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LING 285 (Human Language and Technology) Study Guide

by: Manisha Malhotra

LING 285 (Human Language and Technology) Study Guide LING 285

Marketplace > University of Southern California > Linguistics > LING 285 > LING 285 Human Language and Technology Study Guide
Manisha Malhotra
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover the first midterm of LING 285 (Human Language and Technology)
Human Language and Technology
Mary Byram Washburn
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Manisha Malhotra on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LING 285 at University of Southern California taught by Mary Byram Washburn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Language and Technology in Linguistics at University of Southern California.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
LING Study Guide/Notes • phonetics - the study of speech sounds • acoustic phonetics (input) (speech recognition) - physical acoustic properties of sounds • articulatory phonetics (output) (speech synthesis) - motion vocal tract makes to produce speech sounds • nasals: n,m,ng • orals: z,oo,l,t • manner of articulation: oral and nasal • for nasals, velum is lowered • for oral, velum is raised • IPA: International Phonetics Alphabet theta (think): not voiced • • thorn (this, that, then, there): voiced • voiced - larynx is vibrating • folds are together - voiced, folds are far apart - devoiced • s and theta are unvoiced • p,b,m,f,v - labial • theta and thorn are dental • t,d,s,z,n, - alveolar • sh, 3 - post - alveolar • k,g,ng - velar • stops (b,t,d,k,g) - complete closure of vocal tract, articulators pressed together • fricatives - partial closure of vocal tracts, sounds you can hold • Mechanical Synthesis: von Kemplen’s speaking machine - squeeze tube and air produces human like sounds air flow comes from lungs • • Gesture: squeeze tube to produce sounds • Goal: Location • Constriction Gesture: Location • p,b,m -labial • theta and thorn are dental • t,d,s,z,n - alveolar • 3 (pleasure, usually), sh - post - alveolar • k,g,ng - velar • velum is lowered for n,m,ng • Constriction Gesture: Manner of Articulation • stops: puff of air, comes from lungs (complete closure, articulators are pressed together) • fricatives: sounds u can hold, articulators are close together but not touching • n- simultaneous gesture: gesture 1: alveolar closure, gesture 2: velum is lowered • simultaneous gesture, changing acoustics, makes different sounds, contrast - phonemes simultaneous gesture: voicing (whether larynx is vibrating) • • s - unvoiced alveolar fricative • z- voiced alveolar fricative, gesture 1: tongue close to alveolar, gesture 2: vocal folds together • f- voiceless labial fricative • v- voiced labial fricative • vowels: minimal constriction of the vocal tract, harder to feel than consonants • vowels: height of jaw: high or low? • backness: front: produced in middle of mouth: palatal, produced in back of mouth: velar • beet, bit, bet, bat, boot, book, boat, bot • consonants: significant constriction of the vocal tract, phoneme described by manner/type of articulation, voicing, location • vowels - minimal constriction of the vocal tract, phoneme described by jaw height, front/back of tongue lip rounding - 3 back vowels • • sound is vibration of the air, lengthening and shortening hits your ear, when u hear something u are experiencing vibration • cochlea: basilar membrane • sound waves press the ear drum in and out • sound waves = vibrations of the air • amplitude = how far the ear drum stretches • amplitude = loudness, low amplitude quiet, big loud • cycle = time it takes to get back to same place • frequency = how many times the ear drum vibrates (# of cycles), measured in Hertz, like pitch, high frequency is going to vibrate way close in higher frequency = more movement of the ear drum = higher pitch • lower frequency = less movement of the ear drum = less pitch • • higher amplitude = bigger movement of the ear drum = louder • lower amplitude = smaller amplitude of the ear drum = quieter • Waveforms: y=axis is amplitude, x-axis is time • simple signal = pure tone, complex signal = complex tone • Fourier: complex signals = simple signals added together • Spectrum: x-axis (frequency), y-axis (amplitude), lose time • In a spectrum, there will be peaks at frequencies that are present in the signal • graphs of sounds: waveform - you can figure out frequency, lose time in spectrum • spectogram: collection of spectrums over a period of time, x-axis: time, y-axis: frequency, amplitude: shading • Difference between the pure tones and the natural speech - more frequencies are involved • more frequencies involved in natural speech • Harmonics - energy at evenly spaced frequencies (result