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Answers to study guide

by: Aalyha Giles

Answers to study guide 002

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Anthropology 1000
Jo Ann Phipps
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aalyha Giles on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 002 at East Carolina University taught by Jo Ann Phipps in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Anthropology 1000 in ANTH at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Jo Phipps Exam #1 Study Guide (Units 1­4) Unit 1: What is Anthropology (includes Applied) Organization of Knowledge in Western World                ­Humanities=Subjective/ human emotion   ­Sciences=Scientific method (natural=Process of earth (Bio,physics,chem)  social=ONLY Human behavior  Definition and focus of Anthropology: Study of humans *Focus on human diversity and variation                ­Four subfields:  Biological/Physical Study of humans *Species point of view Archaeology (Historic and Prehistoric in the  Study of culture via remains *Historic= written US) Prehistoric= no written lang Cultural Study of cultures *living and still practiced Linguistic Anthropology Study of Language Applied Anthropology (how is it different from  Solve social problems *Can come from any form the traditional four subfields?) *Not like traditional Antro Examples:  Cultural Resource Management Decides what needs saving or preserving or  what needs destruction Examples: applied antro Forensic Anthropology sub­field of physical anthropology the study  of human remains that involves applying  skeletal analysis and techniques in  archaeology to solving criminal cases. Corporate/Consumer Anthropology How people shop or value money Urban Anthropology   concerned with issues of urbanization,  poverty, urban space, social relations,and  neoliberalism. Medical Anthropology (Western definitions of  Biomedicine in western cultures *Ethnomedicine (Balance of equilibrium/  disease and cures vs. other cultural  supernatural) definitions as illness and healing)                ­What characteristics make Anthropology a science?  What methods do all  sciences use? ­Objective ­testing ­scientific method (all methods use this) What is the holistic perspective? Interested in the whole of the human condition: past, present,  and future; biology, society, language, and culture What research methods make Anthropology unique among the sciences? fieldwork: excavation, and ethnography                ­Fieldwork: to discover patterns in human behavior Excavation and Ethnography: excavation Digging through the layers of deposits that make up an  archaeological site. ethnograpghy Fieldwork in a particular culture. Unit 2: Doing Anthropology Evidence we use to study the past: artifacts/ecofacts, features, fossils                ­Sites: preserved areas of human activity Know how sites can be created (Pompeii effect and Stratified sites), and how they can be  altered/destroyed (bioturbation, taphonomy studies) Pompeii Gradual deposition of sediments Stratified sites Allows relative dating of layers and artifacts  from digging Taphonomy Study of site destruction/alteration Bioturbation Natural resources affecting a site. Usually  disturbed by humans or other living  organisms Know what methods we use to find potential sites              No destruction to site­Passive methods: Systematic/pedestrian survey, geomagnetics               Destruction to sites ­Active methods: ground­penetrating radar, shovel test pits (last  option, round holes only) Know the goals of excavation (recover significant samples, detailed record of horizontal and  vertical locations of artifacts and features for context) ­Analyzing: Conservation of artifacts, reconstruction,examination ­Formal analysis= Written ­Metric=Measurmments Dating techniques Relative methods establishes a time frame in relation to other  strata or materials, rather than absolute  dates in numbers *Stratigraphy= Understanding earths layers  by dating absolute methods Dating techniques that establish dates in  numbers or ranges of numbers ­Carbon 14: Half life= 5730 yrs Organic material (Soil and Water) *Must be destroyed Accurate to 50,000 yrs ­Potassium­Argon: Half life= 1.3 mill yrs Volcanic rocks Accurate between 50,000 yrs­3 bill yrs                Know how and why we create typologies (formal and metric ones) ­Set types for classifications ­Allows things to be dated *More metric less subjective What can we learn from artifacts, features and fossils in terms of the bigger picture of human  history.  ­Culture, diets, technologies,beliefs, order in status etc. Know how and why we do Ethnography: Field work *cultural antro ­1st hand in depth for a single community                ­Participant Observation:The “Doing” ethnography   ­using informants: The key culture consultants Emic=In perspective (Natives) Etic= Outsider's perspective  Types of ethnographic  work:  longitudinal studies:Long­term study of a community, society, culture, or other unit, usually  based on repeated visits  team research: survey research:Characteristic research procedure among social scientists other than  anthropologists. Studies society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data  collection Know these terms:                ­Naïve realism=Subconscious perception that our culture is the way to all things                ­Ethnocentrism=Judge anothe rculture based our own                ­Cultural Relativism=Culture practices is considered in the context of society  being studied Ethics in Anthropology                Know the primary ethical obligations: protect people we study, share research  with scientific community, protect human species and our environments                Know the steps in research protocol: explain goals of project, explain methods  used, get informed consent AAA: Guide researchers to discuss and resolve ethical situations rather than  prosecute offenses Unit 3: Culture Makes Us Human What is the concept of culture and its main characteristics?                ­primary adaptive tool                ­learned through enculturation                ­shared (Predictable)                ­integrated (togetherness)                ­abstract (norms, values, etc)                ­dynamic(flexible) How and why can a culture become extinct?                ­cultural continuum (what is it and how does it function) process by which we add cultural practices to our everyday lives *Can be broken if something/ some power changes or influences it                ­spread of globalization and Westernization Idea of western civilization. Effects of media/news etc. spreading of cultures globally Know what basic evolutionary traits allow humans to develop and use culture. ­Opposable thumbs ­Bipedalism ­ social groups Know the types of cultural traits:  universals Found in every culture *Marriage, Family, Belief in supernatural generalities Found in several societies *Independent based on environment particularities Few societies very unique *cultural isolation What are the origins of cultural practices?                ­Diffusion:Borrow from other cultures to fit ones culture *Happens when boundaries are cross/ Trade (British empire)                ­Invention (unconscious and intentional): Unconscious=No set goal (Lots of time and error) ex: arrows/ stone tools Intentional=Deliberate(need and less time) ex: cars/computers                ­Acculturation: Exchange between groups W/ 1st hand contact (Day of the dead) Unit 4: Language and Communication Be able to define:                Communication: transmitting info from person to person *Kinesis= nonverbal comm                Language: system of comm using symbols to express ideas                Call system: Systems of communication among nonhuman primates, composed  of a limited number of sounds that vary in intensity and duration Know the four characteristics of Language:                ­learned : Enculturation                ­displacement: Ability to comm about things that are not present                ­arbitrary: Words or symbols ( connection between words and what it represents)                ­productive: Allows humans to communicate new ideas What are the subfields of Linguistics and their research focuses? ­Study of differences in contemporary Language through structural comparison *Pharynx= back of throat Larynx= vocal chords Know the four parts of Language:                ­phonemes: Significant sounds  *Studied in minimal parts/ identical change in sound(CAT, BAT, VAT)                ­morphemes: Sounds in segments *usually small words can not stand alone   Bound:  Not words must be combined (er,s,un) Unbound: can stand alone (Wait,Cat, Do)                ­lexicon: Dictionary of language                ­syntax: Word forming sentences What is the Sapir­Whorf Hypothesis (Sociolinguistics)? looks at how culture and communication influence one another, focuses on differences in  speech patterns and dialects *Belief that pronouncing and dialect reflect different experiences in life What types of linguistic variations are there?                ­Style shifts:                ­Diglossia                ­Speech differences based on gender and status (stratification and symbolic  domination) Know factors why languages are similar (Historical Linguistics):                ­Contact                ­anatomical limitations                ­sister languages  


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