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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Lindsay Notetaker

Exam 1 Study Guide ESS 324

Lindsay Notetaker
Elon University

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Comprehensive study guide that includes all notes and concepts that will be included on the first exam. Includes figures and diagrams as well.
Physiology of Exercise
Dr. Madzima
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsay Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESS 324 at Elon University taught by Dr. Madzima in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Physiology of Exercise in exercise science at Elon University.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Exercise Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide Exercise Physiology  Exercise physiology  the study of exercise on the function of these tissues, organs, and systems o Single bout of exercise (acute exercise) o Repeated bouts of exercise (training) o Responses to environmental factors  heat, humidity, altitude o Effects in special populations  young and old, healthy individuals and those with disease  Professional settings o Athletic training, personal fitness training, cardiac rehabilitation, strength and conditioning, physical therapy and medicine  Graphs: Y vs X o Independent variable= x axis: manipulated by researcher o Dependent variable= y axis: changes as a function of x Ergogenic Aids  Performance Enhancers  4 classifications o Nutritional o Pharmaceutical o Physical o Mental  Examples  multivitamins, protein, creatine, steroids, cupping, KT tape, music (headphones)  Supplements and aids are regulated o FDA takes action against unsafe supplements o FTC regulates advertising Work, Power, and Energy Expenditure  SI Units o Work: joule (J) o Power: watt (W) o Energy: joule (J)  Work  the product of force and the distance through which that force acts o Work= force x distance  Power  how much work is accomplished per unit time o Power= work / time  Energy  the strength or vitality necessary for sustained physical or mental activity  Measuring work  ergometer o Bench step ergometer o Cycle ergometer o Arm ergometer o Treadmill  Calculations: see attached  Exercise efficiency  the capacity to convert energy expenditure into work o Expressed as the ratio of work done to the energy put in to do the work  More efficient= less energy to do the same amount of work o Factors that influence exercise efficiency  Exercise work rate  efficiency decreases as work rate increases  Speed of movement  there is an optimum speed of movement and any deviation reduces efficiency  Muscle fiber type  higher efficiency muscles with greater percentage of slow fibers  Running economy  not possible to calculate net efficiency of horizontal running  Oxygen cost of running at a given speed  Lower VO2 at same speed indicates better running economy  What system moves us? Musculoskeletal system  What system initiates movement? Nervous system  What sustains movement? ATP (energy) Energy Expenditure  Calorie o Measurement of energy o The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius o Tiny measure of heat so we use kCal instead o 1 kCal= 1000 calories= 1 food calorie  Total daily energy expenditure o 15-30% = thermic effect of activity o 7-10%= thermic effect of food  Energy it takes to digest food  3 macronutrients  Carbohydrates  Fat  Proteins o Greatest thermic effect on food because they have Nitrogen that needs to be processed o All 9 amino acids o Deamination  liver getting rid of N o Carbs and fats only have C, H, and O o 65-75%= resting metabolic rate  The amount of calories it takes to keep you alive  Energy burned at rest  kcal/day  Avg female: 1200-1600 kcal/day  Ave male: 1800-2200 kcal/day  Influenced by body surface area, lean body mass, gender, body temperature, thyroid system, nervous system activity, age, caloric intake, pregnancy, caffeine and tobacco  Decreases with age  You need to consume more than your RMR  Biggest determinant is lean mass  When you diet the wrong way you lose lean mass so your RMR decreases then when you stop dieting you can more back than you lost because your RMR is lower o How do we measure BMR/energy expenditure? CALORIMETRY  Direct calorimetry  Measures heat production  Measured in a metabolic chamber  Most accurate but expensive  Indirect calorimetry  Measures gas exchange/ oxygen consumption o How much O come2 in from air then how much is left over when you breath out  Measured with ventilated hood or mouth piece  VO 2 volume of O co2sumed= volume of O inspired2 volume of O 2xpired  Absolute VO 2 o L/min  Relative VO 2 o ml/kg/min o Takes into account your body mass o Graded exercise text hoping to achieve VO max b2t not all do  Predicted 24 hour energy expenditure o Kcal/day  AVG resting VO 23.5 ml/kg/min o METs  1 MET = resting metabolic rate  Ex: 5 METs = 5x more intense than resting o 4 ways that we quantify energy expenditure:  Absolute VO 2  Relative VO 2  