Exam II Study Guide
Exam II Study Guide Bio 1450
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaelin Kneen on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1450 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Timothy Dickson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
BIOL 1750 Lecture Exam 2 study guide Chapter 31: How fungi are related to Nucleariids and animals, and how early fungi are similar to Nucleariids (look at Evolutionary History slides for Chapter 31 lecture). Nucleariids were unicellular. Fungi could be unicellular or multicellular. Animals are multicellular. Multicellularity evolved independently in fungi and animals. Flagellated protists. How fungi feed. Fungi feed by letting out hormones and absorbing the nutrients from the environment around them. 3 kinds- decomposer fungi (breakdown and absorb energy from nonliving things), parasitic fungi (absorbs nutrients from living host), and mutualistic fungi (both sides have benefits) Learn generalized life cycle of fungi, and be able to describe what occurs in plasm gamy, heterokaryotic stage, and karyogamy. Plasmogamy is the union of cytoplasms, this transitions into the heterokaryotic stage (n+n with varying nuclei), then comes the karyogamy stage where the nuclei fuse together. This creates a zygote (2n) which will soon go through MEIOSIS and create spores (n) which will later be germinated. This is all SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION just includes the mycelium, spores, and germation. What are 1-2 characteristics of each of the 5 fungal phyla. Chytrids- mostly unicellular, have flagellum, large effect on amphibians, Zygomycetes- unicellular, have sporangia, ex. Bread mold, asexual and sexual Glomeromycetes- unicellular, invade plant roots, Ascomycetes- produce sexual spores in asci (sac), mostly haploid, ascocarps, asexual and sexual Basidiomycetes- produces basidiocarps, creates mushrooms, How do fungal life cycles differ from each other in different phyla (e.g. Zygomycetes produces essentially identical fruiting bodies—sporangium—in asexual and sexual reproduction whereas Ascomycetes produce conidiophores in asexual reproduction but ascocarps in sexual reproduction). Note that life cycles are only shown for three different phyla (Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycetes), so these are the only three phyla for which you need to examine differences between life cycles. Zygomycetes- only diploid during the sexual stage as a zygospore Ascomycetes- diploid nucleus gives rise to haploid nucei during meiosis. Ascocarps Basiciomycetes- nuclei of two different mating strains fuse (karyogamy) giving rise to a diploid zygote that undergoes meiosis. Basidiospores. Chapter 29 and 30: What are closest relatives of land plants (Charophytes), and what are derived characteristics in land plants not shared with Charophytes. There were photosynthesizing bacteria and protists in the ocean. Chara are closely related to charophytes (group of green algae). There are 5 differentiating traits that land plants have but not charophytes. 1. Alteration of generations- both haploid and diploid generations are multicellular. 2. Diploid generations grows out of haploid generation. The sporophyte grows from the gametophyte. 3. Walled spores produced in sporangia. This helps resist desiccation 4. Multicellular gametangia (egg and sperm producing organs-gametangia). Archegonia produce eggs, and antheridia produce sperm. 5. Spical meristems (cell division only at the tips). How do life cycles change as you move from non-vascular plants (e.g. mosses) to seedless vascular plants (e.g. ferns) to Gymnosperms to Angiosperms (Sporangia can be seen in each the life cycles of each of these four groups, but they become heterosporous—Microsporangia and Megasporangia in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms) (Spores are produced in each of these four groups, but microspores develop into pollen and megaspores develop into female gametophyte in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Non-vascular plants- (moss) mostly haploid, gametophytes and sporophytes that produce spores. Seedless vascular plants- (ferns) much larger sporophyte than gametophyte. Heterospory leads to eggs (megaspores) and pollen (microspores) Almost all non-seed plants have HOMOSPORY, while seed plants evolved different sized spores- HETEROSPORY. Angiosperm life cycle- involves ovary and ovules, which become pollenated and cause a seed to grow inside the flower Gymnosperms- use cones- pollen and ovulate The pollen comes from the pollen cone and fertilizes the megaspore creating a seed. What is role of land plants in global photosynthetic rates (percentage of global photosynthesis completed by land plants) and how did forests of seedless vascular plants alter atmospheric CO l2vels. What are adaptations of plants to life on land (know the phylogeny you created in lab / ch. 29-30 lectures, and the traits you wrote onto the phylogeny). What characteristics separate gymnosperms and angiosperms. Angiosperms have flowers. Angiosperms also conceal their seeds while gymnosperms seeds are visible. What are characteristics of flowers and fruits. The flower is a specialized structure for sexual reproduction. Contains sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The fruits goal is to aid in dispersal and some protect the seed. Chapter 35: What function do roots, shoots, and leaves serve for the plant. Roots- obtain water and minerals. Anchor plants in place. Provide some storage of energy. Shoots- (stems and leaves) photosynthesis. Rhizoids are stems that form for lateral growth of the plant. Leaves- location for most of photosynthesis and contain two parts- blade and petiole. What are functions of different cell types. Parnechyma- most abundant cell in plants, metabolism, site of most photosynthesis Sclerenchyma—generally dead at