Art 460 Study Guide
Art 460 Study Guide Art 460
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Art 460 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Alisa Eimen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Ancient Art in Art History at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
ART 460 Exam 1 Study Guide Things to Understand: Basic characteristics of Egyptian art as they relate to cultural concerns, function, & geography o Geography – placement of temples/tombs in relation to the Nile River, movement of the sun and the stars Principal eras (Predynastic, Old, Middle, New Kingdoms) and patrons Exemplary artworks (& dates) of these eras General development of funerary architecture General aspects of statuary and relief sculpture Distinctions between imperial and non-imperial arts *Be able to recognize the artworks listed below, memorizing name of artwork, patron, & approximate date. You should also be able to discuss these works in some detail and enriched context based on the points listed in "Things to Understand." Chapter TwoArtworks Tomb painting at Hierakonpolis, 25 C. 3000 BCE Painting on plaster Link between Predynastic and Early Dynastic o Arrangement of registers o Iconography of what they found as important – hunting, worship, transportation o Choices in color pertaining to people and animals – possible stratified society? o Depictions of everyday life – sustenance, transportation, human activity, worship o Human’s domination over animals o Cultural exchange and trade Narmer Palette, 30-31 C. 3000 BCE From Hierakonpolis Basic characteristics of Egyptian art – function o Original purpose is for holding pigment o This palette was not meant to be used Function as a commemorative object Intended for the afterlife Symbolic Imperial art – meant for a king’s tomb and basic characteristics of Egyptian art o King is larger, has a crown, presence of Horus, the mace, stylized beard, different clothing, sandal bearer, musculature Chapter ThreeArtworks Djoser's Step Pyramid 43, 44 C. 2500 At Saqqara Old Kingdom Basic characteristics of Egyptian art – geography o Aligned with cardinal directions and with the north star General development of funerary architecture o First monument work of stone o Possible symbolic aspect to step form Massive surrounding wall with fourteen entrances, only one true entrance o Concern with protecting the temple complex from looters Imhotep – first named architect in Egypt Khephren statue, 54 C. 2500 BCE Old Kingdom General aspects of statuary in relation to Djoser’s statue o More formalized/standardization o Overall, same basic characteristics o Headdress to protect the neck from breaking o Beard as a status symbol o Horus protecting from behind symbolically and structurally o Built from stone rectangular block in order to make it last through the ages Scribe statue 73 C. 2500 BCE Old Kingdom tomb at Saqqara One of the earliest seated types Non-imperial statue o Signs of age o Lack of musculature o Not wanting of food – of higher status However, still less wealthy based on all of the above and only 20 inches in height Kaaper statue, 79 C. 2500 BCE Old Kingdom tomb at Saqqara Non-imperial statue o Life-like o Materials used – made of sycamore wood which allows for more realism, but is less permanent o 3.5 feet tall Chapter FourArtworks Statue of Chancellor Nakht, 87 C. 2000 BCE Intermediate Period tomb atAsyut Non-imperial artwork o Made of wood – easier to make multiple copies Time of artistic improvements and individualization of styles Funerary temple of Mentuhotep, 91 & 92 C. 2000 BCE Middle Kingdom Deir el-Bahri, Western Thebes General development of funerary architecture o Combined major themes of past funerary complexes o Better use of resources Repurposed stone that was dug out from the same site o Symbolizes pyramid rather than recreating it (possibly) Made Thebes grow with importance Building as a way to symbolize power continues Block statue of Senwosret & wife, 107 C. 2000 BCE Memphis area Middle Kingdom Made of quartzite New statue form – seated posture, more practical o Became a popular style o More compact and permanent o More room for hieroglyphics o Uses less material (cheaper) o People who had less means could still afford this statue Chapter FiveArtworks Thutmose III relief at Temple ofAmun-Re, 123 C. 1500 BCE New Kingdom Change in style of temples o More focus on depicting scenes of war with the king’s as war heroes o Thutmose III is depicted largely of course as a great war hero Temple of Amun-Re, 124 & 130 C. 2000-150 BCE At Karnak Continuously added on to as a way to be a part of this great temple Uprise in temple architecture due to rise in importance of deities New style with entryway pylon that looks fortified o Has relief carvings on it Funerary temple of Hatshepsut, 133 C. 1500 BCE Deir el-Bahri New Kingdom Next to Mentuhotep’s temple who was the high point of the Middle Kingdom o Geography Reliefs legitimizing herself as a king o Divine birth and Punt expedition Statue of Hatshepsut, 137 C. 1500 BCE Funerary temple at Deir el-Bahri New Kingdom Has feminine look without beard Seated position Paintings from tomb of Nebamun, 141 & 147 C. 1500 BCE Western Thebes New Kingdom Non-imperial person (counter of grains), taking an imperial stance like in Narmer’s palette o Hierarchy of scale like with imperial artworks Shows what is important with some elements of realism and others as depictions of the “good life” o Hunting, cat, wife, daughter are important Wife and daughter are not part of the hunt but are important for the afterlife Chapter SixArtworks Akhenaten family relief, 156 C. 1500 BCE From house shrine of royal family in el-Amarna New Kingdom/Amarna Period In presence of theAten who is delivering everlasting life Religious icon Served to represent their devotion to the deity Shows realism/intimacy of the family – engagement/interaction Bak & wife stela, 160 C. 1500 BCE New Kingdom Niche stela Voluptuous forms with people outside the imperial family Chapter SevenArtworks Abu Simbel Temple, 185 & 190 C. 1000 BC Ramesside empire Large restoration project to save temple o Cut sculptures out and rebuilt Four colossal representations of the king o Each 69 feet tall making them the largest statues in the ancient Egyptian era Series of temples culminating with a sanctuary o Evolution of temples Does not have exterior pylon, but still represents war themed reliefs elsewhere o Figures in temple are naturally lit by the sun Manifestations of deities and Ramses II Built similarly to theAmun-Re temple, except into the rock Seated Ramses II, 196 C. 1000 BCE From east temple at Karnak Ramesside empire Indicator of modernity – change in general style of statuary, but still has major indicators o Lacking false beard o Fashion (crown, sandals, clothes) o Not symmetrical o Deviation from block formation o More realistic o Fully represented flail and mace o Less eternalistic Tomb of Nofretari, 200 C. 1000 BCE Valley of the Queens, Western Thebes Ramesside empire Paintings depict her entrance into alternative realm Basic characteristics of Egyptian art – geography o Oriented North to South o Desirable orientation may have to be left behind in order to build a sound tomb
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