All inclusive notes to study with!
All inclusive notes to study with! PSYC 2500-001
Popular in Behavior Analysis
Popular in Psychology
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hinds Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2500-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robin Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychology at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Study Guide through Exam 1 All the notes up until Ch. 1 w/ explanations and all terms What is behavior? Behavior is verbal and nonverbal; it is what people do and say- This involves actions and not feelings or reasons behind the behavior- Ex: rolling eyes; stomping; slamming doors Measureable Dimensions of Behavior Frequency: the number of times a behavior occurs Duration: the time from when an instance starts to when it stops Intensity: physical force involved in behavior Latency: time from a stimulus event to the onset of behavior Other characteristics of behavior Behavior can be observed, described, and recorded Behavior impacts the environment (physically, socially, or self-inflicting) Behavior is lawful: it follows rules; has triggers and consequences May be overt or covert -overt: can be observed by a person other than source (which would impact the environment socially) -covert: not observable by others (would impact the person doing the behavior) Behavior Modification: applied science and professional practice concerned with analyzing and modifying human behavior; the principles and procedure used to change behavior Characteristics of Behavior Modification: Target behavior: the behavior that needs to be modified Behavioral excess: an undesirable behavior; the one that needs to decrease o Ex: Smoking; too much TV; poor hygiene; too much soda Behavioral deficit: a desirable behavior; the one that needs to increase o Ex: working out; eating well; good study habits -guided by the theory and philosophy of behaviorism Behavioral principles -experimental analysis of behavior: scientific study of behavior (animals included) -applied behavior analysis: the scientific study of human behavior (specifically humans) Observing and Recording Behavior Major figures:- Ivan Pavlov: classical conditioning; classic dogs salivating experiment - conditioned by being given food every time a harness was put on them, made them salivate and soon after conditioned, the immediately began salivating once harness was put on. Edward L. Thorndike: known for work in reinforcement; The Law of Effect; did research with cats and puzzle boxes, getting food every time they found the trick handle in the box; memory experiment using isolation+ try –fail- try = pleasurable consequences Watson: Phobias are classically conditioned; went into advertising pairing a product with something desirable; automatic responses Skinner: believed we were most like rats and pigeons; laid the foundation for behavior modification/ avoiding punishment (behaviorism) Chapter 2: Observing and Recording Behavior Behavioral Assessment: measurement of target behavior(S) in modification Decide if a treatment is necessary (is the behavior a problem?) o Ex: is someone is working out every day but only for 20-30 minutes, it isn’t the best they could be doing but this isn’t a problem behavior. o Ex 2: if someone is partying on the weekends, but is finishing all of their work and taking care of themselves, this isn’t really a problem behavior. Decide the best treatment: the environment will tell you what keeps behavior going/ what the triggers are and what encourages it. o This helps measure the effect of the treatment Indirect Assessment: interviews; questionnaires; rating scales; product measurement to obtain information on target behavior – from the client and others o This has its limits- even when you are with the client themselves. Direct Assessment: in real time; video-taping (easier for teachers and special education needs when you can’t necessarily see everyone in one sitting) It’s important to note that people who seek help themselves will be honest (most of the time) because they sincerely want the help. People who have been coerced or don’t realize they have a problem will lie or project their behavior onto others or the interviewer. Steps in developing Behavior Recording Plan 1. Define the target behavior 2. Logistics of recording (who, what, when, where, why) 3. Method (how long will you record?) 4. Choosing a recording method instrument: check list; narrative writing 1. Defining target behavior: a. Identify exact actions that constitute deficit/ excess b. Action verbs describing specific behavior a person exibits c. Objective & unambiguous i. No reference to internal state ii. No speculation as to why iii. No labels as explanation d. Defined so two people can agree i. 2 people should be able to observe the exact actions and agree on what they observed; describing them using the operational definitions/ terms for actions exhibited 2. Logistics a. The observer: Identify who will observe and record behavior i. Participant observer: these are the observers that are engaging in the same activities as the interviewee; this could be a teacher ii. Non-participant observer: reactivity problems iii. Self-monitoring : the client observes their own behavior and records it as it occurs b. When: this is called the “observation period.” i. It is important to choose an observation period when the target behavior is likely to occur c. Where: observation and recording of behavior take place in one of two settings i. Natural setting: this is the place in which the target behavior would normally occur; (ex: classroom of a student; their home) ii. Analogue (contrived) setting: a setting that is not a part of daily routine; (ex: clinic playroom) 3. Recording Methods - a. Continuous recording: the observer records continuously throughout the observation period and records each time the behavior occurs ; in continuous recording, the observer can record various dimensions of the target behavior- i. Frequency: number of times a behavior occurs in an observation period; you measure this by counting the times the behavior occurs 1. You