Community Pschology Study Guide Exam 1
Community Pschology Study Guide Exam 1 PSCH 231
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Manili Alaniz on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCH 231 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Bibiana S. Adames in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Community Psychology (PSCH 231) in Psychology at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Study Guide Chapter 1 Ecological Model: o Macrosystems- National Government Ex) Cultures, socities, governments, social movements, belief systems, corporations, mass media o Localities- Geographic connection Ex) Neighborhoods, Cities, Towns, Rural Areas o Microsystems- Direct engagement Ex) Families, friends, classrooms, work groups o Organizations- Formal Structure Ex) Schools, local business, labor groups, community coalitions What does an individual have access to? Think of the bigger picture. Ex.) You want to buy books for school. Do you have a computer at home? Is there a library in your town? Can you get to that library? Community Psychology o Community/Collective contexts v. Individual factors - Look at a person’s issue in a bigger picture o Prevention v. Treatment - Looks at trends for problems and develops intervention methods o Interactions/Interdependence/Connections/Links - Connections between ecological levels o Social Action - Second-order change v. first order-change - What is going on in society that is not allowing people to do well? - How you define a problem effects how you fix a problem o Collaborations/Partnerships - Some are naturally existing other need to promote for change o Deficits Approach v. Strengths Approach - What research has already been done to help community? Core Values o Individual and Family Wellness o Sense of Community o Respect for Human Diversity - Not just ethnicity but also minority groups (LGBT) o Social Justice - Equal and fair distribution of resources and availability for resources o Citizen Participation/Engagement - Empowerment: having access to resources and using them for enhancement o Community Strengths o Empirical Grounding - Use of past research to improve a different community and inform others for future research Chapter 2 Five Forces that influences Emergence of Community Psychology 1. Interest in preventative Perspectives o Influenced by veterans facing PTSD so psychologists proposed preventative intervention vs. sending the away o Veterans needed at home treatment (natural environment) o Public health perspective o Convenient with special needs students 2. Reforms for mental health o VA created to help veterans but after war more people traumatized than before o Wanted better approach for funding and psych training (not individualistic perspective) o Closing mental health facilities meant want to help more patients at once as well as community services 3. Development of Group o Learned from social psychology that group dynamics, research and social action can be used together for a stronger approach 4. Movements o Feminist and civil movements impacted creation because they all challenged hierarchy, sought social change, and sought change within different ecological models 5. Optimism o Because of war results people were more optimistic that we can cause social change o Helped get knew people who were interested in psychology o Funding help find solutions Role of Psychologist: Agent of Social Change Community Psychologists measure effectiveness of social change o Consult with community members to asses Blaming the victim (idea that problems have to do with individual deficits) o Shift in social climate changes how we look at certain problems and how they are dealt. o Ex: People in power decide issue/viewpoint vs. People in neighborhoods who are dealing with problem decide Bottom-up Approach/Grass Roots o Initiatives y people trying to change hierarchy Top-Bottom approach o People in power try to change life of people in communities Divergent Reasoning o The need to recognize multiple realities/perspectives in each community o Addressing every aspect and idea even if different o Challenges status quo Community Psychologists o Strive to work collaboratively with others to help strengthen systems, provide cost effective services, and increase access to resources and optimize quality. o Aim to build on existing strengths of people/community to create change Chapter 3 CP aim to provide knowledge for decision making at multiple levels of the ecological model Four Important questions: 1. What values and assumptions do community psychologists bring to their work? o Positivist/Post-Positivist- objectivity, No such thing as values free so no restriction to just in the lab o Constructivist/generating knowledge through collaborative partnerships o Critical- challenges power dynamics o Which one you use depends on goals o CP Journals focus more on relationships and how their formed 2. How can the community participation and collaboration be promoted in research? o Prolonged Engagement- Relationship that are built are maintained o May involve activities not usually done in normal research (volunteering/going to events) o Translate academic constructs to not isolate people (language in materials) o Everything is approved by community o Create way to publish findings in community o Collaborative partnerships are time consuming 3. What are the cultural and social contexts of the research? o Accounting for differenced in people and perspectives o People identify differently 4. Which ecological levels will be the focus of the research? o Social Climate: How people in that setting feel about the openness of environment o Community informants identify social climate and provide insider knowledge Chapter 4 Qualitative Research- detailed analysis of experiences Ex) elicit narratives that are typically used in initial explorations of topics Common Features: o Contextual meaning (wording/defining issues) o Collaborative partnership o Purposive sampling (specific context not general population) o Listening o Thick description o Multiple interpretations o Observations. Interviews, case studies, group studies Quantitative Research- based on measurement, experimental and statistical control Common Features: o Measurement and comparison o Numbers are data o Cause and Effect o Generalizability o Standardized measures (more statistics
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