Chapter 1-3 Key Terms
Chapter 1-3 Key Terms History 1301
Popular in History 1301: History of the United States to 1865
Popular in History
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victor Escobar on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Gary L. Kieffner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see History 1301: History of the United States to 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 1-3 Notes- History SIDENOTE (first exams will test knowledge on chapters 1-3, and exam 2 will include 1-7, and exam 3 will include 1-11, and final will be on chapters 1-14) Textbook/Online Resources- Chapter Outlines- 1. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4-brief/ch/01/outline.aspx, 2. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4-brief/ch/02/outline.aspx, 3. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4-brief/ch/03/outline.aspx Practice quizzes for chapters 1. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4-brief/ch/01/quiz.aspx, 2. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4-brief/ch/02/quiz.aspx, 3. http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/give-me-liberty4-brief/ch/03/quiz.aspx Textbook Notes- Chapter 1 Key Terms: Tenochtitlan: population of around 250,000- the capital of the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico, and was one of the world's largest cities. Cahokia: near present day St. Louis, a fortified community with between 10,000 and 30,000 people in the year 1200. Iroquois: peoples including the Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Onondaga, formed a Great League of Peace. "Christian Liberty": this freedom meant abandoning the life of sin to embrace the teachings of Christ, this had no connection to later ideas of religious toleration, a notion that scarcely existed anywhere on the eve of colonization. Caravels: the long distance ships used in the 15th century Reconquista: completed in 1492, the "reconquest" of Spain from the Moors (African Muslims who had occupied part of the Iberian Peninsula for Centuries. Columbian Exchange: the transatlantic flow of goods and people is sometimes called the Columbian Exchange. Plants, animals, and cultures that had evolved independently on separate continents were now thrown together into the Americas. Mestizos: persons of mixed origin, which made up a large part of the urban population of Spanish America. Repartimento System: took the place of the encomienda system which the first settlers had been granted authority over conquered Indian lands with the right to extract forced labor from the native inhabitants. the repartimento system had Indian villages to remain legally free and entitled to wages, but were still required to perform a fixed amount of labor each year, they were not slaves, they had access to land, were paid wages, and couldn't be bought and sold. Black Legend: the image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer. This image would provide a potent justification for other European powers to challenge Spain's predominance in the New World. Pueblo Revolt: the most complete victory for Native Americans over Europeans and the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history of North America. Metis: children of marriages between Indian women and French traders and officials, became guides, traders, and interpreters. Chapter 2 Key Terms: Virginia Company: a private business organization whose shareholders included merchants, aristocrats, and members of Parliament. Roanoke: 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh dispatched a fleet of five ships with some 100 colonists to set up a base on Roanoke Island, off the North Carolina coast. This settlement was failed, the fate of these settlers remains a mystery, it was likely abandoned. A Discourse Concerning Western Planting: written in 1584, the Protestant minister and scholar Richard Hakluyt listed 23 reasons that Queen Elizabeth I should support the establishment of colonies. Enclosure Movement: 1620's when thousands of persons were uprooted from the land Indentured Servants: persons who voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a specified time (usually five to seven years) in exchange for passage to America. Like slaves, servants could be bought and sold, could not marry without the permission of their owner, were subject to physical punishment, and saw their obligation to labor enforced by the courts. But, unlike slaves, servants could look forward to a release from bondage. John Smith: governed the Jamestown Colony with rigorous military discipline, which had an extraordinarily high death rate- John Smith's Iron Rule "he that will not work, shall not eat" - Smith's autocratic mode of governing alienated many of the colonists. Headright System: awarded fifty acres of land to any colonist who paid for his own or another's passage, attracting many settlers. House of Burgesses: established as part of the "charter of grants and liberties" issued, in 1619, that became the first elected assembly in colonial America. Uprising of 1622: once it was clear that the English were trying to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not a trading post, conflict with local natives was inevitable. A surprise attack by Opechancanough in 1622 in a single day, wiped out one quarter of Virginia's settler population of 1,200. Tobacco: introduced from the West Indies to the New World in Virginia by John Rolfe. King James I considered tobacco "harmful to the brain and dangerous to the lungs" and issued a spirited warning against its use. Increasing numbers of Europeans enjoyed smoking and believed the crop had medical benefits. Dower Rights: woman's right to claim one-third of her husband's property in the event that he died before she did. When the widow died, the property passed to the husband's male heirs. Puritanism: term coined by opponents to ridicule those not satisfied with the progress of the Protestant Reformation in England. Puritans considered religious belief a complex and demanding matter and urged believers to seek the truth by reading the Bible and listening to sermons by educated ministers, rather than devoting themselves to sacraments administered by priests and to what puritans considered formulaic prayers. John Winthrop: the first governor of the Massachusetts bay colony, distinguished sharply between two kinds of liberty, "natural liberty", or acting without restraint/ "a liberty to do evil", and "moral liberty". True freedom, Winthrop insisted, depended on "subjection to authority" Moral Liberty: "a liberty to that only which is good", it was quite