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Study Guide For Exam 1 (A&P 1)

by: Alexa C Escapita

Study Guide For Exam 1 (A&P 1) Biol 2313

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Biology > Biol 2313 > Study Guide For Exam 1 A P 1
Alexa C Escapita
GPA 3.39

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About this Document

This study guide goes over Chapters 1, 4 and 5. Hope it helps! Thera are images to help you better understand the structure of certain things.
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Dr. Karine Fenelon
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology, Studyguide, tissues
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa C Escapita on Monday September 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2313 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Karine Fenelon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Study Guide for Anatomy & Physiology 1 (Exam 1) Chapter 1:    Anatomy  The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another. Physiology:  The study of the function of body parts; how they work to carry out life sustaining  activities. Microscopic Anatomy (The study that deals with structures that are too small to see with the naked eye) - Cytology: Microscopic study of cells - Histology: Microscopic study of tissues.  Developmental Anatomy  Anatomical and physiological development throughout life  - Embryology: Study of developments before birth  Necessary Life Functions:  Maintaining boundaries   Movement  Responsiveness  Digestion  Metabolism  Excretion  Reproduction  Growth Maintaining boundaries:  There must be a separation between external and internal environments.  Ex) Plasma membrane separates cells and the skin separates organism from the environment. Movement:  Muscular system allows movement of body parts via skeletal muscles, cardiac  muscles, blood, smooth muscles, digestion and urination.  Contractility:  Refers to movement at the cellular level Responsiveness:  Ability to sense and respond to stimuli  Withdrawal reflex prevents injury  Control of breathing rate, which must change in responsive to different activities.   Babinski’s sign: abnormal plantar extensor reflex in adults Positive dorsiflexion of the big toe (Above) Digestion:  Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs followed by absorption of simple molecules into blood Metabolism:  All chemical reactions that occur in body cells  Sum of all catabolism (breakdown of molecules) and anabolism (synthesis of  molecules) Excretion:  Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion  Urea (from breakdown of proteins) carbon dioxide (from metabolism) feces  (unabsorbed foods) Reproduction:  At the cellular level, reproduction involved division of cells for growth or repair.  At the organismal level, reproduction is the production of offspring.  Growth:  Increase in size of a body part of an organism. Body’s systems and their functions: Integumentary system:  Forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury,  synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.  Skeletal system:  Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed with in bones. Bones store minerals. Muscular System:  Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, facial expression and  maintain posture and produces heat. Nervous System:  As the fast acting control system of the body it responds to internal and external  changes by activation appropriate muscles and glands. Endocrine System:  Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth reproduction  and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.  Cardiovascular system:  Blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients,  wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.  Lymphatic system/Immunity:  Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood, Disposes of  debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses while blood cells (lymphocytes) involved  in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.  Similar Needs:  Nutrients  Oxygen   Water  Normal body temperature  Appropriate atmospheric pressure ** Too much or too little can be harmful Nutrients:   Chemicals for energy and cell building  Carbohydrates: Major source of energy  Proteins: Needed for cell building and cell chemistry  Fats: Long­term energy storage  Minerals & Vitamins: Involved in chemical reactions as well as for  structural purposes Oxygen:  Essential for release of energy from foods  The body can survive only a few minutes without oxygen Water:   Most abundant chemical in body provides the watery environment needed for  chemical reactions.  Fluid base for secretions and excretions Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure:  Specific pressure of air is needed for adequate breathing and gas exchange in  lungs Homeostasis:  Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes  in the environment.  