New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Geology 100, Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Sarah Martin

Geology 100, Exam 1 Study Guide Geology 100

Marketplace > Kansas State University > Geology > Geology 100 > Geology 100 Exam 1 Study Guide
Sarah Martin

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This document contains the study questions she gave us to prepare for the test, and all the notes from class for Chapters 1-4.
Geology 100
Sabreen Ata Gad
Study Guide
Geology, 100, Kansas State
50 ?




Popular in Geology 100

Popular in Geology

This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geology 100 at Kansas State University taught by Sabreen Ata Gad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Geology 100 in Geology at Kansas State University.


Reviews for Geology 100, Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/16
Geol 100 Exam 1 study questions Exam covers chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4 1. Which layer on this figure is the oceanic crust? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E 2. Which layer in the earth is similar to the composition of granite? a) continental crust b) oceanic crust c) upper mantle d) lower mantle e) core 3. Which layer in the earth is similar in composition to an iron­nickel meteorite? a) continental crust b) oceanic crust c) upper mantle d) lower mantle e) core 4. Which of the following locations would most likely  contain a high percentage of sand? a) location 2, along a steep mountain front b) location 3, in sand dunes c) location 4, along a beach d) locations 2 and 3 e) locations 3 and 4 5. Which of the following surface environments is the  most likely site for deposits in this photograph? a) steep mountain front b) river channel c) sand dunes d) beach e) lake 6. Which of the following locations would form a  metamorphic rock? a) locations 1 and 2 b) locations 2 and 3 c) locations 3 and 4 d) locations 1, 2, and 3 e) locations 5 and 6 7. Which of the following locations would form a  hydrothermal rock? a) location 1  b) location 2  c) location 3  d) location 4 e) locations 2 and 3 8. Which of the following is NOT an environment in which an igneous rock forms? a) explosive eruption of volcanic ash b) cooling and solidification of lava c) solidification of magma at depth d) intense squeezing from tectonic forces e) all of these are environments that form igneous rock 9. Which of the following best indicates a location  where sediment is deposited but not eroded? a) location 1 b) location 2 c) location 3 d) location 4 10. Compared to the outer planets in our solar system, the inner planets are: a) larger b) contain more gas c) rocky and so are called terrestrial planets d) have better developed planetary rings e) none of these 11. Beneath the Mediterranean Sea, large deposits of salt and layers of wind­deposited  sand dating from around 6 million years ago are present. Which of the following  would you conclude based upon this information? a) The Mediterranean Sea once evaporated, leaving behind large salt deposits and  creating a desert­like environment of wind­blown sands b) The Mediterranean Sea was once deeper than at present, depositing large amounts of  salt and layered sand c) The environment within the Mediterranean Sea has not changed from 6 million years  ago to today. d) Sand and salt have blown into the Mediterranean Sea from the surrounding desert  areas 12. The vertical black lines indicated in rock units  #3 and #4 indicate what type of feature? a) fractures b) beddings c) slopes d) loose rock 13. What is the oldest unit or feature in this figure?  a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5 14. What can you interpret about the relative age of  the rocks and features in this photograph? a) The upper sedimentary layer is younger. b) The lower gray layers are younger. c) The layers are the same age because the  boundary is so irregular. d) It is not possible to tell the relative ages of the  layers. 15. What type of map is shown here? a) shaded­relief map b) topographic map with contours c) satellite image d) geologic map 16. What specific type of map represents the distribution of rock units and geologic  features exposed on the surface? a) geologic map b) topographic map c) contour map d) shaded relief map 17. Slopes in flatter areas are: a) gentle b) elevated c) cliffs d) indexes 18. This figure shows the main subdivisions of the  geologic timescale. Which of these is the Mesozoic? a) A b) B c) C d) D 19. Which of the following represents the longest duration of geologic time? a) Jurassic  b) Precambrian c) Paleozoic d) Mesozoic e) Cenozoic 20. Which of the following would be most consistent with a volcanic origin for the  Arizona crater discussed in the textbook? a) a mass of salt should exist beneath the crater b) meteorite fragments would be scattered across the area c) solidified magma might underlie the crater floor d) there will be no volcanic rocks because of the explosion 21. Which of the following features is associated with a deep oceanic trench? a) mid­ocean ridge b) linear island chain c) seamount d) island arc 22. Cracks and steps that cross the seafloor and run at right angles to mid­ocean ridges  are called: a) oceanic fracture zones b) abyssal plains c) seamounts 