compatible with severe restraints on speech, religion, and personal behavior. Pilgrims: The first puritans to emigrate to America were a group of separatists known as the Pilgrims. They had already fled to the Netherlands in 1608. A decade later, fearing that their children were being corrupted by the surrounding culture, they decided to emigrate to Virginia. Mayflower Compact: In September 1602, the Mayflower, carrying 150 settlers and crew (among them many non-puritans), embarked from England. Blown off course, they landed not in Virginia but hundreds of miles to the north, on Cape Cod. Here the 102 who survived the journey established the colony of Plymouth. Before landing, the Pilgrim leaders drew up the Mayflower Compact, in which the adult men going ashore agreed to obey "just and equal laws" enacted by representatives of their own choosing. This was the first written frame of government in what is now the United States. Great Migration: from England in 1629 to 1642, some 21,000 puritans had emigrated to Massachusetts, after this, migration to New England virtually ceased, and in some years more colonists left the region than arrived. The Great Migration established the basis for a stable and thriving society. Captivity Narratives: since New England's leaders felt that native Americans represented both savagery and temptation, Puritans feared that Indian society might attract colonists who lacked the proper moral fiber. To counteract the attraction of Native American life, the leaders of New England also encouraged the publication of "captivity" narratives by those captured by Indians. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: The most popular "captivity" narrative, by Mary Rowlandson, who was seized with other settlers and held for three months until ransomed during an Indian war in the 1670's. Rowlandson's book had a theme for her determination to return to Christian society. Pequot War: as the white population grew, and new towns came about, conflict with the regions Indians became unavoidable- 1637, a fur trader was killed by Pequot’s- a powerful tribe who controlled southern New England's fur trade and exacted tribute from other Indians. A force of Connecticut and Massachusetts soldiers, augmented by Narragansett allies, surrounded the main Pequot fortified village at Mystic and set it ablaze, killing those who tried to escape. Over 500 men, and women, and children lost their lives in the massacre. Half-Way Covenant: 1662, attempted to address the problem of religious purity by allowing for the baptism and subordinate ("half-way") membership for grandchildren of Puritan immigrants from the Great Migration. English Freedom: The idea that the English king was subject to the rule of law and that all free persons should enjoy security of person and property. Act Concerning Religion: 1649 (Maryland Toleration Act) all Christians were guaranteed the "free exercise" of religion, it brought some political stability to Maryland, and this law was also a milestone in the history of religious freedom in colonial America Chapter 3 Key Terms: Metacom: The Wampanoag leader known to colonists as King Philip; the leader 1675 Indian uprising in southern New England. King Philip's War: Began in 1675 with an Indian uprising against white colonists; lasted years, by the end, freedoms for white New Englanders grew. Mercantilism: Policy of Great Britain and other imperial powers of regulating the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country. Navigation Acts: Passed by the English Parliament to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system, 1650–1775; enforcement of the acts led to growing resentment by colonists. Covenant Chain: Alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy of upstate New York and the English colonists; initiated in the mid-1670s by Edmund Andros, the 4th Colonial Governor of New York. Society of Friends (Quakers): Religious group in England and America whose members believed all persons possessed the "inner light" or spirit of God; they were early proponents of the abolition of slavery and equal rights for women. Sugar: In the seventeenth century, huge sugar plantations led to the massive importation of slaves from Africa. Bacon's Rebellion: Unsuccessful 1676 revolt led by the planter Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkeley's administration because of governmental corruption and because Berkeley had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids and did not allow them to occupy Indian lands. Slave Code of 1705: Enacted by the House of Burgesses, the code categorized slaves as property that could be bought and sold, fought over in court, and inherited. Glorious Revolution: A coup in 1688 engineered by a small group of aristocrats that led to William of Orange taking the British throne in place of James II. English Bill of Rights: Enacted by Parliament in 1689, the bill listed parliamentary powers such as control over taxation as well as rights of individuals, including trial by jury. Lords of Trade: Group established in 1675 by England to oversee colonial affairs. Dominion of New England: Consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies—and later New York and New Jersey—by Edmund Andros, at the time the Governor of the Dominion of New England, in 1686; dominion reverted to individual colonial governments three years later. English Toleration Act: Enacted in 1690, the act allowed all Protestants to worship freely. Salem Witch Trials: A crisis of trials and executions in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692 that resulted from anxiety over witchcraft. Redemptioners: Indentured families who could receive free passage in exchange for a promise to work off their debt in America. Walking Purchasers: An arrangement in which the Lenni Lenape Indians agreed to cede to Pennsylvanian colonists a tract of land bounded by the distance a man could walk in thirty-six hours; a team of swift runners who were hired to mark out the area far exceeded the amount that the Indians had anticipated. Backcountry: An area stretching from central Pennsylvania southward through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and into upland North and South Carolina. Artisans: Skilled workers who were socially distinct from common laborers; their skill gave them far more economic freedom, and they profited from the expanding consumer market in the colonies. "Cousinocracy": In Virginia, the upper class was so tight-knit and intermarried that the colony was said to be governed by a "cousinocracy."
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