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HIST 2353 Western Civ From 1450 -

by: Julian Quesada

HIST 2353 Western Civ From 1450 - 2353

Marketplace > University of Houston > History > 2353 > HIST 2353 Western Civ From 1450
Julian Quesada

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About this Document

Our test is essay based. This study guide contains facts regarding each of the essay questions. This is not a premade essay, you still need to write and determine your own
Western Civilization From 1450
Karl Ittman
Study Guide
history, hist, 2353, western, Civilization
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julian Quesada on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2353 at University of Houston taught by Karl Ittman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization From 1450 in History at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
HIST 2353 WESTERN CIV FROM 1450 TEST 1 DISCLAIMER Your essays should be in your own words. These are simply facts about events from the questions asked in the Exam 1 questions handout that you received during class. Simply using facts and not making a coherent, well written essay, will not give you a good grade. Please use this wisely How did Europeans' conceptions of knowledge change during the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment -There was a great change in Europeans' conceptions of knowledge. -Before the revolution, many people were illiterate and uneducated. -Church knowledge, Bible teachings, and lessons from philosophers of the ancient era went unchallenged -The Scientific Revolution was just that, a great slew of scientific discoveries ensued. -Aspects of the known world were challenged on a daily basis. -Through the Scientific Revolution, previous held truths learned through the Bible were challenged -People were beginning to challenge the bible and church teachings in the pursuit of knowledge -No longer was the Earth the center of the galaxy, but rather, the sun -People began to use deductive thinking, inductive thinking, and using the scientific method to find and prove new truths and understandings of the world -The Scientific Revolution paved the way for the Enlightenment -Revolution was based in science whereas the Enlightenment was based in philosophy -The Enlightenment gave way to great thinkers like Descartes, Rousseau, Locke, Voltaire, and Smith -Enlightenment thinkers dared to change the status quo of the Church, the economy and the government -Subjects that were taboo and even punishable by law were talked about in Salons. -Enlightenment thinkers would go on to create ideas like laissez faire, Democracy, the social contract, deism. -Deism is the idea that God was a clockmaker who wound up the earth and let it run freely. How did the global economy change from 1300AD-1800AD? Consider trade Patterns, changes in the nature of commodities and markets and Europe's changed role in the world market -In the 1300s Europe had mostly an agrarian economy. -Most of the population lived on farms owned by lords -As time went on and industry improved, more and more people began moving to major cities. -As industry improved, so too did methods of transportation and trade. -Trade began to become a driving factor in the wealth of a nation and gave way to a monetary economy -Many nations wanted to keep trade within its own borders so as to avoid wealth from flowing out (Mercantilism) -Exotic goods from Asia and India (like silk, tea, and spices) were in great demand by all -In the beginning of trade with the East, many traders travelled along the Silk Road -Once the silk road was closed, Venetians and other Italian city states began to dominate the trade market in the Mediterranean -The Venetians would set up trade outposts, not necessarily colonies. It would be purely to get resources out of an area -With the Italian city states dominating trade, other Nations began to search for another, quicker route to Asia -Portugal began to navigate around Africa while Spain attempted to cross the Atlantic to get to India -Spain would 'discover' the Americas and would begin colonizing and transporting silver and gold back to Spain -England, Portugal, France, and the Netherlands would begin to join in on the colonizing game -In the Atlantic, a trade of rum, molasses, and slaves became a staple of the colonies there -In Southeast Asia, multiple colonies were set up by Netherlands, England, and France in order to take advantage of trading with India and China -As time moved on, the economies began to switch toward capitalism -England and the Netherlands would offer protection to companies willing to do trade like the Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company Some argue that there were multiple reforms in the 16th century. What were the major ideas and who were the major figures in the Protestant Reformation, the Radical Reformation, and the Catholic Counter Reformation -The major ideas of the Protestant Reformation was the idea that the Catholic Church and the Pope was out of line. -The selling of indulgences upset many. -Many Catholic bishops held multiple offices. -Some bishops never even visited the lands where they were stationed and purely used them to make money. -Many positions in the church were bought -Some priests were so uneducated that they couldn’t even preach the scripture. -Some even argued that the opulence of the Catholic Church was not in line with the teachings of the Bible -Some major figures of the Protestant Reformation were Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII -The major ideas of the Radical Reformation was a rejection of the institutional Church much of what Catholicism believed in. They believed that Baptism of infants was wrong and that those were baptized as infants should be rebaptized as an adult. They believed in strict adherence to Scripture -Menno Simmons, Thomas Muntzer, Conrad Grebel, and Felix Manz were leaders of the Radical Reformation -The major idea of The Catholic Counter Reformation was to reform the Church, purge corruption, and bring people back to the flock and away from Protestantism. -Pope Paul III called for the Council of Trent which covered every aspect that was complained about during the Protestant Reformation -Ignatius Loyala amongst others were important players by setting up religious orders like the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans, etc. What are the central Features of Absolutism? In what ways did the absolutist state differ from the medieval state -Absolutism -Essentially the idea behind absolutism was to make the monarch the supreme unquestioned leader of the land -power was stripped from the nobility -The power to tax was directly managed by the king rather than a parliament, assembly, or agreement with the nobility -The army was no longer a peasant army but rather a standing army that answered to the king -The king could appoint people were not of the nobility to offices -Reduced the power and taxing ability of the clergy -Medieval Stat differences -The king answered to the nobility -If the king wanted an army, he had to ask the nobility to come to his aid with peasant armies -The king had to get permission to raise taxes, whether it was by the nobility, or some sort of council -Nobility were the only people allowed to take office -the king also had to answer to the church and make sure he avoided being excommunicated What were the causes of the French Revolution? In what ways did they reflect the larger problems of France's social and political structures -Bankruptcy from financing the American revolution -American Revolution gave the idea that Democracy and revolution was feasible -Enlightenment thinkers pushed for democracy and down with the monarchy -Continued borrowing on the part of the French crown -High debt -Food shortages due to a bad winter and a poor harvest -Crushing taxes on the lower and middle class people This reflected on France's social and political structures in that it was backward and outdated. -Most of the population was in the lower and middle classes yet all the power and privilege was held by the small upper class and nobility -The absolutist king was able to run amok unchecked and there was no representation for the people


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