23. Some continents continue outward from the shoreline under shallow seawater,  forming submerged benches called: a) continental shelves b) sea mounts c) island arcs d) island chains e) abyssal plains 24. The image shows the Mid­Atlantic Ridge, a  submarine volcanic mountain belt that is a  key location in the process of : a) seafloor spreading b) land bridges c) continental drift d) South Atlantic drift 25. At mid­ocean ridges, as two plates diverge: a) solid mantle in the asthenosphere rises toward the surface and begins to melt due to  decompression b) solid mantle in the asthenosphere rises toward the surface and begins to melt due to the  addition of heat c) liquid mantle in the asthenosphere rises toward the surface 26. Which of the following best represents the sequence by which a continent splits  apart? a) seafloor spreading, then continental rifting, then uplift due to mantle upwelling b) continental rifting, then seafloor spreading, then uplift due to mantle upwelling c) uplift due to mantle upwelling, then continental rifting, then seafloor spreading d) none of these 27. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a mid­ocean divergent boundary? a) As the plates move apart, solid lithosphere move upward into the asthenosphere. b) Submarine lava flows form new ocean crust. c) Mid­ocean ridges are elevated above the surrounding seafloor. d) A rift runs along the axis of mid­ocean ridges because of movement as the plates  diverge from each other. 28. On this map of the South Atlantic, which letter is  on a transform fault? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E 29. Select the statement that best describes how the process of plate tectonics circulates  materials between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. a) Some asthenosphere becomes lithosphere at mid­ocean spreading centers and reenters  the asthenosphere at subduction zones. b) Some lithosphere becomes asthenosphere at mid­ocean spreading centers and reenters  the lithosphere at subduction zones. c) The materials that form the asthenosphere never mix with the materials that form the  lithosphere. 30. If the area shown in this figure is 240  kilometers wide, and the oldest crest is 4  million years old, what was the approximate  rate of seafloor spreading across this ridge? a) 0.24 kilometers per million years b) 2.4 kilometers per million years c) 60 kilometers per million years d) 240 kilometers per million years e) 960 kilometers per million years 31. Which of the following is true about rocks and minerals? a) a rock can contain more than one mineral b) a mineral is composed of chemical elements c) a single rock can include more than one mineral d) all of these 32. What type of rock is shown in this photograph? a) crystalline rock b) clastic rock c) rock with minerals that are too small to see d) none of these 33. What mineral is shown in this photograph? a) quartz b) feldspar  c) calcite d) hematite e) magnetite 34. Identify the list that consists of ten common minerals ranked in order of increasing  hardness, from 1 to 10. a) Mohs Hardness Scale b) Bowen’s reaction series c) Breakage chart d) Specific gravity scale 35. What arrangement of atoms does this diagram illustrate? a) cubic b) tetrahedron c) octahedron d) dodecahedron 36. What type of cleavage is illustrated in this figure? a) one direction b) two perpendicular directions c) two nonperpendicular directions d) three perpendicular directions e) three nonperpendicular directions 37. The mineral in the image is quartz. Take a  look at the irregularly broken left end of the  crystal and determine which of the following  is true. a) The mineral has fractured, as it lacks planes  along which it may cleave. b) The mineral must have specific planes along  which atomic bonds are weaker than in other  areas of the structure. c) Since the mineral has irregular breakage, it  must have good cleavage. d) Bonds within the mineral must have varying  strengths. 38. What class of minerals form when the element Si is  bonded with element O, as in the mineral quartz? a) silicates b) carbonates c) oxides d) halides e) sulfides 39. What type of silicate minerals is shown from this  arrangement of silicon tetrahedron? a) independent tetrahedra b) single chains c) double chains d) sheets e) frameworks 40. The mineral shown in this photograph is a sulfide mineral and  commonly forms cube­shaped crystals. What mineral is it? a) pyrite b) hematite c) dolomite d) gypsum e) halite Chapter 1: minimal continental shelf -> tectonic plate activity continental shelf -> minimal tectonic plate activity people dont live near landslides or ongoing volcanic activity or near tectonic plate activity(earthquake activity) or bad soil there used to be a lot more oxygen in the atmosphere so sediments/rocks existed in their most oxidated state continents: different rocks; continental shelves (raised ocean floor) ocean basins: different rocks; formed by tectonic activity dinos left fossils - first recongizable fossils appeared 700-660 mya dinos and rocks are record of 1)past geologic vents 2)paleoenvironments 3)prehistoric creatures bones: tell about internal framewor of creature footprints/trackways: tell us weight, how they ran/walked burrows: left by digging into dirt; preserved evidence global warming evidence