Week 5: Actions of the Ligand
Actions of the Ligand
1. The Limbic System
a. Phineas Gage
i. Involved in an accident where a pike went through his chin and up out through his brain. Amazingly, he survived.
ii. They believed he severed his pre-frontal cortex, which has to do with impulse control, as he completely changed temperaments. 2. Neuro-transmitters and Receptors cannot be described except for: a. GABA
3. GABA is inhibitory, meaning it inhibits the actions of a neuron. 4. Glutamate is excitatory, meaning it excites and activates neurons to fire an action potential.
5. Acetylcholine: The chemical responsible for learning, memory, motor functioning and sleep-wake cycles.
6. Dopamine: The chemical responsible for reward/pleasure, compulsion, motor functioning, and mood.
7. Serotonin: The chemical responsible for mood, memory, appetite, and cognition.
8. Actions of the Ligand
a. Agonist: Activates signaling and receptors. Can be endogenous or exogenous. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 4 main functions of the glycocalyx?
b. Antagonist: Binds to the same spot that an agonist would but blocks it so that a future agonist cannot use it. Antagonists do not activate receptors.
c. Exogenous: Something created from the outside of the body, (i.e., drugs). If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of octet rule?
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d. Endogenous: Something made inside the body.
e. Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway: Sends dopamine signaling from VTA to Prefrontal Cortex. Promotes behavior beneficial for survival, (i.e., eating, sleeping, sex, etc.)