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Bio-112 Chapters 1-3 Study guide

by: mscrowell

Bio-112 Chapters 1-3 Study guide Bio 112

Marketplace > Union University > Biology > Bio 112 > Bio 112 Chapters 1 3 Study guide


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About this Document

This study guide covers all the topics Dr. Henson discussed to be on the exam Chapters 1,2, and 3
principles of biology
Dr. Hannah Henson
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by mscrowell on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 112 at Union University taught by Dr. Hannah Henson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see principles of biology in Biology at Union University.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Bio-112 Ch1-3 Study Guide Topics to be covered for Exam: Ch 1   Different levels of organization  Molecular C­ lular Org­ ismal­ Population­ Ecological System   Prokaryote vs. eukaryote  A  eukaryotic cell has membrane­enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus  A  prokaryotic cell is simpler and usually smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane­ enclosed organelles   How energy flows through ecosystem  Energy flows through an ecosystem, usually entering as  light and exiting as eat    Theory of natural selection  “Natural selection” is the mechanism for why species differ from their ancestors  Natural environment “selects” for beneficial traits  Individuals that are best suited for their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce   What is a hypothesis/theory?  Hypothesis:   An explanation on trial”  Based on  data and inductive reasoning  and trial and error o Generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations  Must be able to be tested Theory:  In the context of science, a heory is:  Broader in scope than a hypothesis  General , and can lead to new testable hypotheses  Supported by a larger body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis   Familiar with different themes of biology (5 BIG IDEAS) 1 Interdependent relationships characterize biological systems, and these interactions give rise to rgent  properties. 2 Cells are a fundamental structural and functional unit of life. 3 Living systems have multiple mechanisms to store, retrieve, and transmit information . 4 The diversity and unity of life can be explained by the process of olution .  5 Biological systems maintain  homeostasis .     Ch 2 Properties of water  Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life:  Cohesive behavior  Ability to moderate temperature  Expansion upon freezing  Versatility as a solvent Most common elements that makeup organisms (top 4)  Carbon  Oxygen  Hydrogen  Nitrogen   Isotope different number of neutrons, same number of protons.    Different types of chemical bonds   How strong they are, whether they share or donate electrons  Hydrogen bonds: weakest  Ionic bonds: donates electrons   Covalent bonds: strongest, share electrons   Atomic number and mass number of element   The atomic number of an element determines the total number of protons in the nucleus  The mass number is the total mass of protons, neutrons, and electrons   How to calculate and determine molar solution   Molecular mass is the sum of all masses of all atoms in a molecule  Numbers of molecules are usually measured in moles, where 1  mole  (ol ) = 6.02 × 10 molecules  23  Avogadro’s number and the unit  dalton were defined such that 6.02 × 10  daltons = 1 g  Molarity (M) is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution     Know difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic   A hydrophilic  substance is one that has an affinity for water  A hydrophobic  substance is one that does not have an affinity for water  Oil molecules are hydrophobic because they have relatively nonpolar covalent bonds   Temperature moderation of water  Water absorbs  heat from warmer air and  releases stored heat to cooler air  Water can absorb or release a large amount of heat with only a slight change  in its own temperature     Ch 3   Different types of isomers and their properties   Isomers are compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different  structures and properties  Structural isomers  differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms  Cis­trans isomers differ in arrangement around a double bond  Enantiomers differ in spatial arrangement around a central carbon   Macromolecule and monomeric subunit  Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers    A polymer  is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks   These small building­block molecules are called monomers  Some molecules that serve as monomers also have other functions of their own   Different types of reactions to build, destroy polymer   Dehydration reaction:  when two monomers bond together through the  loss of a water molecule  Hydrolysis:  Polymers are disassembled to monomers; essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction  These processes are facilitated by nzymes   Ex of monosaccharides, di and poly  Monosaccharides:  simplest carbohydrates   Ex­ glucose, galactose  Disaccharide:  formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides  Ex­ lactose (glucose + Galactose)  Polysaccharides:  polymers composed of many sugar building blocks   Ex: Starch   Functional groups  Functional groups are the chemical groups that affect molecular function by being directly involved in  chemical reactions     Structure of side chains or r groups of amino acids   Know names of amino acids and their properties   4 levels of protein structures  A functional protein consists of  one or more polypeptides  precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a  unique shape  Proteins are very diverse, but share three superimposed levels of structure called  primary s, ondary ,  and tertiary  structure  A fourth level, quaternary  structure, arises when a protein consists of two or more polypeptide chains   Give ex of protein function Protein functions include:  Accelerate chemical reactions  Defense  Storage  Transport  Cellular communication  Movement  Structural support


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