Cognitive Neuroscience Review Exam 1
Cognitive Neuroscience Review Exam 1 NSC 4359
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This 56 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yesenia Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NSC 4359 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Karen Rodrigue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Neuroscience at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Exam 1 Review COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 4359: FALL 2016 Exam Format u 46 Total questions, 75 minute period u Chapters 1-3 u 42 multiple choice questions (84 points) u 4 Short Answers (16 points) u Light Pink Scantron Form #229630 u Grades in 1 week. Chapter 1: History u Key People to Review u Thomas Willis u Cajal vs. Golgi u Franz Joseph Gall u MJP Flourens u Korbinian Brodmann u Paul Broca vs. Carl Wernicke u HL Helmholtz u John Watson u George Miller & Noam Chomsky Chapter 1: History u Key Concepts u Phrenology u Neuron doctrine u Aggregate field theory u Cytoarchitechtonics u Rationalism vs. Empiricism u Behaviorism Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Cells of the Central Nervous System u Neurons and Glial cells u Parts of a typical neuron and their function u dendrites, soma, axon, myelin, nodes of ranvier, synapse u Presynaptic vs. postsynaptic neuron u Types of glial cells u Astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes (CNS) u Schwann cells (PNS) Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Action potentials u Resting membrane potential u Selective permeability u Chemical vs. electrical communication u Ion exchange u Role of Myelin u Propagation u “All or none” principle Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Sequence of events during neuronal communication u NT release from presynaptic cell u NT diffuses across the synaptic gap u NT binds to postsynaptic receptor u Action potential propagation u Neurotransmitters u Where are NT made and stored? u How are NT removed after binding? u Criteria for classifying a substance as a NT Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Meninges – dura matter, arachnoid membrane, pia matter u Gyri, sulci and fissures u White vs. grey matter u Major divisions of the cortex u Frontal u Parietal u Temporal u Occipital u Major Fissures – Sylvian Fissure, Rolanic Fissure, etc. Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Frontal u DLPFC, orbitofrontal, primary motor, SMA, premotor u Parietal u Primary and secondary sensory cortex u Homunculus u Temporal u Superior, middle and inferior, fusiform gyrus u “Medial temporal lobe” --Hippocampus u Occipital u Striate (V1/BA17/primary visual cortex), u Extrastriate V2, V3, V4 and V5 Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Limbic Areas u e.g. amygdala, cingulate, hippocampus, etc. u Subcortical Structures u Basal Ganglia uCaudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra u Diencephalon uThalamus and Hypothalamus u Brainstem u Cerebellum Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Ventricular System u Lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle, cerebral aqueduct u Blood Supply u Purpose, Blood brain barrier Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Histology – staining, tracers, etc. u Neuroanatomical Directions, Imaging planes u Anterior – posterior - inferior - superior u Rostral - caudal -- ventral --dorsal u Coronal, Sagittal, Axial u Spinal Cord u General organization, dorsal and ventral horns u Peripheral Nervous system u Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic vs. parasympathetic Chapter 2: Structure and Function u Neuronal Proliferation and Migration u Neuronal Differentiation u Radial Glia u Corticogenesis –inside out hypothesis u How cortical organization relates to development u Synaptic Pruning u Understand concept of plasticity Chapter 3: Methods u Cognitive Psychology Methods u Posner’s experiment, Sternberg task, Stroop effect u Parallel Vs. Serial Processing u Computer Modeling u Animal methods u Single-cell and multiunit recording u Lesions – types of lesions u Genetics Chapter 3: Methods u Human Methods u Neurology: stroke, degenerative diseases, epilepsy u Structural methods: CT, MRI, DTI u Functional: EEG, ERP, MEG, fMRI, PET, fMRI u Lesions: TMS Chapter 3: Methods u Computed Tomography (CT) u Compilation of x-rays u Cheap and fast, but lower resolution than MRI u Structural MRI u High structural resolution, but expensive and some patients can not be scanned (metal, claustrophobia, etc.) u Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) u Maps white matter connections in the brain, based on diffusion properties of water Chapter 3: Methods u Electroencephalography (EEG) u Measures voltage changes with electrodes u Direct neuronal measure, high temporal resolution but low spatial resolution u Event-related potentials (ERPs) u Averaged neural activity in response to stimulation (“EEG plus”) u Direct neuronal measure, high temporal resolution but low spatial resolution Chapter 3: Methods u Magnetoencephalography (MEG) u Measures the magnetic fields generated by neuronal firing u High temporal resolution and good localization u Only measures surface tissue; very expensive u Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) u Uses magnetic fields to stimulate cortical tissue u Can create temporary lesions with repeated stimulation u Singles pulses can facilitate or inhibit behavior Chapter 3: Methods u Positron Emission Tomography (PET) u Uses radioactive labeled isotopes u Traditionally used to measure blood flow before the advent of fMRI u Very expensive, more often used now for specialized studies (drugs, Alzheimer’s, etc.) Chapter 3: Methods u Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) u Specialized MRI sequence sensitive to T2* properties u Directly measures hemodynamic properties, which is related to neural activity (what we are interested in measuring) u Examine changes in neural activation in response to different stimuli Chapter 3: Methods u Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Signal (BOLD) in Deoxyhemoglobin (without O ) distorts the magnetic field uWhen neurons are active they consume O2 uInitial increase in deoxygenated blood, followed by increase in blood to an active area uFlushes out deoxygenated blood uGet improved signal (i.e. BOLD) that can be measured by scanner Chapter 3: Methods u Advantages u Can measure brain function in a noninvasive manner u Can be used to link cognitive function to brain function u Can look at a variety of cognitive paradigms (Event-related vs. blocked designs) u Functional brain mapping. u Limitations u Not as sluggish as PET, but still slow u Indirect measure of neuronal firing u Changes are often small (1-5%) u Spatial resolution not as good as T1 MRI. Practice Questions Chapters 1-3 Chapter 1 Questions Kelvin had a massive stroke that damaged tissue in his parietal lobe. Luckily he recovered after a few months and now demonstrates no lasting impairment. This would support ________ and their ________ theory. a. Flourens/aggregate fieldb. Flourens/ localizationist c. Jackson/aggregate field d. Jackson/localizationist Chapter 1 Questions Kathy and Ed are arguing over dinner about the make up of the brain. Kathy is trying to convince Ed that the brain is made up of individual cells that form specific pathways. Kathy would most agree with ________ and his ________. a. Golgi/ reticular theory b. Golgi/ neuron doctrine c. Cajal/ reticular theory d. Cajal/ neuron doctrine Chapter 1 Questions Freud and Watson are at a gathering of famous scientists. Freud makes a grunt and says “________ keeps talking about the time he measured the velocity of nerve conduction.” a. Wundt b. Sherrington c. Waldeyer d. von Helmholtz Chapter 1 Questions The cell body of a neuron contains the same machinery found in most cells, including a nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria. A.True B.False Chapter 1 Questions Dendrites, which are large treelike processes extending from a neuron, are said to be presynaptic. A.True B.False Chapter 1 Questions Action potentials are electrical signals that are conducted down the axon of a neuron. A.True B.False Chapter 1 Questions The resting potential of a neuron is typically +40 to +90 millivolts (mV). A.True B.False Chapter 1 Questions Communication between two neurons is always achieved through chemical, and not electrical, mechanisms. A.True B.False Chapter 1 Questions The idea of Franz Joseph Gall that specific mental processes are localized in circumscribed brain areas, launched a major scientific theory known as? A.Aggregate Field Theory B.Localizationist View C.Neuron Doctrine D.Associationism Chapter 1 Answers u Flourens, Aggregate field theory u Cajal, Neuron Doctrine u Helmholtz u True u False u True u False u False u Localizationist view Chapter 2 Questions Jimmy the Neuron was looking over all of the parts of his body. He is thinking that his post- synaptic potentials would be in his _____. a. dendrites b. axon c. cell body d. terminal boutons Chapter 2 Questions Sammy has had multiple