striations from body of water retreating U-shaped valley formed by glaciers V-shaped valley formed by other elements crust - mantle - liquid outer core - solid inner core lithology = rock composition outer core is important for managing earths magnetic core crust + upper mantle = lithosphere crust made out of igneous rock and granite thickest layer is mantle formed from olivine core made out of iron with some nickel outer is magma and inner is solid isostasy is state of gravitational equilibrium between crust and mantle some layers are stronger than others - strong crust and uppermost mantle - weaker, hot asthenoshpere(rest of mantle) continental crust is thicker and higher than oceanic crust wf height change: gets taller density change: it just sinks oceanic crust sinks cause its dense continental crust is boyant/floats crust is like a mattress - remove the weight and it will bounce back up sedimentary rocks: formed in normal surface environments such as glaciers(as they retreat, drop stuff/all shapes sizes), rivers(sand, pebbles), steep mtn fronts(large angular), sand dunes formed by wind, beach(broken shells, sand, round stones), offshore(mud) igneous rocks: deep/hot where rocks are formed (eruption of lava, explosive eruption of ash, solidification of magma at depth) can happen to a rock: weathering, erosion & transport, deposition, burial, deformation & metamorphism, uplift metamorphic rock had folding which suggests pressure water effects: clouds, precip, glaciers, flowing water, ground water, currents Chapter 3 Notes: dynamic processes shaping planet(not static) as lava cools, it moves away from volcano areas: pacific northwest: causes earthquakes; step in sea floor, ridge, cascade volcanos south America: deep basin or oceanic trench along west coast; mtn range (Andes) along west coast; east characteristics: low-relief interior; continental shelf on east South Atlantic Ocean: ridge down the middle (zig zag shape from fractures that run east to west); smooth, deep sea floor away from ridge Tibetan Plateau: highest plateau on earth Japan: continuous action; deep oceanic basins surrounding japan; curving ridges Arabian Peninsula: near the red sea; gulf of Aden, Persian gulf, afar region features on earth's surface: Pacific oceanic fracture zones; linear island and seamount chains(pacific); deep ocean trenches along west south America; mid ocean ridges along the Atlantic; oceanic plateaus(Indian ocean); continents; submerged ridges and island arcs; continental shelves shapes of continental edges on opposite sides of Atlantic: brazil matches up to Africa; east coast curves in, Africa curves out interpretation: continents fit together because once joined ...; scratched rocks record direction of glacial flow; glacial features indicate glaciers coming from directions that are now oceans problems with continental drift: mechanism; some geologists lack of familiarity with data from other parts around the world pattern of earthquakes line up with edges of continental plates or belts: EQ in belts, mid ocean ridges, trenches, mtn belts, sparse in some regions, southern Eurasia, red sea and east Africa ^ also applies to volcano activity EQ, volcanism, or mountain building = tectonic activity belts of tectonic activity divide lithosphere into tectonic plates 3types of relative plate motions: move apart: divergent boundary, 2 plates moving away from each other, has to have magma source to "push apart" move towards each other: convergent boundary move horizontally past one another: transform boundary 9/9 lithosphere is stronger than asthenosphere (hot and weak; mostly solid); radioactive decay is responsible for heat (convection currents) constructive margin in oceanic divergent boundaries: forms new ocean crust as magma comes up; causes narrow trough or rift as the asthenosphere rises and melts continental rift: initial uplift from rising mantle; stretching and faulting form rift; melting forms magma; can lead to seafloor spreading and new ocean basin; ocean widens with spreading early stages of rifting along the east African rift; red sea: early stages of sea floor spreading ocean-ocean convergent boundary: the heavier tectonic plate will sink or go underneath the lighter one a plate goes down(arcs beneath the other one): subduction; along subduction zones there are deep trenches; trench is in the shape of accretionary prism ocean-continent convergent boundary: continents are light so oceanic crust submerges (no subduction of continental crust); overlying mantle melted Pacific ring of fire: subduction beneath oceanic plates = island arcs; subduction beneath continental plates = mountain belts with volcanoes 9/12 Continent-continent convergence: 2 continents collide; subduction of oceanic part of plate; subduction brings continents closer; continents collide and crust thickens (form mountains) Continents collision = wide zone of deformation Some pieces get sliced off Thick crust = high elevation (few volcanoes) Since the continental plate is buoyant, subduction ends Collision of India into Asia: caused Eurasian plate to crumple up and override the Indian plate; afterwards, slow continuous convergence of 2 plates over millions of years pushed up Himalayas and Tibetan plateau Transform boundary: earthquakes only; plates move horizontally Moves