Week 1-4's notes
Week 1-4's notes BIOL 1110 04
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marguerite Slabber on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1110 04 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Adams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chemistry of life continues… (Week 4 notes) 1 Carbon - is the central component of organic compounds i Unique properties make it able to form backbone of large, complex molecules essential to life ii Can form 4 covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms iii Sing, double, or triple bonds iv Can form straight, branched chains, join into rings v Carbon bonds are strong and not easily broken 2 Hydrocarbons - organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen 3 Isomers - compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures 4 Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules i Some are insoluble in water i Hydrocarbons ii Some are soluble in water iii Some are acidic 2 Polymers - long chains of monomers linked through condensation reactions (many biological molecules are polymers) i Large polymers such as proteins, polysaccharides, and DNA are called macromolecules i Monomer -smaller/simpler molecules 2 Carbohydrates i Most important/abundant group of organic compounds on earth ii Starches, sugars, and cellulose i Starches and sugars - serve as energy sources for cells ii Cellulose - main structural components of walls that surround plant cells ii Monosaccharides i Simple sugars ii Glucose, fructose, and ribose 1 Glucose and fructose are isomers ii Disaccharides i Two monosaccharides joined together ii Maltose and sucrose ii Polysaccharides i Lots of simple sugars linked (long chains of repeating simple sugars) ii Most carbohydrates iii Starch, glycogen and cellulose ii Carbs- most abundant organic compound i Sugar ii Starch 1 Primary form of energy storage in plants 2 Typical form of carbohydrate used for energy storage in plants a In granules in organelles called amyloplasts (specific to plants) ii Cellulose 1 Insoluble polysaccharide composed of many glucose molecules joined together 2 Most abundant carbohydrate (amounts for >50% of carbon in plants) 3 Humans lack enzymes to digest cellulose and cannot use it as a nutrient ii Glycogen (important in animals) 1 Form in which joined glucose subunits are stored as an energy source in animal tissues 2 Similar to starch but glycogen is more extensively branched and more water soluble 3 In vertebrates glycogen is mainly stored in liver and muscle cells ii Some Carbohydrates have special roles i Chitin - a main component of cell walls of fungi and of the external skeleton of insects, crayfish and arthropods ii Glycoproteins - compounds present on outer surface of cells 1 Most proteins secreted by cells are glycoproteins (mucus components) 2 Lipids (tends to be our fats) i Characterized by the fact that they are insoluble in some solvents (e.g. ether and chloroform) and relatively soluble in water ii Biologically important lipids i Fats 1 Most abundant lipids in living organisms 2 Efficient way to store energy ii Phospholipids 1 One end of the molecule is water soluble and one end is water insoluble a Components of cell membrane ii Carotenoids 1 Insoluble in water and oily consistency 2 Orange and yellow pigments a Trees (lots of orange and yellow) b Birds (consume) ii Steroids Cholesterol - component of animal cell membrane Bile salts - emulsify/breaks down fats in the intestines Hormones - regulate reproduction and metabolism iii Waxes 8. Proteins a Macromolecules composed of amino acids b Polymers c Amino acids - molecule containing amino group (--NH ) and2a carboxyl group (--COOH) d The most versatile cell component e Involved in almost all aspects of metabolism because most enzymes are proteins i Enzyme - molecules that accelerate chemical reaction in an organism b The chains that make up a protein are twisted or folded to form a macromolecule with a specific conformation (3D shape) c The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its conformation -> protein conformation determines function i AA sequence -> conformation ->function ii Proteins -> phenotype <- DNA i A single protein can have more than one distinct structural region, called a domain ii Each domain in a protein can have its own function iii 20 AMINO ACIDS IN EVERY PROTEIN a Sickle cell anemia - disease caused by mutation (physical change to DNA) that causes substitution of amino acid valine for glutamic acid in hemoglobin i This substitution makes the hemoglobin less soluble and more likely to form crystal structure ii This alteration affects red blood cells and makes them crescent shapes 9. Nucleic Acids a Transmit hereditary info and determine which