sclerosis for the past ten years. Every two years his doctor takes a picture of his brain using a FLAIR scan to detect any new places where the myelin in his brain has been damaged. Any lesions found this way indicate that ________ have been destroyed. a. astrocytes b. microglia c. oligodendrocytes d. Schwann cells Chapter 2 Questions Along the axons of myelinated neurons action potentials only occur at the ________. a. gap junctions b. nodes of Ranvier c. end feet d. terminal boutons Chapter 2 Questions A concentration gradient is setup between the extracellular fluid and the inside of a neuron due to the sodium potassium pump moving ________ ions from the outside to the inside of the cell in exchange for moving ________ ions from the inside of the cell to the extracellular fluid. a. Potassium/Sodium b. Sodium/Potassium c. Potassium/Calcium d. Calcium/Sodium Chapter 2 Questions u Gray matter in the brain is composed of ________, while white matter is composed of___________. u What type of cells make up the blood brain barrier? u The limbic lobe is primarily involved in what function? u Which lobe of the brain contains the primary motor area? u The postcentral gyrus is also known as ___________. Chapter 2 Questions u The occipital lobe is positioned ______ to the parietal lobe. u The ventral horn of the spinal cord carries what type of information? u _________ refers to the process of rapid cell division that occurs in the development of the nervous system. u The deepest layer of the cortex contains cells that emerge when during corticogenesis? Chapter 2 Questions The central sulcus divides what? A.The two left and right hemispheres B.The frontal and parietal lobes C.The frontal and temporal lobes D.The cerebellum and the brain Chapter 2 Questions Rostral is another term for A.Anterior B.Posterior C.Superior D.Inferior Chapter 2 Questions This is an example of what kind of slice A.Axial B.Coronal C.Sagittal Chapter 2 Questions The association cortex A.Sends motor commands B.Receives sensory information C.Integrates sensory information Chapter 2 Questions Which is not a function of the temporal lobe? A.Language and auditory processing B.Object and visual perception C.Motor systems D.Memory systems Chapter 2 Questions Vision is the primary job of which lobe? A.Frontal B.Parietal C.Temporal D.Occipital Chapter 2 Questions Hippocampus means seahorse. A.True B.False Chapter 2 Answers Pt. 1 • Dendrites • Astrocytes • Oligodendricites • Emotion and memory • Nodes of Ranvier • Frontal • Sodium/Potassium • Somatosensory Cortex • Neurons and Glia • Inferior Ventral Chapter 2 Answers Pt. 2 • Inferior/Ventral • coronal • Motor • integrates sensory information • Neuronal Proliferation • Earliest • motor systems • frontal ; parietal • Occipital • True • anterior Chapter 3 Questions ________ is a condition characterized by excessive and abnormally patterned neuronal activity in the brain leading to seizures. a. Huntington’s disease b. Alzheimer’s disease c. Epilepsy d. Multiple Sclerosis Chapter 3 Questions Dr. Finck is studying diabetes in rat models. He has a specific strain of rats where the functioning of a particular gene has been completely ________ model of disease.pulation is known as a A. knockdown B. knockout C. knockthrough D. knockin Chapter 3 Questions Simon is wheeling a patient into the imaging center to get scanned. At the last moment Dr Holliday stops Simon saying “you can’t let the patient get a ________scan. The electrical components in their pacemaker would stop working. A. EEG (electroencepholography) B. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) C. CT(computed tomography) D. PET (positron emission tomography) Chapter 3 Questions The technique known as ________ can be used to induce virtual lesions in humans. A. EEG (electroencepholography) B. TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) C. MEG (magnetoencephalography) D. PET (positron emission tomography) Chapter 3 Questions The Sternberg task is an example of_____ processing, while the Stroop task is an example of_____ processing. A.parallel ; serial B.Serial ; parallel C.Congruent ; incongruent D.Incongruent ; congruent Chapter 3 Questions Which type of neural manipulation can only be used on animals? A.Brain stimulation B.Drug studies C.Gene manipulation Chapter 3 Questions Which of these would not cause a permanent lesion? A. TMS B. Ischemic stroke C. Aneurysm D. Brain Tumor Chapter 3 Answers u Epilepsy u Knockout u MRI u TMS u Serial ; parallel u Gene Manipulation u TMS
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