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Biology 100-01 Study Guide Exam 1

by: Breanna Huynh

Biology 100-01 Study Guide Exam 1 Biol 100-01

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Biol 100-01 > Biology 100 01 Study Guide Exam 1
Breanna Huynh

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Study Guide
Human Biology
Lance Lund
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Breanna Huynh on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 100-01 at San Francisco State University taught by Lance Lund in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
▯ Study Guide for Biology 100 Fall 2016 Exam #1…. Friday, September 23 Please bring a Zeus form to the exam! ▯ Readings: Chapter 1 (all), Chapter 3 (Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes), Chapter 13 (Nervous System) Chapter 15 (Endocrine System) - refer to study guide questions for Chapter 13 and 15 readings.
 1.)  Understand science as a process. How is science similar and/or different from other modes of inquiry in explaining or attempting to define the causes of observed natural phenomena?  How do scientific theories emerge and what are some challenges associated with developing theories that we can trust? 2.) What is the scientific method?  Know the steps. Can correlation ever equal causation? Why or why not? Understand the role of bias, inductive and deductive reasoning in generating hypothesis and designing experiments, and the advantages and disadvantages of adopting scientific method to design experiments, build scientific theories, develop technologies, understand and predict behavior of natural phenomena.
 3.) Experimental Design: What are independent and dependent variables? What is a control? What is a controlled experiment? What is a placebo and how is it used to design this type of experiment? What are challenges presented by confounding variables? Know the difference between a control group and an experimental group, a blind study and a double blind study, longitudinal and cross- sectional studies, cohorts, and differences in demographics, sample sizes, and durations of study used to conduct scientific experiments. 4.) What are flavonoids? How are flavonoids beneficial to the body? Can these be found in coffee? Dark chocolate? Cocoa beans?
 5.) From the in class reading activity, are artificial sweeteners correlated with inability of the body to regulate blood sugar? Why or why not? To what extent do gut bacteria likely play a role in this process? How do you know? 6.) Let us hypothesize that consumption of artificial sweeteners does causes changes in the ability of the human body to regulate blood sugar. If we design a controlled experiment using the scientific method to test this hypothesis, what experimental factors would we consider? What types of sample sizes and demographic groups would we want to use? Would we use animal models? What would the duration of our study be? What confounding variables would we try to control for? Would we employ a blind or double blind study? Why or why not? 7.) Living Systems Theory: Identify the “essential characteristics” of life as defined by this theory. Specifically, what does it mean to be alive? Which characteristics are necessary and which are sufficient to define life? If cells are required for living systems to reproduce, are viruses living? Why or why not? 8.) Reading in Chapter 3: According to Cell Theory, understand the main differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Which were the first organisms to form life on Earth? Which have a nucleus? Membrane bound organelles? Cell walls? Ribosomes? Mitochondria or Chloroplasts? Know which cell type is found in each organism: Bacteria, Algae, Protozoa, Fungi, Plants and Animals. 9.) Understand DNA as the genetic information cells used to build proteins and enzymes needed to perform the necessary metabolic reactions of our cells. What are mutations? Are most mutations favorable or unfavorable to a living organism? Why or why not? 10.) What is cancer? Is cancer caused by mutations to DNA? If so, do these occur at random, or are they caused by other factors? What are some of these other factors correlated with cancer? 11.) Understanding “evolution as a process”: Use the following terms in several sentences to explain the Theory of Evolution: natural selection, mutation, changes in DNA, gametes, survival of the fittest, adaptations to specific environments, variation of genes, variation in traits, individuals in populations, fit to reproduce, and changes in the environment over time. 12.) Metabolism: Define metabolism and understand the role enzymes play as biological catalysts for chemical reactions. Know the basic equations for Cellular respiration and Photosynthesis. Which organisms in “The Tree of Life” can build nutrients through photosynthesis? Or break nutrients down through Cellular respiration? What are the products of photosynthesis and cell respiration? What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph? Give an example of each. 13.) Understand the relationship between metabolism, organization of living systems, and the major types of homeostasis discussed in class. Relate organization in living organisms to the flow of energy, maintaining a dynamic equilibrium, and resisting entropy. 14.) Identify the order of levels of organization in living systems, according to the Theory of Living Systems: atoms, molecules, cells, etc. What is the smallest unit of life? 15.) Chapter 2: Know the four biological organic macromolecules used by all cells to store genetic information, build structures & organelles, regulate metabolism and provide sources of energy. 16.) Know the basic homeostatic functions of the 11 human organ systems (as summarized on the slide posted on iLearn): Cardiovascular, Urinary, Reproductive, Integumentary, Respiratory, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Digestive and Immune Systems. Which organ system breaks down toxins in the blood? Which provides protection from the external environment, injury, infection and stores fat? Which allows the body to maintain posture and to move bones? Which stores nutrients and produces blood cells? Or ingests and breaks down food to absorb nutrients, salts and water, then excretes unused solid wastes from the body? Which removes liquid wastes (such as urea) and salts (Na+, Cl-) to regulate water balance and in blood? Which system is involved in gas exchange between blood and the atmosphere? Which system circulates blood, nutrients, gases, hormones and metabolic waste to and away from cells, tissues and organs throughout the body? Or which protects against infections? 17.) Which organ in the brain regulates body temperature homeostasis i.e. thermoregulation?  What happens if the body becomes overheated? Or is too cold? Know the body’s physiological responses for each as discussed in class. ▯ Signal processing: Nervous system and Endocrine system 18.) In the Nervous system (Chapter 13 and notes) What is a neuron? In which organs or tissues are these cell types found in the body? For the brain, spinal cord and/or peripheral nerves, identify whether they belong to the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous system (PNS). Does the nervous system generate a slow or fast response to maintain homeostasis in the body? 19.) In the Endocrine system (Chapter 15 and notes) Which structures do hormones specifically bind on target cells? Do hormones have to cross the cell membrane or just attach to structures on its surface? What happens in target cells that respond to hormones? Which hormone type activates short-term metabolic changes in cells? Or longer-term changes? Does the endocrine system generate a slow or fast response to maintain homeostasis in the body? 20.) In response to stimuli, when you burn yourself, how does the ‘reflex arc’ work to pull your hand away from the heat source before your tissue is permanently damaged? And why is the brain not directly involved in this response? Explain why using the terms sensory neuron, interneuron and motor neuron. Will your brain eventually receive the message that your hand was burned? How? And why will there be a delay before you “feel the pain”? 21.) To maintain homeostasis, the brain communicates between cells, tissues, organs and systems across the body by activating a combination of signals through the nervous and endocrine systems. True or False? 22.) What are positive and negative feedback systems used to maintain homeostasis? What are the differences between these systems in establishing equilibrium in the body? 23.) For homeostasis, are temperature regulation and urination examples of a positive feedback or negative feedback systems...why or why not? Whew, that was long...At least now I’m halfway to an A….So time to start studying with my group!!


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