will use this when the frequency is the most important information about the behavior ii. Duration: the total time the behavior takes to start and finish 1. This is to be used when length of occurrence is most important aspect of behavior iii. intensity: this is the amount of energy exerted during the target behavior; this is often recorded using a rating scale 1. to be used when intensity is most important aspect of behavior iv. latency: this is the time between the stimulus/event of the behavior to the onset b.Product recording: the outcome or permanent product of the behavior is recorded as an indication of the occurrence of the behavior c. Interval recording: observation period is divided into a number of consecutive time intervals, and the behavior is recorded as an occurring or not occurring in each of the intervals 1. Partial: recording every interval 2. Whole: recording during whole time ii. Frequency within interval recording: the number of times the target behavior occurs is recorded within consecutive intervals of time during the observation period d.Time sample recording: Observation period divided into intervals and behavior is recorded during a part of each interval or at specific times during interval; the percentage of intervals is recorded 4. Choosing a recording Instrument: this is what the observer uses to register the occurrence of behavior; pen and pencil are used most often to make notes on paper any time the target behavior is observed. a. Most of the time this will be a pre-made data sheet that measure specific dimensions like frequency, latency, duration and intensity; This will help in organizing the recording process b.All behavior recording should be immediate and practical. i. Ex: you can’t observe 20 different kids’ different behaviors. If you are going to measure 20 kids, choose one behavior to observe. Reactivity: This is a phenomenon in which the process of recording behavior causes the behavior to change even before treatment is implemented; this is undesirable for research because it is not representative of the level of the behavior occurring in the absence of the observer There are ways to keep this from happening: -wait until participant is used to observer -have observer record behavior when participant doesn’t know they are being observed Inter-observer Reliability: this is when two observers independently observe and record a behavior at the same time and agree on the occurrence of the behavior (inter- observer agreements) Chapter 3: Graphing Behavior and Measuring Change Graph: a visual representation of the occurrence of the target behavior over a period of time; establishes cause and effect o This will usually be a line graph After using a data sheet to record behavior (or using anything) that info will be transferred to a graph o A graph is an efficient way to view the overall of recording behavior for before, during, and after the administration of treatment; used to demonstrate functional relationships between stimuli and behavior A graph consists of the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) axis; labels; numbers; date points; phase lines; and phase labels o Time is indicated by numbers on the x axis and the level of behavior is expressed with numbers on the y axis o A phase line is a vertical line on a graph that represents a change in treatment; this separates the baseline from the treatment phase o A phase label is to show the where the non-treatment phase and the treatment phase start and stop (individually) o Data points indicate the level of a behavior that occurred at a period of time Graphing Behavioral Data All dimensions of behavior can be graphed o What you’ll be measuring (the behavior) will be on the y-axis o The x-axis will be days, sessions, and training The Research Method in Behavior Modification 1. Measure the dependent variable (this would be the target behavior) a. Skinner was the first to do this 2. Manipulate the independent variable (environmental events/treatment) and demonstrate a change in target behavior 3. Replicate – because you must develop a cause and effect relationship The Purpose of Research Design in Behavior Modification : to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment by demonstrating a functional relationship between environmental event and behavior Functional relationship : a relationship between a behavior and an environmental event in which the occurrence of the behavior is controlled by the occurrence of the environmental event Research Designs A-B design: A= baseline; B=treatment; one baseline and one treatment phase o Not a true research design; no replication o Doesn’t demonstrate a functional relationship o Used in clinical practice; self-management projects ABAB Reversal Design: baseline and treatment phases are implemented twice for one behavior of one subject o Not always ethical; shouldn’t always go back to baseline (violent baseline) Things to consider: o Is it ethical? o Will behavior reverse? o Is it possible? Multiple Baseline Designs: Demonstrate a functional relationship; treatment is replicated across 2 or more baselines Across-subjects Design: 2 or more subjects w/ same target behavior o Treatment is staggered across subjects (over time) Across Behaviors: 2 or more of same subject o Treatment is staggered across behaviors Across-settings design o 2 or more settings with same target behavior of same subject o Treatment is staggered across settings Alternating treatments design o Compare baseline and treatment condition or 2 treatment conditions o Conditions are alternated rapidly (every other day) and staggered with each Changing Criterion design o Doing less or more of something every day o Multiple performance criteria in treatment phase Mon 9/12 CH 4 Schedules of Reinforcement : specify which responses will be followed by the reinforce 1. