Study Guide Exam 1 -Memory
Study Guide Exam 1 -Memory PSYC 460
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Sehnert on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 460 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Bob Belli in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Human Memory in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
1 PSYC 460 Human Memory; Fall 2016; Dr. Belli Study Guide for Exam 1 44Q (MC,T/F, Fill in Blank) 2pts each 2 Short Answer 12 pts tot 100 pts total Concepts to Know Memory Phases (Encoding, Retention, Retrieval) Encoding –acquisition of information Retention –holding information in memory over time Retrieval –remembering the past Retrieval Tasks (Recognition, Cued Recall, Free Recall) Recognition –selection from list of items (MC test, best on this one) Cued recall –given some information/cue to base retrieval (short answer) Free recall – report everything you can about past (essay test) What is remembered about details of pennies and US coins People ususally put head facing left, year, “In God we Trust”, and value Actually it is head facing right, year, “In God we Trust”, and “Liberty” Relationship between confidence and accuracy with penny memory More accurate for things NOT on penny, confidence depends on type of test, more accurate = high confidence, direct relationship Schemas –organized knowledge structure, framework, common sense (after learned) Role during comprehension and retrieval –influences comprehension and retrieval. During encoding, put in default values Slots/frames and default values –Most typical values Script –schema for type of event (i.e. restaurant) Slot/frame Contains, material, shape, function, size, location… Rooms, wood, square, dwelling, 500 sq feet, on ground… Memory for details versus abstractions Details –verbatim, episodic memory no memory of item will become default values, could be false memories Abstractions/schemas –gist, semantic, generic memories Role of schemas in penny memory –use details and abstractions. May know date is on penny. Assume face is facing left (false memory) 2 Personal Event Memories Pillemer’s definition of personal event memories –personal milestones or turning points, First experiences. Detailed account of personal circumstances at time of event, can be narrated, sensory and images. Belives memory is truthful! Momentous events –remembered. Danger or death (could be public events) First experiences –more vivid than second, etc. (first experience of college) Flashbulb Memories (FBM) –specific, personal memories of significant public events. Type of PEM Brown and Kulik’s argument of FBM –rehearsals occur and draw content from UNCHANGING FB memory. Complete verbal narrative. “Special memory mechanism needed to explain FB” “Now Print” mechanism –evolved initially because increases odds of survival Accurate Created at time one hears news Surprise or emotionally related Must be an underlying and common neural mechanism Canonical categories of FBM Place Informant Own Affect Affect on Others Ongoing Event Aftermath Neisser’s arguments and evidence of FBM –ordinary memory mechanisms can explain FB Wrong time slices –later events confused as initial ones, defining boundaries difficult TV Bias –heard news on TV and took it as initial experience, images creep into initial experience Accuracy of FBM –no relationship to confidence. Source monitoring 2 events going on at same time and confuse them. When remember past event, in memory, source info not tagged to memory itself. Have to think about source “Was it Madison or Tessa?” Remember question but not who said it Reality monitoring –confuse what you imagined with what really happened (remember girl walking in then later remember it as yourself) Type of source monitoring Imagination comes up with event happened but didn’t actually and believe that it really happened. Relationship between confidence and accuracy with FBs –no relationship between confidence and accuracy Interpretation of canonical categories –they are just conventions used when telling a story Talarico and Rubin’s evidence of FB vs everyday memory 9/11 events and normal event week, 6 weeks, and 32 weeks after. Consistency/accuracy –Matches declined and mismatches increased for both events over time. FBs not more accuracy than ordinary memories Vividness –initially high bud decreased only for everyday events Emotion –more intense in FB and decreased for both over time 3 Belief/confidence –believe FBs are accurate the whole time Linton’s study of everyday memory Wrote 2 events per day for 6 years. Memory and forgetting Types of Memory (Semantic, Episodic, Generic) Defining each Differences between them Semantic –developed from continual exposure to similar events, leave what typically occurs, traditionally not autobiographical Episodic memory for specific episode from life, imagery and “reliving” event specific knowledge Generic –memory for general events, autobiographical specifically, typical Role of exposure to frequent similar events –similar events repeated make it difficult to remember distinct episodes of specific experience. Remembering specific episodes goes down with time Remembering generic things goes up Where personal event memories fit in Remembering first and last experiences –“Ebbinghaus found rapid forgetting followed by slow forgetting, the present function indicates almost linear forgetting after an early period of almost perfect retention.” People were more likely to remember first experiences better than any other number Schemas and the remembering of typical and atypical details Typical or default values, if not remembered, will be inferred If present, remembered. If not, will be remembered (inferred) if not replaced by atypical Atypical values replace default values What helps with