proteins a cell manufactures b 2 types of cells 1 Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) Composed of genes and contains instructions for making proteins (guides processes of protein synthesis) 2 Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Participates in process in which amino acids are linked (there are 20 amino acids) b Nucleic acids are composed of A 5 carbon sugar (S) One or more phosphate group (P) Nitrogenous base (N) Purines (adenine, A; guanine, G) Pyrimidine (cytosine, C; thymine, T) A - T; C - G a Some other nucleotides function in energy transfers and other cell functions ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the major energy currency of cells CTP (guanosine triphosphate) can transfer energy and has role in cell signaling Cell Theory Hook - (1600's) first person to use word "cells" to describe room like structures Brown - (1800's) "nucleus" 1800's - when cell theory was developed "all living things are composed of cells" I Cell Theory 1 Basic units of organization and function in all living organisms 2 All cells come from other cells 3 All living cells have evolved from a common ancestor i Basic similarities in structure and molecules of which they're made ii Striking similarities at cellular level in diverse organism II Cell organization o Organization of cells and small size allow cells to maintain homeostasis Appropriately balance internal environment o To maintain homeostasis, contents must be separated from external environment Plasma membrane Structurally distinctive surface membrane that surrounds cell Makes interior of cell an enclosed compartment o Cells have organelles Internal structures Carry out metabolic activities and manufacturing structures necessary for functioning and reproduction Each cell has genetic instructions coded into it's DNA, which is in a limited region of the cell 2 Cell size is limited o Most cells are microscopic o Some are slightly bigger - e.g. human egg cell is size of a dot made with a pencil o Why? Consider what a cell must do to maintain homeostasis and grow Cells take in food and other materials and rid itself of waste Everything passes through plasma membrane Plasma membrane must be big enough to keep up with the demands of the cell Critical factor limiting size is ratio of surface area (plasma membrane) to it's volume (inside of cell) Ratio of the surface area to the volume that limits the cell size - cell becomes larger, volume increases at greater ratio than surface area Increasing critical size, number of molecules required could not be transported into and out of / around cell fast enough 3 Cell size and shape are adapted to function o Some cells change shape as they move o Sperm cells have long whip-like tails (flagella) for locomotion o Nerve cells have long, tin extensions that allow them to transmit messages great distances 4 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells = the two basic types of cells o Bacteria and archaea -> Prokaryotic o All other organisms -> Eukaryotic 5 Organelles in Prokaryotic Cells are not surrounded by membranes o Typically, smaller than eukaryotic cells o DNA typically located in nuclear are or nucleoid o Unlike nucleus in eukaryotic cells, nuclear area is not enclosed by membrane o Term "prokaryotic" means "before the nucleus" (= major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells) o Like eukaryotic cells, they're surrounded by a plasma membrane o Most have cell walls - extra cellular structures that enclose the entire cell o Many have flagella (for locomotion) Long fivers that project from surface o Bacterial cells contain ribosomes Small complexes of RNA and protein that synthesizes polypeptides Smaller than in Eukaryotic cells Chemistry of Life: Atoms & Molecules Element - substance that can't be decomposed into simpler substances by normal chemical reactions o Each has a chemical symbol The Basics The most important elements of life o Carbon Backbone of organic molecules o Hydrogen & Oxygen Components of water Hydrogen making up our proteins o Nitrogen DNA and RNA has to have Components of proteins and nucleic acids Atom - smallest portion of an element that retains chemical properties o Components of atoms are tiny particles of matter (anything that has mass and takes up space) - Subatomic particles Electron - has a negative charge Proton - has a positive charge Neutron - has no charge o Identified by its number of protons Fixed number of protons in the atomic nucleus - atomic number Protons + neutrons = atomic mass A number that indicates the amount (number) of matter an element contains Isotopes differ the number of neutrons o Most elements consist of a mixture of atoms with different numbers of neutrons o Isotopes of the same element contain