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: every instance of the behavior is followed by the reinforce a. Acquisition: the development of a new behavior through reinforcement i. Ex: when they first begin a behavior, you will reinforce every time they do the behavior until it is well-established. This is when you switch to intermittent reinforcement schedule 2. Intermittent/partial reinforcement schedule: not every instance of the behavior is followed by the delivery of the reinforce a. Maintenance: continuation of an operant behavior with intermittent reinforcement i. Ex: used to maintain; helps operant behavior stay in place for a long period of time b. Behaviors that are reinforced continuously are extinguished very easily and rapidly; if you’re only reinforced every once in a while, the behavior will keep on i. Skinner came up with this idea in rats- they will keep pressing the lever because they never know when the food is going to come ii. Ex: gambling pays out sometimes (they get lured in because sometimes they do win and they don’t understand probability and statistics); creates superstition because sometimes it is true based on probability Fixed Ratio: a specific or fixed number of responses must occur before the reinforce is delivered o Ex: get a pellet of food every five times a rat pressed a lever Variable Ratio: a variable ratio number of responses is needed for the delivery of the reinforced (leads to partial…?) o Ex: in the lottery, we don’t know how many times it will be before we win, its variable Fixed interval: reinforced for the first response after a fixed amount of time o EX: maybe reinforce a kid for every 3-4-5 math problems a kid does Variable interval: reinforced for the first response after variable amount of time o EX: Little Johnny can’t sit still in his seat- one would reinforce Johnny for a set amount of time every time they sit still, and change the amount to a larger sum every interval Reinforcing different dimensions of behavior Any aspect of behavior upon which reinforcement is contingent can be strengthened using the principles of reinforcement Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement: schedules of reinforcement that exist at the same time for two or more different behaviors [called concurrent operant(s)] o Factors influencing this: schedule of reinforcement; latency of reinforcement; magnitude, immediacy, response effort CH 5 Extinction: when a previously (possibly) reinforced behavior is no longer followed by a consequence which weakens and stops it from occurring in the behavior Extinction Burst: the phenomenon in which, when a behavior is no longer reinforced, it temporarily increases in frequency, intensity, or duration before it decreases o Can also lead to: increase in novel behaviors (this has always worked for me but it isn’t now so I should try something new); increase in emotional or aggressive behaviors we may not use this in a behavior-change plan because we don’t want these behaviors to lead to the next level which would be the extinction burst Spontaneous Recovery: the process in which, when an operant behavior has been extinguished, the behavior may occur again in the future in circumstances in which it was previously reinforced o Even if you’ve gotten rid of a behavior in the past, it may reoccur in the future. Be careful not to reinforce these behaviors Procedural Variations of Extinction Extinction can happen when: o positive reinforcement is no longer delivered after the behavior- weakens behavior o Aversive stimulus is no longer removed after the behavior-weakens behavior Ex: Drinking alcohol and using a pill that makes you puke every time you drink it For extinction to occur, the appropriate reinforcement for the behavior must be identified and be eliminated; biggest key is extinction is knowing what must be removed Common Misconception: ignoring behavior gets rid of it o This is only true when attention has something to do with the behavior Factors influencing extinction 1. The schedule of reinforcement period to extinction 2. The occurrence of reinforcement following the initiation of extinction 3. Reinforcement of functionally-equivalent behaviors: behaviors that lead to same consequence a. Ex: Little johnny wants to play blocks- clock center is full- so he bites a little kid and makes him cry and gets to go in block center cause the kid is crying and not playing with blocks anymore- kid gets in trouble for doing that from the teacher- johnny wasn’t taught how to get a turn in blocks though- he needs to be taught the right way to do this by being taught the socially acceptable way to do this i. Little johnny needs to be rewarding for waiting and asking for a turn instead of consistently punishing him and not teaching the right way to get what he wants Punishment- Chapter 6 Defining punishment The occurrence of a behavior is followed immediately by a consequence so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future punisher (an aversive stimulus): a consequence that follows behavior that results in a decrease in the future probability of a behavior o Adding something bad or taking away something good Ex: odis touches a hot skillet and immediately burns his hand A common misconception about punishment For most people, the purpose of punishment is not only to decrease behavior- there are elements of retaliation and retribution involved- “you got what you deserved” Behavior modification, the purpose of punishment and the decrease of behavior Positive Punishment: 1. Following the behavior: A punisher is applied or presented (it is called positive because it is Adding a consequence to the situation) a. Come up with creative ideas for punishment; making a child read something they don’t like; positive punishments don’t need to be physical i. If it has the effect of deterring behavior it is an effective punishment 2. The behavior is less likely to occur in the future Negative Punishment Following the behavior, a stimulus (reinforcer) is taken away which means you are less likely to behave in that way in the future (It’s negative because it is taking away the good stuff) o Ex: The government does this: when you do something wrong, you get fined; prison- taking away your freedom o Time out for kids (2 different types): taking them away from the reinforcing environment Response cost- [negative punishment]- taking away a specified amount of good stuff
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