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Biology Study guide

by: Kayla Patterson

Biology Study guide Bio 1103K

Kayla Patterson
GPA 3.9

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This is material that we have covered in all lectures.
Study Guide
Biology, Study Guide, Midterm Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY I in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Biology study guide 1. What is Life? a. All living systems meet seven basic criteria i. Hierarchy of complexity: Living things start off as a cell and grow ii. Homeostasis: maintain structure/order iii. Growth A cell can’t grow past a certain size because (surface area/volume) iv. Energy and material acquisition: Heat of metabolism v. Adaptive response capability: Density independent and density dependent factors (abiotic and biotic conditions) vi. Reproduction: Cell division (meiosis, mitosis) 1. Selects traits on chromosomes that are positive vii. Evolution: Changes overtime 2. Scientific Principles a. What makes something a science? i. Natural causality: All natural phenomena has a natural underlying cause ii. Uniformitarianism (time and space): same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe b. Scientific Method i. Observation ii. Theory Vs. Hypothesis iii. Experimentation 1. Control: Comparing to a standard iv. Reevaluation v. Conclusion 3. Ecology a. Terms to know i. Ecology: Interrelationships between organisms and its environment ii. Population: All members if a particular species which interbreed (biotic) iii. Community: Different interrelated populations sharing the same habitat(biotic) iv. Ecosystems: Biotic and abiotic components of a habitat b. What is another word for Environment? i. ABIOTIC 1. Sunlight 2. Temperature 3. Water and salts 4. Oxygen 5. Nutrients 6. pH c. Feeding relations i. Food chain: Linear feeding relation 1.GLUCOSE Key sugar for autotrophs to form the basis of the ecological pyramid a. Starts the conversion of light to something useful aka photosynthesis 2. Autotrophs or producers produce glucose to start food chain 3. Heterotrophs/consumers Have to get energy from the autotrophs a. Herbivores: Primary heterotrophs b. Carnivores: Secondary heterotrophs ii. Trophic Levels storage depot of energy that’s useful 1. Why does it look like a pyramid? a. Because of the rule of ten. How much energy is moved from one trophic level to the next i. 10% max, loses 90% by heat of metabolism b. Can you have numerous trophic levels? i. No because of rule of 10 c. More to feed FEWER d. What chemicals bio accumulate? i. Fat soluables, accumulate from one trophic level to the next so it gets more and more toxic as you go up the pyramid ii. DDT e. Two cycles i. Carbon and Water ii. How do humans mess up these two cycles? Darwin 1. What factors do you need to overcome, to reproduce? a. Biotic potential: Organisms max capacity to reproduce b. Environmental resistance: A factor the counteracts biotic potential, limiting population growth. i. Abiotic and biotic factors ii. Density dependent (biotic) leads to competition iii. Logistic curve (reaches carrying capacity) c. Boom bust cycle (abiotic factors) i. Caused by environmental changes ii. Density-independent (Temperature, floods, volcanoes) d. Niche overlap i. Invoking competition ii. Competitive exclusion: When competition gets too high one species wipes out the other iii. Niche specialization: Species become better adapted by natural selection (no overlapping) iv. Why is competition high among two species? 1. Because they have the same niche overlap 2. Symbiotic relationships a. Long term interactions between two members of a different species (SCORE the relationship) b. Parasitism: plus, and minus c. Mutualism: plus, and plus d. Commensalism: plus, and zero 3. Keystone predators a. Why are they important? i. If top predator gets taken out the total number of species drops- Leads to competitive exclusion and more competition among the species, which leads to niche overlap. 4. Population Demographics a. Large mammals (humans) are type 1 We get care and make it into old age i. K-selected (carrying capacity) 1. Few young, larger young, slow maturation, increased parental care, reproduce many times b. Type 3 insects, maximize the number of offspring i. R-selected 1. Many young, small young, rapid maturation, decreased parental care, reproduce once c. Ecological succession i. Primary: Starts from scratch and had no previous community ii. Secondary: occurs more rapidly, previous community wiped out Evolution 1. Three parts a. History people that helped Darwin with his theories i. Hutton and Lyell: Gave Darwin Geological time long period of time for change ii. Malthus: Competition and overproduction iii. Lamarck: Inheritance, positive features moved from generation to generation b. Essentials of Theory i. Over productivity ii. Competition iii. Some die before reproduction iv. Variability in the characteristics v. Survival of the fitted vi. Variabilities are inherited vii. Change through time- descent with modification c. Evidence (hypotheticallytheoretical) i. Biogeography ii. Fossil evidence: Primateintermediatemodern form iii. Homologous structures: aka divergent evolution, we come from a common ancestry iv. Vestigial structures: have a function but it does not sever a purpose v. Artificial selection Cellular reproduction 1. All reproduction starts through the cell d. Cellular growthsurface area/ volume i. As the size increases surface area increases slower ii. Ratio needs to stay high not low iii. Want A LOT of surface area so the cell doesn’t pop 2. Replications a. Replicate and separate b. Prokaryotic (no nucleus) i. Binary Fission! 1. Replicate and then separate by fissure c. Eukaryotic i. Mitosisnuclear division complete w cytokinesis ii. Undergo replication so the strand stay together 1. One chromosome made up of TWO chromatid held together by centromere, attached is the spindles at the kinetochore 2. Whatever you start with you end with 3. Serpents chromatid of each chromosome has to spate iii. Cytokinesis 3. Cell to cell communication a. Contact inhibition regulates cell division by coming in contact with other cells 4. Sexual reproduction a. Gametes: Sex cells that fertilization (egg and sperm) b. Meiosis whatever you start with you cut in half but don’t lose information i. Homologous pairsdiploid pairs ii. Take the pairs and separate (meiosis 1 and 2)diploid to haploid iii. Any cell that happens after fertilization is diploid c. Meiosis 1 separate homologous chromosomes i. Synapsis chromosome pairs wind around each other and move together ii. No more pairs after meiosis 1 Mendel 1. Patterns of inheritance (Monohybrid) a. Two principles i. Principle of segregation 1. Two alleles at a time for a trait (homologous pairs) 2. Segregate the two alleles in two different reproductive cellsdiploid to haploid ii. Principle of dominance 1. One can mask the presence of the other allele b. Genotype genetic makeup c. Phenotype expressed characteristics plus environment d. Outside of Punnett i. Segregate the possible alleles ii. Inside the possible zygoteshaploid to diploid iii. Dominant genotype not sure of phenotype iv. Run the test-cross homozygote recessive 2. Independent assortment a. Be on different homologous pairs (one line up doesn’t affect the other) b. 9:3:3:1 c. Dihybrid cross 3. Non-mendelian a. Linked genes: on the same chromosome, the traits wont independently assort b. Cross over leads to recombination and enhanced variation c. Genetic mappingpercent cross over 4. Sex determination a. On the X it is sex linked b. Females=XX Male=XY c. Male dictates the sex of the child because whichever sperm comes first to the egg d. 50% for a male or female\ 5. Codominance: both alleles are fully expressed 6. Polygeniccontinuous variations from one extreme to the next but MOST fall in the middle(aka many genes) 7. What determines phenotype? Genotype and environment


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