the same number of protons and electrons Chemical Reactions o Atoms are joined by chemical bonds to form compounds o A chemical formula gives the types and relative number of atoms in a substance o Chemical equations describe chemical reactions Ocean Acidification (bad) o Harms shell forming plants and coral o CO 2eleased into the atmosphere then into the ocean which lowers the pH Bonds o Covalent bonds Strong, stable o Ionic bonds Strong in absence of water Relatively weak in aqueous solutions o Hydrogen bonds Relatively weak o Van der Waak interactions Weak forces based on fluctuating charges 1 Carbon - is the central component of organic compounds a Unique properties make it able to form backbone of large, complex molecules essential to life b Can form 4 covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms c Sing, double, or triple bonds d Can form straight, branched chains, join into rings e Carbon bonds are strong and not easily broken 2 Hydrocarbons - organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen 3 Isomers - compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures 4 Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules a Some are insoluble in water i Hydrocarbons b Some are soluble in water c Some are acidic (Cont. Next Week) I will include the above (starting at 1. Carbon, in next week’s notes) What is life? (Week 1) Characteristics of Life 1. Cells (Must be composed of one or more cells) a. All cells are enveloped by a protective plasma membrane that separates it from external environment b. Molecules - carry genetic information and transmits genetic instruction c. Organelles – perform specialized functions and are either with or without membranes d. Types of Cells i. Prokaryotic 1. Single cellular organisms (Unicellular) 2. Non membrane bound organelles 3. Bacteria and archaea (only) ii Eukaryotic 1. Multicellular organisms 2. Membrane bound organelles 3. Nucleus contains DNA 2 Organisms grow and develop a Growth - increase of size of individual cells of an organism, the number of cells or both b Some organisms grow throughout their life; others have a finite growth period c Development includes all changes that take place during an organism’s life 2 Organisms regulate their metabolic processes a Chemical reactions and energy transformations occur with in all organisms i Essential to nutrition; growth and repair of cells and conversion of energy into usable forms b Metabolism - all of the chemical reactions with in an organism c Metabolic processes must be regulated to maintain homeostasis (balanced internal environment) - proteins regulate 2 Organisms respond to stimuli a Stimuli – physical / chemical change in internal or external environment can evoke many changes 2 Organisms reproduce a Asexual Reproduction i A single organism produces offspring without the fusion of gametes; offspring inherits genes from that parent only ii Low genetic variability in populations b Sexual Reproduction i A fusion of gametes (sperm and egg) ii Offspring is product of interaction of genes contributed by mom and dad iii Higher genetic variability Basic Theme Underlying Biology 1 Evolution a Change in allele frequency, across generations, in groups of individuals called population b Allele – alternative forms of a gene c Genes – certain segments of DNA that can sometimes code for protein (protein → phenotype) d Population - all members of a given species in a given location e Mechanisms of Evolution i Natural Selection (when there is selection on individuals) 1. Leads to adaptation 2. Selection – demands are placed on the organism by the environment with which the organism must cope to continue to survive and reproduce; leads to different reproductive success. o Some organisms have greater total reproductive success than others – the number of offspring produced / how much they produce 3. Evolution in Natural Selection o Variation in at least 1 trait o Differential Reproduction i. Environment can't support unlimited population growth ii. Not all reproduce to full potential iii. Selected for (survivors) vs selected against (dying) o Heredity i. Those surviving pass on their survival traits/ the genetic based traits to their offspring (I.e. color/ long legs) o End result: evolution by natural selection leads to adaptation – the more advantageous trait that allows the organism to have offspring, becomes more common in the population i. Adaptation 1. Inherited characteristics that enhance an organism’s survival in a particular environment 2. Phenomenon of organism being well-suited to its environment 3. Process by which organisms become well- suited to specific demands of the environment (natural selection) Mutation (physical change to DNA 1 Sequence of DNA 2 Potential to lead to