maturity, thick tough cell walls for structure, high cellulose and lignin Collenchyma- strength and support in young growing parts Xylem- conducts water and minerals, from root to shoot Phloem- conducts sugars, from leaf to root Where and how does primary growth occur on plants. Roots and shoots. Shoot apical meristems are dome shaped clusters of embryonic cells. Leaves are generated from developmental leaf structures call leaf primordia. Where and how does secondary growth occur on plants. Tree rings. Pith and cortex are parts of the ground tissue system Basics of cell growth and differentiation. In cellular differentiation, cells of a developing organism synthesize different proteins and diverge in structure and function. Chapter 36: Know diffusion and osmosis. Diffusion- net movement of a substance from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated. Osmosis- diffusion of water across a membrane that some solutes cannot cross Know figure 36.7 (36.6 10 ed.) Mechanisms of short-distance water / solution transport (especially in root cells). Short distance- apoplastic (through dead cells or entirely within the cell wall), symplastic (movement from cytoplasm to cytoplasm through protein channels that connect these cytoplasms), and transmembrane (normal process of transport across a cell membrane) Bulk flow is the movement of water driven by pressure. How stomata and xylem work together to pull water from the roots to the leaves. The outside air is typically drier than inside the leaf which makes it have a lower water potential causing transpiration. This is regulated by the stomata. At night there is almost no transpiration, but roots continue to pump minerals into xylem. Increase root pressure and may cause guttation. XYLEM liquid movement is UNIDIRECTIONAL (from roots to leaves) is pulled up. How sap is transported long distances in plants (phloem). Sugar is loaded into the phloem by the proton pump. Coupling the movement of sugar with H+. ATP is used to actively transport. The solute concentration increases in the phloem which causes water to diffuse from the xylem to the phloem. Chapter 37: Soil texture and composition. Layers called soil horizon. Topsoil consists of mineral particles, living organisms and humus (the decaying organic material). Mostly rocks and minerals. Inorganic matter (cations and anions). Problems of soil management and methods of soil conservation. Depletes the mineral/organic content of the soil, taxes water reserves, and encourages erosion. Methods of soil conservation- planting trees as windbreaks, terracing, cultivation in a contour pattern, no till agriculture. Macro-and Micronutrients and which are most likely to be limiting for plant growth. 17 essential elements required for a plant to complete its life cycle. 9 are large amounts (MACRONUTRIENTS) and 8 are smaller amounts (MICRONUTRIENTS). Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are most likely to be limiting nutrients. Mutualisms of plants with bacteria and fungi to obtain nutrients for plant. Dead plants provide energy for microorganisms, and secretions from living roots support a wide variety of microbes. Mycorrhizae- mutualistic associations of fungi and roots. Fungus gets a steady supply of sugar. The hot gets more surface area for water and mineral absorption. Chapter 38: Male and female structures on flowers. Female- embryo sac, ovule and ovary Male- pollen grain How double fertilization occurs (this only occurs in angiosperms). Occurs when the pollen tube discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within and ovule. One sperm fertilizes the egg, while the other combines with the two nuclei in the center and initiates food-storing endosperms. How seed and fruit develop. Seeds develop from the ovule (an egg and sperm for a zygote that becomes a new plant. and polar nuclei and sperm form the endosperm which is nutrition for the new plant) The fruit forms from the ovary (polar nuclei and sperm form the endosperm) Importance of animal pollinators for angiosperm seed / fruit development, and how animal pollinators affect the food available to humans. Pollination can be wind, water, or animals. 80% are animals. Bees are the most important. More than 85% of earths plant species require some type of pollinator. Sexual vs. asexual reproduction and methods some plants have to avoid asexual reproduction. Asexual- new clones growing from the root system or by pollen fertilizing ovules of the same individual. Can be beneficial to a successful plant in a stable environment. But vulnerable to local extinction. Sexual- generates genetic variation. Only a fraction of seedlings survive. Methods to avoid self feritilizing. Male and female parts are on different plants (dioecious). On same plan (monoecious). Self-incompatibility- a plants ability to reject its own pollen. Chapter 39: Why do plants need hormones and what is a hormone. Communicate with hormones. A hormone is a signaling molecule that is produced in tiny amounts in one part of a body and transported into another part. It then binds to a specific receptor and triggers responses in target cells and tissue. General classes of hormones and what they do (focus especially on picture and diagram examples I gave in lecture). Auxin-stimulates elongation of cells Gibberellins- stem elongation, fruit growth, seed germination Abscisic acid- slows growth. How do plants respond to light and other external stimuli? Plants will grow toward their source of light. They can sense how long the day is. How does phytochrome respond to different parts of the light spectrum (red and far- red light). During red light the structure is in the Pr phase and turns on physiologic activities and initiates germination. Under far red light conditions (or shade) the phytochrome switches to the Pfr form which inhibits germination.
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