plates?: mantle convection which causes slab pull and a ridge push Convection current in the outer core -> magnetic field is being generated 9/14 Rate of spreading = width / time duration Ex: rate = 60 km / 2 m.y = 30 km/m.y or 3 cm/yr Geologic features does plate tectonics help explain: test of plate tectonics: Age of Seafloor and thickness of sediment Seafloor youngest near ridge; sediment thickens away from ridge Formation of linear island chains: lines of islands and seamounts; plate moves over a hot spot; continents have rifted apart: outline and geology match Linear islands are greatly related to hot spot activities South america tectonic setting: galapogos; andes; transform boundary (at southern tip); subduction going on east of tip; Andes over subduction zone; trench offshore; spreading along mid-ocean ridge; subduction beneath western edge; eastern edge of continent not a plate boundary Safest place to live? Not near the plate boundary Mountain ridge + trench = not safe/ subduction/ volcanos/ earthquakes Study Questions: 1) What ideas brought a renewed interest to the idea of continental drift? a Data that a submarine mountain occurred beneath the middle of the atlantic ocean 2) The puzzle-like fit of the continents, similarity of rock types across continents, and glacial evidence all were pieces of evidence supporting Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift. What was another piece of supporting evidence? a Distribution of similar fossils across multiple continents 3) Which areas on this world map are likely to be near a plate boundary? a A,B,C only 4) What occurs at mid-ocean ridges? a Oceanic crust is created 5) Which feature on this figure is formed by melting of mantle above the slab? a D 6) On this figure of a continental collision, which continent would have had subduction-related magmatism before the collision? a The continent on the right 7) On this map of the South Atlantic, which letter is on a transform fault? a B 8) How fast do plates move relative to one another? a Centimeters per year 9) This diagram shows magnetic stripes on either side of the mid-ocean ridge. How many different ages of stripes are represented in this diagram? a 6 10) On this map of South America, which features are NOT on a plate boundary? a C and D Chapter 4 Notes: Chapter 4: Salton Trough: granite and metamorphic rocks: convergent Tourmaline in small pockets in granite Ways to view geo: landscape: yosemite nationsal park Outcrop: gray granite Hand specimen: 5 inch containing 3 colors Thin section: … Mineral: solid, natural, inorganic material with an ordered internal structure; ex: halite, diamond; specific chemical composition one or 2 elements How minerals are put together in rocks: Crystalline(made from crystals) and clastic(made from fragments) Crystal form are typically flat, making common shapes Cleavage are big bumps - number of cleavage planes can vary Color (not common form of distinguishing): unreliable because some minerals are different colors Luster: how minerals reflect light: metallic, glassy, dull/earthy 9/19 Chap 4 cont. Native minerals: Cu, Ag, Au Silicates: Si Carbonates: C Oxides: o Halides: F, Cl Sulfates/ Sulfides: S Tetrahedral can link stuff together; silicon-oxygen tetrahedra and metallic elements Silicon-oxygen can be connected in 5 main ways: Independent tetrahedra - bond to other elements but not other tetrahedra; no cleavage; ex: olivine Single chains: bond together to form single chains by sharing 2 oxygen atoms; 2 perpendicular cleavage planes Double chains: bond to form chains that half the tetrahedra share 2 oxygen atoms and half share 3; 2 planes of cleavage non-perpendicular; ex: amphibole Sheet silicates: share 3 oxygen atoms; one main cleavage; ex: mica Framework: tetrahedra share all 4 oxygens, bonded together with other elements in 3D framework; ex: quartz, feldspar Common silicate minerals: quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, amphibole (double chain), pyroxene(single chain), olivine(independent tetrahedra), garnet, biotite Nonsilicate minerals: carbohydrates: calcite, dolomite Halides and sulfates: halite (halide), gypsum(sulfate) Oxides: magnetite, hematite Sulfides: pyrite, galena, copper sulfide Continental crust minerals: qz, feldspare, biotite Oceanic crust: pyro, amph Oxygen is most abundant element, silicon is second most abundant; aluminum is third; iron is the most abundant transition metal; iron and nickel abundant in core Study Questions: 1 What are the 2 main ways that minerals are put together in rocks? 2 Which mineral property is the least reliable for identifying a mineral? 3 What does the shape of these crystals indicate about the environment in which they formed? 4 If a mineral cleaves into thin sheets, it probably has: 5 The most important class of rock-forming minerals on earth is: 6 What type of cleavage would be exhibited by a mineral that has this arrangement of silicon tetrahedron? 7 Which of the following is generally a light-colored silicate mineral? 8 This iron oxide mineral; commonly has a reddish color and consistently has a red streak. What mineral is it? 9 Which of the following is very common in oceanic crust? 10 Why are silicate minerals the most abundant in Earth's crust and mantle?


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.