Exam 2 Review
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 40053 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Renne and Dr. Walker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Biology 2602 Unit 2 Study Guide Test Date: September 22, 2016 10 Plant Phyla o 1. Liverworts o 2. Mosses o 3. Hornworts o 4. Lycophytes o 5. Pteridophytes o 6. Cycads o 7. Ginkgos o 8. Conifers o 9. Gntopytes o 10. Angiosperms 1-3 are non-vascular 4-10 vascular 1-5 require water for reproduction 6-10 seed plants 6-9 Gymnosperms Non-Vascular -Lack developed structures for moving water and nutrients o This constrains body size Vascular-Has a developed system for moving water and nutrients. Bryophytes and Relatives (Groups 1-3) o They share common structural, reproductive and ecological features o NO Vascular tissue Constrains size Constrains possible habitat Flagellated sperm o Distinguishing Bryophyte Features Gametophytes are the dominant generation As opposed to a dominant sporophyte generation on all other plants Sporophytes are dependent on gametophytes …and they are smaller and short lived, as opposed to independent, large and longer lived sporophytes in other plants Non-Vascular Constrains size, causes dependence on water for reproduction, and constrains habitat possibilities. Lycophytes and Pteridophytes (ferns) o Vascular Plants o Do NOT produce seeds o Rely on water for reproduction o Sporophyte size and vascularization distinguish this group from Bryophyte o Diverged prior to the origin of seeds Seedless vascular plants Reproduction via spores limits habitat exploitation o North facing slopes moister than south facing so N facing have more ferns Find ferns in a dry environment = must’ve been moist once Origin of Leaves o Provides a higher surface area that helps leaves to effectively capture sunlight for use in photosynthesis o Disadvantage is the water loss Seedless Plants Transformed Earth’s Ecology o NON-vascular plants were 1 to colonize land This began process of organic carbon burial Level of CO2 dropped o Earth dried and cooled Also enriched the soil. Accumulation of nutrients Ecological Effects of Vascular Plants o Converted huge amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere in to organic material that was decay resistant Fossil Fules o Removed a large amount of CO2 from the atmosphere Made earth cooler and drier Non-seed Plants o Require water for gamete transfer o Homosporous- no apparent difference between spores destined to be male/ female Seed Plants o Heterosporous- distinctly different spores to form male/ female gametophytes o Do NOT require water for gamete transfer o Seeds provide protection & nutrients for developing embryo after fertilization Overview of Seed Plants o Evolved from seedless plants o Major critical innovations- shared by seed plants Pollen- allows seed plants to disperse male gametophytes Ovules- protect and nourish female gametophytes Seeds – allow plants to reproduce in diverse habitats without a reliance on water THIS INCLUDES GAMETE TRANSFER Wood-strengthens plants allowing them to grow tall (and wide) and produce many branches, leaves, and seeds. 2 Also, large sporophyte= potential for many gametophytes o NOT ALL SEED PLANTS HAVE WOOD Ecological Advantages of Seeds o Seeds are a key adaptation to reproduction in a land habitat o Able to remain dormant in soil until favorable conditions occur o Adaptations / selection to improve dispersal o Can store considerable amount of food o Sperm can reach egg without having to go through water Gymnosperms (“Naked Seeds”) o 4 Groups 1. Conifers 2. Ginkgos 3. Cycads 4. Gnetophytes o Reproduce using spores and seeds (like angiosperms) o SEED PLANTS Seeds protect and provide energy for young sporophytes o “naked seeds” because seeds are not enclosed by a fruit Mature fruit = mature ovary o Produce cones to reproduce o Gymnosperms have xylem as trachiads Wood o Tissue composed of numerous water-conducting cells strengthened by lignin Allows woody tissue to transport water upward for great distance Also provides structural support to achieve large size o Vascular Cambium- produces thick layer of wood and thin layer of inner bark (girth growth) Inner bark used for transporting water solutions of organic compounds ex sugar o Tracheids- for water transport Angiosperms o Distinguished by the presence of flowers and endosperm o Flowers are specialized to enhance pollination and seed production o Fruits develop from flowers (specifically the ovary) enclose the seed and foster seed dispersal o Endosperm- is nutritive seed tissue with very high energy content Modern Angiosperms o Defining features: Flowers and fruits Enclosed seeds (seeds in fruit) Seed endosperm, fruit, and fertilization Vessel elements in vascular tissue Flowers- modified leaves o 4 types of organs 1. Sepals 3 2. Petals 1-2 are called the Perianth 3. Stamens-Produce pollen (male part) 4. Carpels (the pistil)- produce ovules (female part) o Pistil Anatomy Stigma-receives and recognizes pollen Only appropriate pollen will be allowed to germinate Style- pollen tubes grow through this Ovary- encloses and protects egg-containing Ovules Pollen tube delivers sperm to ovules Ovaries develop into fruits o