remembering specific memories and helps differentiate If present, remembered. If not, wont be remembered Recognition test Conway’s structure of autobiographical knowledge Lifetime periods –major extended period of one’s life; long duration Thematic divisions, concept of self, abstract, nest generic memories General events (generic) –summarization of similarly occurring events, includes abstraction of typical occurrences Short term extended events, basic categorical level, abstract, nest episodic memories Event specific knowledge (episodic) –memory for specific episode from life, imagery and “reliving” event specific knowledge Pool of detailed sensations and perceptions, concrete, retrieved via hieracrical structure Hierarchical –top to bottom, higher order structures broader and include lower ones Temporal –have meanings that differentiate groupings based on themes, time in relation to before, during, and after Thematic –occur in time, before and after, duration or extension. i.e. school, work 4 Transitional points as temporal boundaries –remember more events between periods of stability (i.e. starting college) Distinction between autobiographical knowledge and memories – Knowledge –ABKnow. Is everything that is stored. Base of knowledge Memories –could be episodic within hierarchy. Only going through one retrieval route. Route not specifically remembered but found within Knowledge base Role of current and desired selves –as move through lives, have sense of self now Relationship between moving from current to desired and events that help/impede you to get there and how the ABK gets laid out. Changes between who were to who become Current –“who you are now” College student. Desired –Plans and goals of what to be in future. Pharmacist Study on political and nonpolitical events and periods Students asked about political (presidential candidates) and nonpolitical (ABM) during same time period. Childhood Amnesia contrasted with normal forgetting Childhood amnesia –many people have a linear forgetting as you go further back in time. This forgetting is different when you go back around 5 or younger. It has a sharp drop and many people cant remember much of anything. Evidence of childhood amnesia. Development of autobiographical memory Very young children’s memories vs. adult memories Young –remember unimportant things (according to adults), don’t have language or knowledge base, personal knowledge organized differently than adults Influence of caregivers –recognition tasks same Elaborate –narrative schemes with children, remember what, who, where, when Remembber more past elements, spoke with people about elements Pragmatic –use memory to solve problems (where did you put mittens?) Role of narrative and language in autobiographical memory –sharing makes memories valuable, Learn narrative schemes, exchange past so others understand, retrieve past events, valued to promote self and social solidarity Language is representational and communication. Can enter history of family, can represent past in communicable and retrievable form Nelson explanation of childhood amnesia –Change that leads to new organization in memory, new function or system (structure) Psychoanalytic Approach to Memory Psychoanalytic (Freud) explanation of childhood amnesia and roles of id, ego, and superego Ego deals with id (it, animalistic, dirty) and superego (scared, super cautious) Angel and devil on shoulder –id and superego Screen memories –i.e. Goethe throwing pots and pans out window. Trivial event that survives amnesia because important revealing of unconscious desires. Reason behind memory are screened (repressed) Role of culture and language in psychoanalytic view –language governs culture and when young not conformed. Culture and language lead experience to conform to social conventions or schemas. Culturally contaminated childhood True individuality cannot be translated to language appropriate for culture. 5 Transschemic experience –experiences of early childhood and dreams. Forgotten cuz cannot be expressed with language or through cultural norms. Cant be integrated into ABKnowledge Pre language. True experience without constraints of culture Similarities and differences of psychoanalytic view with the developmental (Nelson) view Similarities Preservation of memory through sharing. Autobiographical memories. Differences Schactelwhat’s remembered is not true experience. Psychoanalisis says don’t share, culture spoils it. Sharing =negative connotation, not real and limiting Nelson sharing memories and richness from it, sharing preserves memory and helps build intimacy, provides a richness for our lives Fading Affect Bias Valence and intensity of emotions –valence measured with +/ values size intensity of events. Intensity measured with numbers 03 on pos or neg scale Fading Affect vs. Fading Affect Bias Fading affect –current affect for ongoing event more intense than current affect for remembered events. Fading of affect Fading affect Bias –negative events fade more when compared to positive events. Thus past remembered fondly, positive events remembered better than negative Dysphoria and Fading Affect Bias –dysphoria: melancholy, sad People who are sad forget positive events more quickly than those who are happy Stronger fading affect bias Relationship between emotional intensity and what is remembered –more intense events are remembered better than less intense. This means more intense positive events will be remembered than non intense negative events. Taylor’s mobilization and minimization model –problem happens and they mobilize resources to deal with problem currently to minimize impact later on Repression and fading affect bias –Freud claims that we don’t remember events because they are repressed
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