Specific Study Guide for Exam 1
Specific Study Guide for Exam 1 PSYC 1000
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Alex Northcutt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Exam 1 Study Guide for Psychology (Based off of official stu-gu) 1. Psychology: The scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. 2. Theory: Explanation for natural findings in the world. Requires lots of evidence. 3. Hypothesis: A testable prediction. 4. Confirmation Bias: The tendency to seek information supporting something that you already believe. 5. Belief Perseverance: When someone gives you evidence that disproves your belief but you hold on to your belief anyways. 6. Pseudoscience: False science. Things claiming to be science but that don’t have any actual proof. 7. Patternicity: The tendency to perceive patterns in the world when there actually are none. 8. Emotional Reasoning Fallacy: When you discount or believe evidence or a scientific finding because of emotional reasons. 9. Bandwagon Fallacy: When you believe something because it’s the belief of a majority or because the people closest to you believe it. 10.‘Not Me’ Fallacy: When you believe you’re the exception to the rule. “Well, they believe it, but I’m smarter than that.” 11.The three ‘Dangers of Pseudoscience’: a. Opportunity Cost: What we give up. For example, in agreeing to pseudoscientific treatment, you may give up your opportunity for legitimate, working treatments. b. Direct Harm: When you are physically, mentally, or emotionally harmed as a result of pseudoscience. For example, being a test subject in a pseudoscientific experiment may cause death or serious injury. c. Inability to Think Scientifically as Citizens: When you don’t use your scientific thinking skills because you don’t think you need them. For example, agreeing to the theory of Global Warming because someone says it’s legit and has a ‘study’ to prove it. 12.Scientific Skepticism: When you are skeptical of a science or study. a. Traits of Scientific Skepticism: i. Demands rigorous scientific proof. ii. Remaining open-minded. 13.Critical Thinking Skills a. Ruling out rival hypothesis: You should have another hypothesis, your own hypothesis should rule it out. b. Correlation doesn’t equal causation: Just because two things are related does not mean one causes the other. c. Falsifiabiltiy: You should be able to prove your research wrong. d. Replicability: Must be able to replicate your finding across the board. e. Extraordinary Claims: A claim that is extravagant and typically requires immense amounts of additional proof. f. Occam’s Razor: Asking ‘Is there a simpler explaination that’s true that can explain the finding?’ 14.Perspectives on Psychology: a. Structuralism: The framework of psychology that believed the mind could be broken into parts and studied via introspection. b. Functionalism: The framework of psychology that studied the functions of the brain and their purposes. c. Behaviorism: The framework of psychology that wanted to measure behavior and the things that you can see. d. Cognitivism: The framework of psychology that wanted to understand the role of mental processes as it relates to behavior. e. Psychoanalysis: The framework of psychology that studied your unconscious mind and how it can influence your behavior. 15.Correlation Research: When your study is a comparison of two or more things and how and if they are related. 16.Descriptive Research: Based off of Naturalistic Obersvation or Case Studies. 17.Experimental Desgin: The preferred method of study. Involves independent and dependent variables. 18.What are the pros and cons of correlation research? a. Pros: Helps you to predict behaviors. It’s a good stepping-stone for research. b. Cons: It can lead you astray. 19.What are the pros and cons of descriptive research? a. Pros: Able to study unusual circumstances or phenomenon. Able to study scenarios you can’t typically study in a lab. b. Cons: Anecdotal. Subject to bias. Cannot infer causality. You cannot infer causality. 20.What are the pros and cons of experimental design? a. Pros: The only research method of which you CAN infer causality. Has high internal validity. b. Cons: Difficult because of ethics. Low external validity (vocab 11) 21.Positive Correlation: When one variable in a study increases, the other variable also increases. 22.Negative Correlation: When one variable in a study increases, the other variable decreases. 23.Correlation Research: The degree to which two variables are related. 24.Illusory Correlation: When there appears to be a correlation, but the two variables don’t actually influence each other. 25.Validity: When your study measures what it is supposed to measure. 26.External Validity: A measure of how true to real life circumstances a study is. 27.Internal Validity: A measure of how much a study applies to the population. 28.Naturalistic Observation: A scientist, or team of scientists, who observe organisms in their natural environment. 29.Case Study: When a scientist, or team of scientists, ‘zoom in’ on only one individual to study. 30.Generalizability: How much or little a study applies to the population. 31.Independent Variable: The part of a study that you can change. 32.Dependent Variable: The part of a study that you can measure. 33.Control Group: A group that you can use in comparison to your independent variable. 34.Random Assignment: A group chosen by random. By doing this, you should cancel out any pre-existing variables that influence your study. Additionally, it helps psychologists to understand the Placebo Effect. 35.Placebo Effect: When someone gets a result solely because they expected to get that result. 36.Experimenter Bias: When the person or people performing a study is expecting a certain outcome and that expectation influences their interpretation of the results. 37.Double-Blinded: When both the experimenter and the subject(s) are blind to the treatment conditions. 38.Statistics a. We use statistics to get information from a series of numbers. Descriptive statistics include: i. Mean: The average of a group of numbers. ii. Median: The number in the middle of a group of numbers, when the numbers are in numerical order. iii. Mode: The number that occurs most often in a group of numbers. 