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Exam World Religions

by: Aalyha Giles

Exam World Religions 1690

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > 1690 > Exam World Religions
Aalyha Giles
GPA 3.7

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Very long Dr. Mercer 1-24
World religion
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aalyha Giles on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1690 at East Carolina University taught by Dr.Mercer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see World religion in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
World Religions Exam 1: 1.  What are some problems or difficulties which one encounters when studying  another’s religion? (Goal 2,3) Problems exist between language and interpretation *Translation helps but are suitable for change ­Reflects creativity and error ­Language dies so some things are harder to translate *As people we bring the religion we are most comfortable with when studying *Point of view ­We interrupt culture and religion using western ideas and lifestyles Fact vs Interpretation: Facts= Observe outside source or reality Interpretation=various ways, power, control 2.  What does your instructor mean when he suggests that one must attempt a  “creative marriage between knowledge and empathy” to understand another’s  religion? (Goal 2) Knowledge: Knowing facts about religion (Name, Dates etc) Empathy: Walking in another person's shoes, experiences Commitments: ­Christianity is true all other religions are false ­Christianity is false all other religions are true ­All religion is false science is true ­All religions are true to God *One must escape basis ways!  Your Religionis the hardest to see ( the fish can never see the pond) 3.  Discuss two basic ways to study the religions of the world. (Goal 2) Critical: Rational evidence to draw conclusions (Who, what,when, where, why)  *What did it mean? Objective Devotional: Personal opinions used to draw conclusions  *What does it mean? Subjective ­Anyone can study critical/ devotional is study by believer 4.  What is the appropriate way to study religion in a public educational institution? (Goal  2,3) Critical 5.  Why study the world’s religions.  (26­30) (Goal 3) We study world religions to understand differences, appreciate differences, to become  educated,and to have insight on the way others live their life 6.  Go to the ECU Religious Studies website (www. and find the  “Resources for the Academic Study of Religion” page.  Review this page and be  prepared to provide a description of such resources. (Goal 2) 7.   Review ECU's definition of leadership and all related information on the webpage  (­acad/aa/leadershipcollaborative/). How can understanding  leadership styles give us insight into a religious organization or group? 8.  Even if you choose not to write a research paper this term, it is important to understand  the value of the ATLA database.  Go to the Joyner Library site and find the ATLA  database.  Pick a topic in religion and, using the database, generate five bibliographic  sources for that topic.  Finally, write a paragraph or two description of the ATLA. (Goal  2) 9.  Discuss important issues entailed in the question “what is religion.”  (3­12) (Goal 1,3) Defined in the dictionary religion does not fit every practice or belief. Religion is a very  complex idea and practice. Each is different however they do share similar  characteristics. (Belief system,community,myths,rituals,emotions,expression, and scaredness) 10. Formulate a working definition of cult as opposed to religion. In light of your definition,  briefly analyze several contemporary religious movements. (Goal 1,2,3) CULT= Central authoritative personality Revision of existing religion Separate from world ­Candie out,grow and separate, or emerge into existing denomination ­Hindu>buddhism  ­Judaism>christianity  11. Discuss the possible sources of religion.  (10­13) (Goal 1,2,3) Religion began from human wonder and expression. The idea of what happens after  death, a higher being, and answers  and comfort 12. Discuss three major patterns among religions.  (13­20) (Goal 1,2) 1. World and life view: Most religions answer many questions about formation of the world and people. They debate on who to praise the creator or nature itself. The idea of  time: Cyclical ( not real/ apreciate the present) pr Linear (beginning and a end) 2. Beliefs and practices: Rituals, the idea of magic, supernatural, or praising the  priest 3. Males vs. Females: MAinly the way Females are viewed in each religion. Few  pratices allow female leaders or books refer to females as being below the man.            Female gods= Aphrodite,Astarte,Asherah, feria (fertility)  13. Discuss multidisciplinary approaches and key critical issues in the study of religion.  (20­ 26) (Goal 2) ­Religion is influenced by human life ­Social sciences have a long history of studying religion and its purpose (the ology) *religions were studied primary within their own religion ­Issues arise from the point can and outsider fully and successfully understand another  religion ­Many religions develop hybrids basic intermixing of religon.   BASIC RELIGION Note: BCE (Before the Common Era) is a designation often used in scholarly literature  and  corresponding to BC.  Likewise, CE (Common Era) corresponds to AD. 14. Discuss issues of terminology, obstacles, modern study of, and current status of basic  religions?  (33­39; 63­68) (Goal 1,2) Tribal> works use to describe or indigenous Basic> not inferiority ­smaller society with little tech natural places ­variations Obstacles: No written information and the understanding of oral religion Assumed that written is hard while oral is simple is wrong Oral (sand painting is hard to understand) Oral religion depends on art heavily Modern: Suzuki Religion is human beings and nature Music recording and photography have been a huge help in understanding and studying  tribal religions *Holistic cultures A 15. Discuss the following common features of basic religion: animism, mana, totem, taboo,  magic, shamanism, divination, sacrifice, myth, ritual, rites of passage, dance, and  veneration. (Goal 1,2,3) Animism Everything has a spirit Mana Power that makes things special *impersonal force in all nature (blood,  shadow, breath) Totem Symbol of tribe (human and animal  connection) Taboo Prohibits of carefulness *harmony is key! Blood,period,incest,polygamy Magic Words and behaviors for control/better of nature *Sphatik magic (look/act alike) Shamanism Healing traditions/way of life to nature *Shaman is a leader Divination Foretelling something Sacrifice The giving of something for god's Myth Reflects fundamental truth Ritual, Sequence of things/ patterns that occur  in order for an event Rites of passage Ceremony based on an event or  important part of life Dance Important in every culture/religion *No distinction between sacred and  secular Veneration awe­Respect/ cautious of someone or  something *ancestors 16. Identify and discuss three key patterns found in basic religions.  (39­48) (Goal 1.2,3) 1. No concern for personal salvation( Community idea) 2. No distinction between sacred and secular 3. Time is present (never future) 17. Summarize the religion of the Pueblo Peoples.  (44­45) (Goal 1,2) PP are native american settlers who are hardly known but are known by their temples and  art work. Speaking multiple languages some are based on christianity while others are  monthesisc. ­ Heavy belief that guardian spirits not gods but spirits of the living. ­ ­Belief in the number 4: four stages of life, four direction, flag  18. Discuss sacred practices in basic religions, using as examples Dagon Religion, the  vision quest, and traditional Hawaiian religion.  (48­63) (Goal 1,2,3)   Dagon  the god of the Philistines was thought  to be the god of grain. Ashtoreth,  believed to be his mistress, was  associated with war and fertility.  Philistines at Ekron worshiped Baal­ Zebul, thought to be Dagon's son. Look/ act alike Vision Natural beauty rite of passage Remains until vision or dreams come Hawaiian Women give birth in isolation Birth and blood can have different  meanings depending on culture/religion ­hula ­appreciation of many gods HINDUISM 19. Trace the origins of Hinduism, paying particular attention to the Vedas and various  theories about the impact of the Aryans and their religion on pre­Aryan India.  (73­80)  (Goal 1,2) 2500 BC: Mohenjo Daro ­ancient city very advanced (sanitation, metals,bricks) ­many systems 1800: Aryans migration/invasion (point nose, fair skin, hostile, war like) ­Like river India has flowed through a bunch of teaching and practices *Not a single religion but moe of a family and beliefs Polythetic Soma: hollisiant Vedas: sacred text/ 2000 bce to christ (Vibe veda­ 1000 human poetry) IndrA: Power, sun, energy, storms,rain, long limbs, loud, drinker (Action) Rudra; Evolves, destroyer, mountain top, feared/hesleer Verona: Water, harmony,fear of natural law *7th cent BCE: priest gains higher power(higher than gods) ­Division of labor 20. Give the history and basic teachings of the Axis Age scriptures called the Upanishads.   Define and discuss the Hindu concepts of Brahman, atman, maya, karma, samsara,  avidya, and moksha; show how they are related; and suggest how they are basic to  Hinduism.  (80­86) (Goal 1,2) ::People Began to question rituals Upanishads: (Forest dwellers= philosophers) desired more than magic 800 ­ 600 BCE (axis Age)> deeper knowledge of vedas *Women become more important// doesn't last long Brahman= Everything is the same Maya= illusion/ this is a dream *known not just believed in *Take away name and form and  everything is the same Brahma= God Socialization of process= helps embed  reality Brahmana= vedas sacred text Samsara= rebirth of soul “reincarnation” Brahmin= Priest Karma= Actions and deed *every action impacts rebirth ­impersonable law Pantheism= All Moksha= salvation “freedom” main goal  in life *insight and kindness Agnosticism= god IDK Avidya= not knowledge “knowing youre  ignorant Dualism= Devil and God equal power Atman= inner world “deepest self” *identical to brahman 22. Discuss the origin, nature, and theological dimensions of the caste system. Include in  your answer a discussion of the stages of life in the Law of Manu and what it tells us  about Indian life in the period ca. 300 BCE­300 CE.  (87­90) (Goal 1,2,3) Caste: Born into it, life long job, forbid marriage in other levels ­Negative or dignity? Priest (brahmin) Warrior (Kshatriya) Merchant ( Vaishya)­ landowners,bankers,artisans “twic born” Peasants (shudra) labor work, servants “once born” untouchables(dalit) does dirtiest of work (slaves of a sort)  Stages of life: ancient ideal of religious development Student (brahmacharin) 8­20 celibate: laying religious foundation Householder (grihastha) 20 marriage: fulfills demands of society with children Retiree (vanaprastha) Grandchildren: go into forest to  live may eat separately spend time explore religion deeper 23. Discuss the general concept of yoga and, in particular, jnana and karma yoga.  (90­91)  (Goal 1,2,2) Yoga= methods to help one live spiritually “roads of perfection” Jnana= way off knowledge ( usually done by intellects and priest) ­insight o divine nature *shankara = monism everything is one Karma yoga= Deed yoga (salvation) “ unselfish way to perfection 24. Discuss salvation through the way of devotion (bhakti yoga) in Hinduism. In your  answer, describe the major Hindu deities, as well as other objects and forms of  devotion.  (92­105) (Goal 1,2) Bhakti yoga= way of devotion (most common in india) includes a guru *chants, food, song, temples Puja: ritual at altar with offerings The trimurti(triple threat) linked together through art and philosophy Brahma= creator Vishnu=preserver shiva= destroyer/ creator Other gods: Devi= mother Durga= perseverance lakshmi= success kali= destroy/ recreate saraswati= music/ culture krishna/rama= manifest of vishnu Ganesha= elephant head son of shiva Shabi= disease/ death “blessing in  secret” *linga=symbol yongi= circle base


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