Test 1 Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stefanie on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2012 at Valencia College taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Study Guide for Exam #1 – General Psychology 1. Definition of Psychology: The systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes 2. Psychological Frame of Mind: critical thinking, skepticism, objectivity and curiosity 3. Positive Psychology: the scientific study of optimal human functioning focusing on the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive 4. Origins of Psychology: 5. Structuralism and Functionalism: Structuralism: approach to psychology that attempted to break down experience into its basic elements or strucutres, using a technique called introspection, in which subjects provides scientific reports of perceptual experiences. Functionalism: approach to psychology that emphasized the functional, practical nature of mind. Influenced by Darwins theory of natural selection, functionalists attempted to learn how mental processes, such as learning, thinking and perceiving, helped people adpt. 6. Charles Darwins theory: that the genetic composition of a species can be altered through natural selection, 7. 7 Approaches of Modern Psychology: Biological: Causes of behavior in your brain. Behaviorism: how does the environment impact the way you behave? Cognitive: Based on mental process. Humanistic: People are innately good and capable of choice. Psychodynamic: Behavior is result of unconscious dynamics, inner forces. Sociocultural: behavior results from social and cultural influences. Evoluntionary: Mental abilities evolve over millions of years. 8. Leading proponent of Behaviorism 9. Specialist most likely to have medical degree: Psychiatrist 10.Industrial/Organizational Psychology 11.Developmental Psychology: how people become who they are, from conception to death, concentrate on the biological and environmental factors that contribute to human development 12.Scientific Method: Observe, hypothesize, test, conclusion and evaluate. Standardized way of making results. 13.Definitions of Variables and Hypothesis 14.Meta-analysis: Combining statistical results of many studies of the same questions, yielding an estimate of the size and consisting of the effects 15.Descriptive, Correlational and Experimental Research: Descriptive: about describing some phenomenon-determining its basic dimensions and defining what this this is, how often is occurs and so on. Correlational: tells us about the relation between two variables, To examine whether and how two variables change together, Experimental: allow you to directly test why the something happens, that is, to test for cause and effect 16.Correlation Coefficient 17.Cross-sectional Design 18.Random Assignment: researchers assign participants to groups by chance, 19.Independent and Dependent Variables: Independent: Any variable that the researchers manipulate in an experiment. Dependent: A variable that is being measured in an experiment. 20.Experimental and Control Group: experimental: consists of the participants in an experiment who are exposed to the change that the independent variable represents. Control Group: is much like the experimental group as possible ans s treated in every way like experimental group expect for that change. 21.Definition of a Theory: is a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations 22.Operational Definition 23.Experimenter Bias: occurs when the experimenter’s expectations influence the outcome of the research 24.Placebo: harmless substance that has no physiological effect given to participants of a study instead of a presumed active agent 25.Double blind and single blind studies: double: neither the experimenter administering the treatment nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated. 26.External validity: refers to the degree to which an experiment design actually reflects the real- world issues it is supposed to address 27.Naturalistic Observation: viewing behavior in a real- world setting 28.Mean/Mode/Median: mean: is what people all have in average. Mode: is the score that occurs the most often in a dataset. Median: is the score that falls exactly in the middle of the distribution of scores. 29.Descriptive Statistics: are the mathematical procedures researchers have developed to describe and summarize sets of date in a meaningful way 30.Standard Deviation: measures how much score vary, on average around the mean of the sample 31.Inferential Statistics: are the mathematical methods used to indicate whether date sufficiently support a research hypothesis 32.Ethics and Psychological Research 33.Debriefing: after the study has been completed, the researchers should inform the participants of its purpose and the methods they used. 34.Confidentiality: researchers are responsible for keeping all of the date they gather on individuals completely confidential and when possible completely anonymous. 35.Deception: this is an ethical issue psychologist debate extensively. In some circumstances, telling the participants beforehand what the research study is about substantially alters the participants behavior and invalidates the researches data. 36.Adaptability and the Brain 37.Plasticity: refers to the brains special physical capacity for change 38.Central Nervous System: made up of the brain and spinal cord 39.Peripheral Nervous System – Sympathetic and Parasympathetic: Is the network of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the body. Function to bring information to and from the brain and sprinal cord and to carry out the commands of the CNS to execute various muscular and glandular activities. 40.Autonomic Nervous System: is to take messages to and from the body’s internal organs, monitoring such process as breathing, heart rate and digestion 41.Somatic Nervous System: consists of sensory nerves, whose functions is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature, and motoer nerves, whose function is to tell the muscles what to do 42.Glial Cells: Provided nutrients from neurons 43.Dendrites and their function: treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, receive information and orient it towards the neurons cell body. 44.Cell Body: contains the nucleus, which directs manufactures of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance 45.Myelin Sheath: a layer of fatty tissue encasing a neuron’s axon that speeds transmission 46.Action Potential: the shifting change in a charge that moves down the axon 47.Synapse: are tiny spaces between neurons 48.Resting Potential: a negative charge within a neuron when it is at rest (positive outside, negative inside) 49.Dopamine and Serotonin: Dopamine: helps to control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood attention, learning and the ability to recognize opportunities for rewarding experiences in the environment. Serotonin: is involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning 50.Acetylcholine: usually stimulates the firing of neurons and is involve in muscle action, learning and memory 51.EEG and fMRI: Fmri: allows scientists literally to see what is happening in the brain while it is working. EEG: an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface. 52.Hippocampus: involved in memory 53.Four lobes of the brain and their function: frontal lobe: motor stripe location, short term memory, emotion, voluntary. Parietal lobe: sensory strip location, perception, touch, ability to draw, reading and writing. Temporal lobe: hearing, long term memory, verbal and written and occipital lobe: perception, vision. 54.Limbic System: Neural system of amygdala and hypothalamus. Located between the cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions and drives 55.Hindbrain: located at the skulls ear, is the lowest portion of the brain. The three main parts of the hindbrain are the medulla, cerebellum, and pons. 56.Phineas Cage case 57.Split Brain/Corpus Callosum: corpus callosum: the large bundle of axons that connects the brain’s two hemispheres, has something to do with relaying information between two sides 58.Broca’s Area 59.Hypothalmus: a small forebrain structure just below the thalamus, monitors three rewarding activities-eating, drinking and sex 60.Endocrine System: consists of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the bloodstream 61.Epinephine and Adrenal Glands: adrenal glands: a pea-seized gland just beneath the hypothalamus, controls growth and regulates other glands 62.Stem Cells: unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells. 63.Polygenic Inheritance 64.Phenotype and Genotype: genotype: is an individual’s genetic heritage, the actual genetic material present in every cell in the person’s body. A phenotype: is the individual’s observable characteristics.
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