39.Standard Deviation: The plot of scores or results in relationship to the mean. 40.Standard Error: How much variability is there in your sample? Also tells you how reliable your finding is. 41.Cell Body: The “Power-House” of a cell. Has all the basic cell parts; nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, etc. 42.Axon: How a nerve impulse travels and the function used to help cells communicate. 43.Myelin Sheath: Insulates the axon so its electric signals don’t degrade. 44.Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps in the Myelin Sheath where the signal can ‘recharge’. 45.Terminal Branches: Where the signal releases neural transmitters. 46.Dendrites: Receives signals from other cells. 47.Terminal Connection: Where the branches of different neurons connect to allow messages to be sent from cell to cell. 48.Synapse: The space between pre and post synaptic cells. 49.A cell becomes depolarized (vocab 15) when the cell’s ____1____ channels open. The cell becomes polarized when the cell’s ____2____ channels close and the ____3____ channels open. 1. Sodium 2. Sodium 3. Potassium 50.Resting Membrane Potential: When a cell has the potential to do work. During this time, the cell is polarized. 51.Polarized: When a cell has a negative charge. 52.Action Potential: When the cell becomes depolarized. 53.Depolarized: When a cell has a positive charge. 54.Hyper-Polarization: When the cell gets polarized below the Resting Membrane Potential. 55.Refractory Period: The time during which a cell is hyper-polarized. During this time, the cell cannot do any ‘work’ or cannot get any Action Potential until it gets rebalanced to a normal level of negative charge. 56.Glia: The non-neuronal cells of the brain. 57.Astrocytes: Supports and sustains neurons. Modulates synaptic excitability and signaling. 58.Tripartite Synapse: Includes Pre-synaptic, post-synaptic, and astrocytes. 59.Microglial Cells: Immune cells in your brain that detect dead, dying, foreign, and infected cells, and then gets rid of them. When the microglial cells activate, they become inflammated, which then effects the astrocytes, which then effects the neurons, which then effects the human. 60.Views of the Brain: a. Sagittal Section: The long-ways view. (If you were to cut your brain directly down the center from the top of your head down in the direction of the space between your eyes). b. Coronal Section: “Crown” section; the view if you were to cut your brain directly down the center from the top of your head towards your ear on either side. c. Horizontal Section: The view if you were to cut your brain straight across from the front of your face to the back of your head. d. Cross Section: The view of the brain with the spinal cord. Gyrus: The bulges of the brain. 61.Lobes of the Brain: a. Parietal Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of sensory integration. Puts together information coming from your senses. b. Occipital Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of processing visual information. c. Temporal Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of memory and auditory functioning. d. Frontal Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of ‘executive functioning; things like decision making, paying attention, and voluntary motor control. 62.Broca’s Area: The part of your brain in charge of the motor production of speech. 63.Wernicke’s Area: The part of your brain in charge of speech comprehension. 64.Thalamus: The area to which all sensory information, (except smell), goes through before going to the appropriate places. 65.Hypothalamus: The part of your brain in charge of regulating the ‘Four F’s’: Flight, Fight, Food, and Sex. 66.Hippocampus: The part of your brain dedicated to long-term memory. 67.Amygdala: The part of your brain dedicated to processing your emotions (almost exclusively fear and rage). 68.Corpus Callosum: The thick band that runs through and connects the two hemispheres of the brain. a. In the case study of Joe, his Corpus Callosum was severed because of his severe epilepsy. By severing it, it prevented the siezures from moving to other parts of his brain. As a result, he could see and say things that was on the right side, but could see and draw things on the left. 69.Homunculus: The cartoon representation of Somatotopic Organization. 70.Prefrontal Cortex: The area of your brain dedicated to regulating your emotions. 71.Motor Cortex: The part of your brain responsible for voluntary motor function, (Found inside your Frontal Lobe). 72.Auditory Cortex: The part of your brain in charge of auditory functioning. (Found inside the Temporal Lobe). 73.Somatosensory Cortex: The part of your brain in charge of processing sensory information about your body. Mainly gets information from touch. (Found inside the Parietal Lobe). 74.Neuro-transmitters and Receptors cannot be described except for: a. GABA b. Glutamate 75.GABA is inhibitory, meaning it inhibits the actions of a neuron. 76.Glutamate is excitatory, meaning it excites and activates neurons to fire an action potential. 77.Acetylcholine: The chemical responsible for learning, memory, motor- functioning and sleep-wake cycles. 78.Dopamine: The chemical responsible for reward/pleasure, compulsion, motor- functioning, and mood. 79.Serotonin: The chemical responsible for mood, memory, appetite, and cognition. 80.Actions of the Ligand a. Agonist: Activates signaling and receptors. Can be endogenous or exogenous. b. Antagonist: Binds to the same spot that an agonist would but blocks it so that a future agonist cannot use it. Antagonists do not activate receptors. c. Exogenous: Something created from the outside of the body, (i.e., drugs). d. Endogenous: Something made inside the body. e. Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway: Sends dopamine signaling from VTA to Prefrontal Cortex. Promotes behavior beneficial for survival, (i.e., eating, sleeping, sex, etc.) 81.Information on pages 91-93 are not included in this study guide.
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