A dynamic state of equilibrium always readjusting as needed  Maintained by contributions of all organ systems  Body must constantly be monitored and regulated to maintain  homeostasis  Nervous and Endocrine system as well as other systems, play a major  role in maintaining homeostasis. Homeostatic:  Control of variables involves three components 1. Receptor 2. Control Center 3. Effector Receptor (sensor):  Monitors environment  Responds to stimuli (things that causes change in controlled variables) Control Center:  Determines set point at which variable is maintained  Receives input from receptor  Determine appropriate response Effector:  Receives output from control center  Provides the means to respond  Response either reduces stimulus (negative feedback) or enhances stimulus  (positive feedback). Negative Feedback:  Most used feedback mechanism in the body  Responses reduces or shuts off original stimulus  Variable changes in opposite direction of initial change  Example:  1. Receptors sense increased blood glucose (blood sugar) 2. Pancreas (control center) secretes insulin into blood 3. Insulin causes body cells (effectors) to absorb more glucose, which  decreases blood glucose.  Maintenance of Internal Condition (Balanced): 1. Stimulus produces change in variable 2. Receptor detects a change 3. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center 4. Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector 5. Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and  returns variable to homeostatic levels. Know slide #53 of PowerPoint #1 Positive Feedback:  Responses enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus  May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect as feedback causes variable to  continue in same direction as initial change  Usually controls infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustment for  example:  Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin  Platelet plug formation and blood. Mechanism of positive feedback: 1. Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall  Positive feedback cycle is initiated 2. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals   Feedback cycle ends when plug is formed 3. Released chemical attract more platelets 4. Platelet plug is fully formed Lecture 2 questions to know for exam(Chapter 1 Continued):   Cranial Cavity:  Contains the brain  Thoracic Cavity:  Contains the heart and lungs. Abdominopelvic cavity:  Abdomen cavity  Contains digestive viscera  Pelvic cavity  Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs and rectum Proximal: Close to the body or the point of attachment of the limb Distal: Far from the body Anterior: Toward or at the front of the body Medial: Towards the midline of the tissue (inner side) Lateral: Away from the midline of the body Serous membrane:   Thin double layered membrane that covers surfaces in the ventral body cavity  Located in the Ventral Body Cavity  Parietal Serosa: Lines internal body cavity walls  Visceral Serosa: Covers internal organs viscera Right Hypochondriac region:  The liver is located here.  **Important** Lungs carry out an excretory function. Histology:   The study of tissue What is tissue?  Groups of cells similar in structure that perform common or related functions. Why is it important for an organ to maintain its boundaries?  So that its internal environment remains distinct from the external environment  surrounding it. Planes of section: Sagittal Plane:  Divides the body vertically into right and left parts  Produces a sagittal section if cut along this plane Midsagittal Plane:  Cut was made perfectly on the midline Parasagittal Plane:  Cut was off center not on the midline  Frontal (coronal) Plane:   Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts (front and back)  Produces a frontal or coronal section Transverse (horizontal) Plane:  Divides body horizontally (90° to vertical plane) into superior and inferior parts  (top and bottom)  Produces a cross section Oblique section:  Result of cuts at angle other than 90° to vertical plane List from smallest to largest: Atoms, molecules, cells, tissue and organs.  What quadrant is the stomach located in?  The Left Upper Quadrant What organs are located in the dorsal body cavity?  Cranial Cavity: The Brain  Vertebral Cavity: The spinal cord **Important**   Nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen are survival needs. (Refer to the section under Survival needs above for more information).  Chapter 4:    Bone:  Two subtypes:  Spongy   Compact Spongy:  Function is support Compact:  Hard tissue that resists both compression and tension Hyaline Cartilage:  Resists compression because of large amounts of water held in the matrix.   Most abundant, shiny bluish  Found at tips of long bones, nose, trachea, larynx, and cartilage of the ribs Connective Tissue (CT) Proper: Subclasses: Loose and Dense Loose CT Proper:  Areolar  Adipose  Reticular Loose CT Proper (Areolar) (See below) Dense CT Proper  Regular  Irregular  Elastic Functions of CT Proper:  Six different types that vary in density and types of fibers  Functions as binding tissue  Resists mechanical stress (tension)  Provides reservoir for water and salts  Nutrient (Fat) Storage Areolar Tissue:   Most widely distributed in the CT Proper  Supports and binds other tissue  Contains fibroblasts that secrete loose collagen fibers  Loose fibers help holding more interstitial fluid  Macrophages and fat cells are contained in spaces Forms the lamina propria of the mucous membrane Adipose Tissue White Fat:  Similar to areolar tissue but greater nutrient storage  Cells are called adipocytes  Scanty matrix  Richly vascularized  Functions in shock absorption, insulation, and energy storage Brown Fat:  Use lipid fuels to heat bloodstream rather than to produce ATP, as does white fat Blood Tissue:  Most atypical connective tissue because it is fluid  Consists of cells surrounded by matrix (plasma)  Contains:   red blood cells (most common cell type)  white blood cells and   platelets  