evolution Migration (when species come into or out of a population) Genetic Drift (chance events) Summary: Characteristics of Life: o Cells (1+) o Growth and development o Metabolism (self-regulated) o Respond to stimuli o Reproduction (asexual/sexual) o Selection acts on individuals a Individuals get selected for/against o Evolution occurs in population a Across generations o Evolution does not always lead to adaptation. Natural selection is the only one. Most mutation that lead to evolutionary change are thought to be deleterious. Vaccines o Flu - get different vaccines every year due to the flu's different strains that evolve rapidly. The resistant strains this year become next years dominant strain. Dogs o Human-direct evolution - breeders choose desirable traits of individual animals and breed them to pass along those traits Our Food o Artificial selection - the selective breeding of individuals to enhance certain traits Infection o Pathogens have "emerged." these bugs have developed evolved resistance Organize the study of life Biological organization - hierarchical and includes chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism systems (simple to complex) Ecological organization - population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere levels (simple to complex) Systematics - the study of organisms and their evolutionary relationships o How different organisms are related from an evolutionary perspective Taxonomy - science of naming and classifying organisms Species - populations capable of breeding with one another o Can successfully / potentially reproduce Taxonomic Classification is hierarchical (how all living organisms are classified) 1 Domain (most general) 2 Kingdom 3 Phylum 4 Class 5 Order 6 Family Genus 7 Species How to remember: o Drunken Kangaroos Punch Children On Family Game Shows The tree of life includes 3 major branches / domains & 6 kingdoms (all living organisms fall into) (Domains) Bacteri Archae Protist Plantae Animali Fungi a a a a (Kingdom Bacteri Archae Eukarya s) a a Information Transfer Organisms inherit the information needed to grow, develop, carry on metabolic processes, respond to stimulus Genes - units of hereditary information, contains DNA o Genes and environment interact to produce the phenotype we actually see Phenotype - physical/chemical expression of an organisms genes and environment Result - not everyone with same genes will have the same phenotype Environment can cause for some genes to develop DNA - hereditary material that transmits info from one generation to the next Watson and Kirck stole Rosalind Franklin's research who is responsible for much of the work and data on the discovery of DNA (x-ray crystallography was her specialty) How Science Works (Week 2) Science is a way of thinking and a method of investigating the natural world in a systematic manner in which we generate testable hypotheses, evaluate these, and update / modify our ideas Scientific method 1. Make an observation 2. Identify critical questions 3. Generating hypotheses 4. Hypothesis - tentative explanation that can be tested (an attempt to explain an observation) a. Good - based on previous research, repeatable and falsifiable b. Best way to test is with an experiment c. Bad - not based on current evidence or theory and/or isn't testable d. Independent variable – variable being manipulated / changed e. Dependent variable – what is being measured, the response variable f. Control variable – what stays the same 5. Making testable predictions – stating the expected results of the experiment based on the hypothesis (“if…then…”) 6. Making further observation or performing experiments 7. Correlational - examining the relationship between two or more variables or observational - experiment 8. Experiment - manipulate one variable (independent) and observe how that effects your response variable (dependent) a. Involves some sort of carefully controlled and randomized manipulation b. Must have 2 + groups (usually control and experimental groups) i. Experimental group varies from control group only with respect to the variable being studied/manipulated c. Must be replicated i. Replication - multiple independent observations with in each experimental group (in regards to experimental design) ii. Pseudo replication - the evaluation of experimental effects in the absence of independent replicates (BAD) 1. Look out for when doing scientific research 9. Gather and analyzing data – facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis 10.Interpreting results and drawing conclusions a. If the data supports the hypothesis, the hypothesis is accepted. b. If the data doesn’t support the hypothesis, the hypothesis is rejected.
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