of vocal chord vibration) • vocal chord vibration - vibrates at multiple frequencies simultaneously • spacing between frequencies = first harmonic = fundamental frequency f0 • higher fundamental frequency = higher pitch • woman’s voice has higher fundamental frequency than men so the pitch is higher for women • Human voice has an 80-300 Hz f0 • laryngeal vibration - energy decreases for higher frequencies (nothing to do with vowels) • filtering: speech - some frequencies get more/less energy because of filtering vocal tract filters laryngeal vibration filtering is caused by the shape of the actual vocal tract, get actual speech sounds (tube lets • some vowels go through and suppresses others) • formants = frequencies with lots of energy (high spots) • 2-3 first formants make recognizable speech • Formants - product of filtering by the vocal tract • F1 and F2 make identifiable vowel formants configuration • i - low F1, high F2 • ae - high F1, high F2 • u - low F1, low F2 • F1 = jaw height • high F1: low vowel low F1: high vowel F2 = backness • • high F2: front vowel • low F2: back vowel • low frequencies have more energy (a lot of energy in lower harmonics) • mens voice harmonics are closer • larynx does not determine formants • dipthong- 2 vowels next to each other • formants for dipthongs are spread out • formant transitions = extremely common, indicative that you have 2 sounds, jaw is gliding smoothly to make a nice transition formant transition: coarticulation- nap and map sound different because of transition (alveolar • to labial) • n & m are both nasal, nasal murmur - energy at bottom frequencies, will look like a vowel but not quite a vowel, low bar is nasal • p (stop)- end of spectogram will be light • sh has lower frequencies than s • mesh (sh) - starting at about 3000 Hz, mess (s) - barely fitting in frame • dynamical systems - mathematical model for movement towards goals in time • acoustics: phonemes overlap each other • articulation: gestures overlap (ex. velum still lowered during the vowel, preparing for next gesture while finishing the previous) • mass spring systems: mass: if a mass is in motion, it will keep going • spring/elasticity: if a spring is in motion, it will return to its original position (whether • stretched or compressed) • mass spring system = simple harmonic motion (compressions and non-compressions, vibrations in the vocal chord) • all vibrations require mass/spring (elasticity) • mass without a spring does not go back to where it started • spring without a mass goes back • mass- frequency (speed of oscillation)- inverse relationship • increase mass, lower frequency • decrease mass, increase frequency • spring- frequency (Speed of oscillation) - direct relationship increase k (elasticity)- make stiffer, increase frequency • decrease k - makes less stiff, lower frequency • • mass spring systems: how do we hear? • every vibrating object has its own preferred frequency (depends on mass and stiffness) • basilar membrane: mass + elasticity • vibrates at different frequencies, parts of basilar membrane is going to have different frequencies • because base responds to high frequency, it has high k (very stiff) • because apex responds to low frequency, it has low k (very loose) • anything that vibrates has a mass + elasticity (air vibration, vocal chord vibration) • oscillation requires mass + spring • hearing: basilar membrane speaking: vocal chord vibration, coarticulation • • oscillation going back and forth • every vibrating object has its own preferred frequency (based on mass and k) • air = mass + elasticity • basilar membrane = mass + elasticity • vocal chords = mass + elasticity • vibrate at multiple frequencies simultaneously • if there is a mass and 2 springs, there are 2 modes or 2 different systems (it is a complex motion) • same system vibrating at 2 frequencies gives us the complex signal • vocal chords = vibrate at multiple frequencies simultaneously, multiple modes, each mode can have a different frequency, vocal chords have infinite modes, vocal chords have infinite masses/springs • articulation problem: vocal tract does different movements for the same phoneme • possible solution: different motion rules • ts - move down • st - move up • dynamical system: current state depends on the state before but the equation never changes • spring: goes back to original position whether stretched or compressed • equation is always the same but speed changes depending on the starting point • store one equation - gets to the same goal, deceleration function constant • speed depends on origin and goal • coarticulation - reshaping vocal tract trajectory of articulatory changes depending on the environment • goal remains the same • • origin point predicts speed


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