MATURE FRUIT IS A MATURE OVARY o Stamen Anatomy Anther Site of meosis Filament o Angiosperm Reproduction Fertilization occurs after pollination Male gametophyte extends pollen tube carrying 2 sperm toward the egg Double fertilization (unique to angiosperms) 1 sperm fertilizes egg to become embryo 1 sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei to produce 3N endosperm Coevolution*** o Process by which two or more species of organism influences each other’s evolutionary pathway “Reciprocal evolutionary change among interacting species” Explains the diversity of most flowers and many fruits and how planets accomplish effective pollen and seed dispersal o Among plants and animals, we see coevolution in: 1. Plant-herbivore interactions 2. Plant-pollinator interactions 3. Seed dispersal syndrome Secondary Metabolites (could be remove w no problem) o Synthesis of molecules that are not essential for cell structure and growth many are for anti-herbivore defense Heavy seed species move farther Monocots and dicots are named for differences in number of embryonic leaves called cotyledons Angiosperm Lineages o Amborella Trichopada Only angiosperm to lack vessels 4 Monocot and Dicot differences (5) o 1. Number of cotyledons Monocot- 1 cotyledon Dicot- 2 cotyledon o 2. Number of flower parts Monocots- 3s and 6s Dicots- 4s and 5s o 3. Stem-vascular bundle arrangement Monocot- scattered Dicots- rings o 4. Root system Monocots- fibrous Dicots- tap root o 5. Leaf Venation Monocots- parallel Dicots- branches Meristematic Regions- sites of cell division o LIKE STEM CELLS Stem Vascular Tissue o Phloem- transports organic compounds sugars o Xylem- few living cells; mostly composed of dead cells, transports water and other minerals Seed-to-Seed Lifetime o Annuals- Plants the die after producing seeds during their first year of life o Biannuals- Plants that do not reproduce the first year, but usually do the following year o Perennials- plants that live for more than 2 years, often producing seed each year after maturity Leaf Structure and Function o Cuticle-waxy layer predominantly on upper but to some degree on the bottom Reduces water-loss o Epidermis-small- celled layer adjacent to cuticle Additional dessication resistance (water loss preventative) o Palisade Mesophyll-Elongated, tightly packed cells Efficient light capture o Spongy Mesophyll- Loosely packed, often rounder cells CO2 and O2 (gas) exchange o Veins (vascular tissue)- Xylem- to move water and minerals Phloem- to move sugars o Stomates- regulated openings that transfer CO2 and O2 Adaptations to reduce transpirational water loss o Stomatal Movements Guard cells conserve water Blue light stimulates guard cell ion uptake, water flows in, cell expands and stomata opens 5 At night, ions pumped out, cell deflates and stomata close Other Adaptations to Reduce Transpirational Water Loss o 1. Very thick Cuticles o 2. Sunken Stomata o 3. Epidermal Outgrowths called trichomes o 4. Spines o 5. C4 and CAM Photosynthetic pathways Drawback of not losing water= bad at gaining CO2 Behavior o Response to stimuli Environmental and biological o Plant movements Bending, twisting, or rotating o Sometimes rapid, other slower as they grow and develop Hormones-signaling molecules that influence development at a site distant production Auxins o Master plant hormone o Induces vascular tissue to differentiate o Mediates phototropism-bending towards light o Promotes formation of advantageous roots and regulates branching via lateral bud development o Stimulates fruit development Important Nutrients o Macronutrients- required in amounts of at least 1g/kg of plant dry matter Nitrogen Calcium Potassium Phosphorus Magnesium Deficiency Symptoms- when plants lack essential nutrients they display these o Failure to reproduce o Tissue death o Change in leaf color o Chlorosis- yellowing of leaves Adaptations to Nutrient Acquisition o Carnivory- nitrogen rich insects are captured to nourish in nitrogen- limited environment o Root Nodules- house Rhizobia bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen; in return plant give sugars o Parasitism- tapping into xylem and phloem for resources o Mycorrhizae- symbiotic association with fungi, ups the root nutrient uptake 6 Hadley Cells- warm air rising near the equator and cools as it is moving upward. Cold air sinks and warms as it travels down. Air circulation pattern. Shape, size and Location of land masses affect biome location Biome- land areas with similar climatic conditions and characteristic plant and animal forms. o Contains a large degree of convergence in form and function within biomes Size, shape and location of land mass affects temperature and moisture o Thus, affects biome location as well. Transgulf Migrants o Birds are a major group that capitalize on seasonal shifts in productivity. 51% of birds that breed in North America winter in South America. Tropical Rain Forests o Most Diverse Biome on Earth o Very poor soil o “Lungs of the Planet” Temperate Rain Forests o Cooler temperature, but same amount of rain as Tropical Rain Forests Temperate Deciduous Forests o Ohio’s Biome o Cold winters, hot and humid summers. 7
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