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UWGB / Physiology / PHSL 402 / How does ligand bind?

How does ligand bind?

How does ligand bind?

Description

ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-2}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-1}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-5 0}.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-3}.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-0 0}.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-6}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-2 0}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-8}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-7}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_l4uv28e52fwl-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_eb50r500w2b-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-4}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-0}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_flb17ejpdpzt-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-0 0}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-0 0}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-6}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-2}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-5}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-7}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-8}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-0}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-4}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-6 0}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-8 0}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-5}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-1 0}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-0}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n8omspoibwla-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-1}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-3 0}.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-1 0}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hefs973pwfcb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-8}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-1 0}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-3}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_cm57ph6yfpax-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-0 > li:before{content:"➢ "}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-7}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-1}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-3 0}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-3}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-2 0}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-5 0}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8zgq5uysjrgm-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-5}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_58i4ietmtuv8-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-8 0}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-8 0}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-2 0}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-4}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-3 0}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_dqll1awli1kl-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-4 0}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-6}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-4 0}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-7 0}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-7 0}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_w5k9icz2wzgb-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fnpzvivvew5h-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_6y7x93mhw1hw-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-6 0}.lst-kix_o2k6te59bav0-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-2}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-6 0}.lst-kix_oo51f5f36e2p-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ylskns2rzro4-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ylskns2rzro4-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-4 0}ol.lst-kix_f2t2glej4ept-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_f2t2glej4ept-7 0}.lst-kix_dj7nuk64odku-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_vclouto7mwm6-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vclouto7mwm6-5 0}.lst-kix_9rpcgu4ndfaz-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}

NOTESIf you want to learn more check out Who are the key realist theorists?

Receptors and Enzymes

  • Both are proteins with binding pockets

  1. Receptors: help cells communicate
  • Binds to ligands
  • Trigger cell response
  • Example, epinephrine

  1. Enzymes: Bind to substrate
  • Generates new products

Don't forget about the age old question of What was mandated in the the great qing law code?

Ligand - Receptor Interactions

  • Ligand binds due to shape and charge
  • Tightness of binding = affinity
  • Specificity - selectivity: ability to discriminate
  • Between ligands with similar shapes

Don't forget about the age old question of What are organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen?

  • Receptor binding affinity is described by Kd.
  • Kd is concentration of ligand at which half of available receptors are bound
  • As affinity increases, Kd decreases (vice versa)

We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of a person's mind in successfully navigating the world?

We also discuss several other topics like What defines western culture?

Ligand refers to the fraction of total binding sites that are occupied at any given time.We also discuss several other topics like What is constantine the great famous for?

Chemical Reaction Rates (Enzymes)

Number of product molecules/unit time

  • Influenced by reactant concentration, energy of activation, pH, temperature, presence of catalyst (enzyme)
  • Homeostasis help hold substrates together
  • Homeostasis allows reactions to be predictable.

How do we change the affinity of receptors or enzymes?

Allosteric Modulation

  • Have at least two sites on protein
  • Regularity size: binds modulation
  • Molecule twists protein
  • Shape: changes shape of active site

Covalent Modulation

  • One binding site (ligand, substrate)
  • Site of phosphorylation, add phosphate using kinase enzyme
  • ℗ negative charge twists protein
  • Phosphate removes ℗
  • Allows us to turn on and off enzymes and receptors.

Regulation of Enzymatic Processes

  • Changing rate depending on environmental demands

End Product Inhibition

Rate limiting enzyme

  • If too much of a molecule is being produced, negative feedback occurs on one of the enzymes to limit production.
  • This maintains homeostasis.
  • Example of feedback:
  • Glycolysis pathway
  • Glycolysis regulation
  • Hexokinase converts glucose into glucose 6 phosphate
  • Inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate
  • Phosphofructokinase converts fructose 6 phosphate into fructose, 1, 6 bisphosphate
  • Inhibited by ATP

Metabolism

First: Glycolysis - Glucose ⟶  Pyruvate

                        6C                3C (x2)

Second: Transition Reaction: converts pyruvate into 2 C molecule (acetyl CoR)

                3 C  ⟶ Lose 1 C through CO2

Third: Krebs Cycle:

As carbons are being released, energy is being released (soaked up in NADH or FADH2)

Energy Production

  • Input of glycolysis is glucose, output is pyruvate
  • Input of Krebs Cycle is Acetyl CoA, output is NADPH and FADH2.
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation: Input to mitochondria is NADH and FADH2, output is water and ATP (energy)

  • Drives hydrogen ions into intermembrane space (energy is being accumulated)
  • As hydrogen ion is pumped into motor, the motor spins by grabbing ADP and a phosphate to synthesize ATP

LEO = loss of electron --- oxidation                 GER = gain of electron --- reduced

Cellular Signaling

  • Cell surface receptor
  • Outer ligand binding region
  • Recognizes specific ligand
  • Inner signaling region
  • Activated or inhibits intracellular pathway
  • Agonist: binds receptor and activates transduction pathway
  • Antagonist: binds receptor, does not activate transduction

Intracellular Receptors

  • Receptor on inside of cell
  • Requires a molecule that can make it across cell membrane
  • Must be lipid soluble (hydrophobic)
  • Testosterone, progesterone, aldosterone and these have lipophilic properties that allow them to move across membrane
  • Steroid hormone binds with specific receptor inside nucleus
  • These will identify a specific target region on DNA nad start protein synthesis

In steps

  1. Bind to lipophilic agonists (trigger cellular response)

Can cross membrane

  1. Located in cytoplasm on nucleus
  2. Receptor and agonist binds DNA
  3. Control transcription --- protein synthesis

Specificity of Response

  • Due to cell either the cell producing or not producing the appropriate receptor

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