Fibers are soluble proteins that precipitate during blood clotting  Carry nutrients, wastes, gases, and other substances (Blood Tissue) **Question: Be able to identify the different muscle tissues AND the major types of  epithelium arrangement (eg: simple vs. stratified, squamous vs. cuboidal vs. columnar  etc…) Three types of muscles:  Skeletal Muscle  Cardiac Muscle  Smooth Muscle Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle: Epithelium Arrangements: Number of Cells: Simple: Single layer cell layer thick Stratified: Two or more layers (skin) Simpl e Stratified Shape of Cells: Cuboidal: Box like, cube Squamous: Flattened and scale like Columnar: Tall, column like Squamou s Cuboidal Columnar Mucous Membrane: Located in exterior body cavities that are open such as (digestive,  respiratory and urogenital tracts).  Moist membranes bathed by secretions  Lye over layer of loose connective tissue called lamina propria  May secrete mucus Cutaneous Membrane: Located in the skin   Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) attached to a thick layer  of connective tissue (dermis) Serous Membrane: Located in the Ventral Body Cavity   Moist, simple squamous epithelium resting on thin areolar connective tissue   Parietal serosae line internal body cavity walls. Visceral serosae cover internal  organs  Cavity between layers is filled with serous fluid  Special names given to show location: pleurae (lungs), pericardium (heart),  peritoneum (abdomen) Endothelium membrane: (Not sure how to answer this one) 1­ Know the regeneration capacity of the brain tissue, Areolar connective tissue  and Tendons and ligaments. Regeneration of Brain Tissue:  No functional regeneration capacity Regeneration of Areolar Connective Tissue:  Extremely functional regeneration capacity Regeneration of Tendons and Ligaments:  Moderate functional regeneration capacity  Roles and Functions of Brown Fat:  Use lipid fuels to heat bloodstream rather than to produce ATP, as does white fat Roles and Functions of White Fat:  Functions in shock absorption, insulation, and energy storage  Similar to areolar tissue but greater nutrient storage  Cells are called adipocytes  Scanty matrix  Richly vascularized Where are the Goblet cells found?   Found in epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tracts How do Merocrine glands secrete products?  Merocrine: most secrete products by exocytosis as secretions are produced  (sweat, pancreas) Connective tissues that possess a large quantity of collagen fibers often provide the  framework for what types of organs?   (Not too sure of this answer)  Tendons   Joints  Cell Types of the Nervous Tissue:  Neurons: specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses  Supporting cells: support, insulate, and protect neurons **Important** Blood vessels are NOT found in cartilage but ARE found in bone What is dense microvilli’s function?  This allows for efficient absorption along portions of the digestive tract What is the reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength,  which allows them to absorb shock?  This is because they possess collagen fibers. **Important**   The simple squamous epithelium forms the walls of the air sacs across which  gas exchange occurs in the lungs What is the function of intercalated discs in Heart muscle cells?  Special joints where cardiac cells are joined **Important** If you are given an unknown organ for you to examine and identify through microscopy.  What should you do first with the sample?   Know that you should fix it with preservative Chapter 5: Know what Keratinocytes, Keratin, Dendritic cells and Merkel cells are AND their  functions Keratinocytes:   Found in the Epidermis  Produce fibrous keratin (protein that gives skin its protective properties)  Major cells of epidermis  Tightly connected by desmosomes  Millions lost every day Dendritic cells: Star­shaped macrophages that patrol deep epidermis  Are key activators of immune system   Found in the epidermis Merckel Cells:  Found in the Epidermis  Sensory receptors that sense touch Be able to identify these structures on the diagram and their functions. Arrector Pili Muscle:   Muscle that causes goosebumps Fat cells/adipose tissue:  Absorbs shock and insulates Sweat Gland:  Eccrine gland  Most numerous type (abundant on palms, soles, and forehead)  Ducts connect to pores  Function in thermoregulation, regulated by the sympathetic nervous system  Secrete sweat: 99% water, salts, vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin (microbe­ killing peptide), metabolic wastes Dermis:  loose, interlacing collagen   elastic fibers   blood vessels  Loose fibers allow phagocytes to patrol for microorganisms Papillary Layer of Dermis  Dermal papillae: superficial region of dermis   sends fingerlike projections up into epidermis  Projections contains capillary loops, free nerve endings and touch receptors  (tactile corpuscles (Meissner’s corpuscles). In thick skin, dermal papillae lie on top of dermal ridges  Give rise to epidermal ridges  Collectively ridges are called friction ridges  Enhance gripping ability  Contribute to sense of touch  Sweat pores in ridges leave unique fingerprint pattern Epidermi s Papillary Dermis Dermis Arrector Pili Reticular Layer of the Hypoderm Adipose is Sweat Gland Be able to identify: Hypodermis, Epidermis, Reticular layer of the dermis, Papillary layer  of the dermis on a diagram (Look at above photo)


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