● Identical twins ○ Fertilized ovum splits into two ○ Monozygotic twins ~ share 100% of genes 3. Give two examples of alleles. ● Alleles corresponding genes from mother and father that can be expressed differently ● Ex. eye color, hair color 4. What is the difference between alleles being homozygous and heterozygous? ● Homozygous same set of alleles(two dominant or two recessive) ○ Ex. BB or bb ● Heterozygous different set of alleles(one dominant and one recessive) ○ Ex. Bb 5. Explain invitro fertilization. ● Woman’s eggs and male’s sperm and taken and fertilized in lab ● Multiple eggs are taken to have the highest chance of success ● The eggs are fertilized and then injected into the vagina > can lead to multiple births(typically dizygotic twins) 6. Describe the difference between dominant and recessive inheritance. ● Dominant gene the one that is expressed(can be seen); expressed whether someone is homozygous or heterozygous ● Recessive gene the one you can carry and pass on; won’t be seen if paired with the dominant gene 7. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? ● Genotype the combination of alleles ○ Ex. Bb ● Phenotype the expression of the trait ○ Ex. brown eyes 8. Describe a few genetic and chromosomal disorders. ● Genetic ○ Cystic Fibrosis ■ Increased amount of mucus in lungs and digestive system ■ Leading cause of death in children and young adolescents ○ TaySachs ■ Attacks nervous system ■ If present in a child, they often only live a few years ○ Sickle Cell Disease ■ Effects blood cells’ ability to move smoothly to organs ■ Causes anemia, strokes, damages to organs ● Chromosomal ○ When the number or structure of the chromosome is affected ○ Not necessarily genetic > can occur during cell division ○ Down Syndrome ■ Extra 21st chromosome ■ Physical and cognitive delays ○ Fragile X Syndrome ■ Additional copies of part of a chromosome ■ Cognitive delays, hyperactivity ■ More common in boys than girls 9. How does a mother’s age influence conception and/or prenatal development? ● With age, ova can deteriorate in quality ● Low quantity of ova ○ Women are born with all of the ova they will ever have ○ Lower egg count = lower chance of conception ● Dangerous to conceive at a higher age 10. What develops during the embryonic stage of prenatal development? ● Major organs developing ○ heart , brain, lungs 11. What is a teratogen? ● Teratogen factor that can cause abnormal prenatal development ● Timing of exposure matters ● Intensity matters 12. Describe the process from fertilization to implantation. ● An ova matures and is released through the fallopian tube ● Sperm enters through the vagina and heads to the fallopian tube ● Sperm penetrates the egg ● Egg creates a “shell” around it so the other sperm can’t fertilize it ● Over the next few days, the zygote(fertilized egg) travels down the fallopian tube while going through the meiosis/mitosis process(cell division) ● After 35 days, the zygote becomes a blastocyst and continually grows ● After about 8 days, it will travel into the uterus and try to implant in the uterine wall ● Once implantation occurs, the blastocyst is now called an embryo 13. What are the effects of alcohol on prenatal development? ● Attention ○ They have a hard time focusing ● Memory ○ Problems with shortterm memory ● Intelligence ○ Lower IQ scores ● Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder ○ One of the leading causes of mental retardation in America ○ Children have cognitive delays ○ Can have lasting effects 14. Describe prenatal screening techniques. ● Blood tests ○ Least invasive ○ Test mom to get a rough range of possible chromosomal disorders ○ Can be done early on in the pregnancy ○ Not 100% accurate ○ Can tell if you need to take more invasive procedures ● Ultrasounds ○ Uses soundwaves to produce a picture ○ Not invasive ○ Check for physical abnormalities ○ Find sex of fetus (about 20 weeks) ○ Check if you’re having multiple births ○ Shows basic info ● Amniocentesis ○ Take fetal cells from the amniotic sac ○ Insert needle through stomach ○ Very exact since you’ll get the fetal DNA ○ Tests for chromosomal disorders ○ Typically done around 16 weeks ○ 1 in 5 chance of miscarriage ● Chorionic Villus Sampling ○ Even more invasive ○ Fetal cells are taken from placenta > requires them to go deeper than amniocentesis ○ Can be done around 12 weeks ○ Tests for chromosomal Birth and Neonatal Development 1. How do we test infants? ● Preferential looking task ○ Infant is show different images ○ Camera records infant’s eyes to see where they’re looking ● Habituationdishabituation task ○ Looking at the same thing repeatedly you get used to it/it becomes less interesting so you look away ○ The object changes and reinterests you 2. What occurs during the first stage of labor? ● Dilation of cervix ● Longest stage ● Feel contractions as cervix widens ● Typically 8 or 10 hours ● Can have medication to help you with the pain ○ Epidural ~ shot in the base of the spine that numbs you from the waist down ○ Can’t feel the contractions > won’t know when to push 3. What is a neonate capable of? ● Have good senses of taste and smell ● Hearing ○ Neonates can: ■ Recognize sounds heard inutero(ex. Mother’s voice, rhythms) ■ Can differentiate sounds ■ Prefer human voice 4. Describe reflexes present at birth. ● Sucking suck when something is in mouth ● Rooting move head towards stimulation(touch cheek) ● Moro throw arms out then in with loud noise ● Babinski toes fan out when bottom of foot is touched 5. What is the APGAR test? ● Test done at minutes 1 and 5 after birth ● Check vital signs of baby ● Child doesn’t have to score a perfect 10, but the higher the score the better Physical Development 1. Describe the development of vision in infants. ● Least developed of senses ● Blurry vision until 6 months ● Can see contrast between light and dark colors ● Prefer human faces 2. What is the difference between fine motor and gross motor skills? ● Gross ○ Associated with large muscles, such as the torso, arms, legs, and neck ○ Ex. running, walking, throwing, and kicking ○ During the preschool years, we see considerable improvements in children’s gross motor skills > not fully developed ○ School age children are much more advanced in their gross motor skills ○ Milestones(approximates) ■ 6 weeks lifting head ■ 4 months rolling over ■ 6 months sitting up ■ 8 months crawling ■ 9 months pull to stand ■ 12 months walking ● Fine ○ Associated with small muscles, such as our fingers and toes ○ Ex. writing, picking up objects with fingers, or drawing ○ First seen with infants using their entire hand to grasp objects and slowly acquiring the ability to use their fingers ○ Milestones ■ 3 months reaching for objects ■ 5 months transferring objects from hand to hand ■ 9 months the pincer grasp ■ 14 months scribbling 3. Give two examples of fine and gross motor skills in infants and preschoolers. ● Gross ○ Going up stairs ○ Catching a ball ○ stopping ● Fine ○ Reaching for objects ○ Transferring objects from hand to hand ○ The pincer grasp ○ scribbling 4. Explain the major functions associated with each lobe in the brain and the cerebellum. ● Cerebellum posture, body orientation, coordination ● Occipital lobe processes visual stimuli ● Temporal lobe processes auditory stimuli ● Parietal lobe spatial skills, navigation(ex. Understanding maps) ● executive functions(ex. planning, inhibition, logic) 5. Describe the difference between a dendrite and an axon. ● Dendrites receive signals from other neurons ● Axon send information to other neurons 6. What is the purpose of a neuron? ● The brain communicates through neurons ● Neurons transmit signals to each other to carry out everything we do ● Neurological development occurs through connections among the neurons 7. Name two risk factors for SIDS. ● Risk factors :Sleeping on stomach, soft mattress, parental smoking 8. How does myelination help the neuron? ● Myelination = the process of myelin coating a neuron ● The myelin coating helps the neuron to send out information faster > makes the neuron more efficient
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'