Kcal/day  METs Control of the Internal Environment  Homeostasis  body’s maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment o It means that the internal environment is unchanging but doesn’t mean that is remains absolutely constant o We use the term homeostasis during resting conditions o Gain  the precision with which a control system maintains homeostasis  “capability” of the control system  A control system with a large gain is more capable of correcting a disturbance in homeostasis than a control system with a low gain  Ex: control systems that regulate body temp, breathing, and delivery of blood have large gains o Stimuli that disrupt homeostasis  Exercise  changes in pH, O2, CO2, and temperature o When homeostasis is disrupted- cells synthesize “stress proteins”  High temperature, low cellular energy levels, abnormal pH, alterations in cell calcium, protein damage by free radicals  Steady state  a steady and unchanging level of some physiological variable o Refers to when you are exercising and homeostasis refers to when you are at rest o In order to maintain steady state, the variable must remain constant therefore you must continue doing the exact same exercise and not change anything about it  The main difference between a positive and a negative feedback loop is that a negative feedback loop gives a response that is negative (opposite) to the stimulus (reverses the initial disturbance in homeostasis) and a positive feedback loop gives a response that is in the same direction as the stimulus (increases the original stimulus)  3 major components of a feedback loop o Sensor (receptor)  detects changes in variable….stimulus excites a sensor that is a receptor in the body capable of detecting change in the variable in question then sends a message to the control center o Control center  assesses input and initiates response…..integrates the strength of the incoming signal from the sensor and sends a message to the effectors o Effectors  changes internal environment back to normal….bring about the appropriate response to correct the disturbance  Example of negative feedback o Respiratory system’s regulation of the CO2 concentration in extracellular CO2, above normal levels triggers a receptor, which sends information to the respiratory control center to increase breathing  Effectors = respiratory muscles – act to increase breathing  Increase in breathing will reduce extracellular CO2 concentrations back to normal and therefore reestablishing homeostasis o Negative because the response of the control system is negative (opposite) to the stimulus  High concentration of CO2 causes physiological events that decrease the concentration back to normal, which is negative to the initiating stimulus  Example of positive feedback o Enhancement of labor contractions when a woman gives birth  Head moves through birth canal  Increased pressure on the cervix stimulates sensory receptors  Excited sensors send a neural message to the brain (control center) which responds by triggers the release of the hormone oxytocin from the pituitary gland  Oxytocin travels via the blood to the uterus and promotes increased contractions  As labor continues, the cervix becomes more stimulated and uterine contractions become even stronger until birth occurs  At this point the stimulus (pressure) for oxytocin release stops and thus shuts off the positive feedback mechanism  5 major cell signaling mechanisms o Intracrine signaling  A chemical messenger is produced inside a cell that triggers a signaling pathway within the same cell that leads to a specific cellular response  Ex: skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training o Juxtacrine signaling  Cell to cell contact in which the cytoplasm of one cell is in contact with the cytoplasm of another through small junctions that connect the two cell membranes  Ex: one heart cell signals the next to contract so that the heart contracts in a smooth and effective manner o Autocrine signaling  A cell produces and releases a chemical messenger into the extracellular fluid that acts upon the cell producing the signal  Ex: during resistance training, autocrine signaling within the muscle cell triggers the DNA in the nucleus to produce more contractile protein, which in turn increases the size of that muscle o Paracrine signaling  Produce cells that act locally on nearby cells to bring about a coordinated response  Ex: immune cells communicate with each other to generate a coordinated attack to protect the body from infection and injury  Ex: synaptic signaling in nervous system o Endocrine signaling  Cells release chemical signals (hormones) into the blood and these hormones are then carried throughout the body  Cells that respond to the hormone are only cells within a receptor specific to this hormone Bioenergetics  Bioenergetics  converting foodstuffs into energy o Without energy, muscle contraction is not possible  Metabolism sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body o Anabolism  synthesis (build up) of molecules o Catabolism  breakdown of molecules  Cellular structures that play an important role in bioenergetics and exercise metabolism o Cell membrane  semipermeable barrier that separates the cell from the external environment  Encloses the components of the cell and regulate the passage of various types of substances in and out of the cell o Cytoplasm (sarcoplasm)  fluid portion of the cell between the nucleus and the cell membrane  Sarcoplasm in muscle cells o Mitochondria  “powerhouse” of the cell that is involved in oxidative conversion of food into usable cellular energy o Nucleus  contains the cellular genetic components  Genes regulate protein synthesis which determines cell composition and controls cellular activity o ER (sarcoplasmic reticulum)  Energonic reactions  reactions that require energy to be added to the reactants before the reactions can begin and proceed  Exergonic reactions  reactions that release/ give off energy o Spontaneous  don’t require any outside energy to proceed  Coupled reactions  reactions that are linked with the liberation of free energy into one reaction being used to drive the second reaction o Exergonic reaction that releases energy causes an endergonic reaction to occur  Oxidation reactions  removing an electron from an atom or molecule  Reduction reactions  additions of an electron to an atom or molecule o Coupled reaction because a molecule cannot be oxidized unless it donates electrons to another atom o NAD  Oxidized = NAD+  Reduced = NADH o FAD  Oxidized = FAD+  Reduced = FADH  Enzyme  proteins that play a major role in the regulation of metabolic pathways in the cell o Speed up reactions and lower activation energy  Activation energy= the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction o How are enzymes classified  According to the type of chemical reaction it catalyzes  Systematic name and a numerical identification  All end with the suffix “ase” and reflect the job category of the enzyme and the reaction it catalyzes  Examples  Kinase  add a phosphate group  Dehydrogenases  remove hydrogen atoms from their substrates  Oxidases  catalyzed redox reactions  Isomerases  rearrange atoms within their substrate molecules to form structural isomers o Factors that alter enzyme activity  Temperature  A small rise in body temperature above normal increases the activity of enzymes o Useful during exercise because muscular work results in an increase in body temperature o Elevation in enzymes enhances ATP production by speeding up the rate of reactions involved in the production of the ATP  pH  If pH is altered from the optimum, enzyme activity is reduced o During intense exercise, skeletal muscles can produce large amounts of H+ ions which accumulate and result in a decrease in pH which then results in a decreased ability to provide the energy required for muscular contraction  Macronutrients that are used for energy o Carbohydrates  composed of carbon, C, hydrogen, H, and oxygen, O, atoms  Stored carbs provide body with a rapidly available form of energy  3 forms  Monosaccharides  simple sugars such as glucose and fructose o Glucose= blood sugar o Fructose= fruits or honey, sweetest of simple carbs  Disaccharides  formed by combining two monosaccharides o Table sugar: sucrose= glucose + fructose o Maltose = glucose + glucose  Polysaccharides  complex carbs that contain three or more monosaccharides o Cellulose and starch o Glycogen o Lipids/ fats  Fatty acids  triglycerides  useful source of energy  Phospholipids  not used as energy source  Steroids  not energy source during exercise o Proteins are composed of amino acids  peptide bonds  At least 20 types of amino acids  9 are essential amino acids and cannot be synthesized by the body and therefore must be consumed by foods o How many kcals/g can be obtained from CHO, fat, and protein?  CHO- 4 kcals/ g  Fat- 9 kcals/g  Protein- 4 kcals/g Exercise Timeline  First 3 seconds: stored ATP in muscles in used o We have little ATP stored in our muscle  3-10 seconds: ATP-PCr system (phosphagen system) o Simplest and most rapid ATP production but produces the least amount of ATP o Enzyme= creatine kinase o Phosphocreatine donates a phosphate group and its bond energy to ADP to form ATP o Short term, high intensity exercise o We get creatine naturally from our liver and kidneys and from fish and beef  95% stored in skeletal muscle, 5% in heart, brain, and testes  10 seconds- 2 minutes: Anaerobic glycolysis o Breakdown of glucose to form two molecules of pyruvate or lactate o Used to transfer bond energy from glucose to rejoin phosphate to ADP o Occurs in the sarcoplasm of the muscle cell o Produces 2 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of pyruvate or lactate per glucose molecule  3 molecules of ATP per glycogen molecules  Glucose is a 6 carbon molecule and lactate and pyruvate are 3 carbon molecules o 2 phases of glycolysis  Energy investment phase  Phosphorylate glucose  Energy generation phase  Produces 4 ATP  2 NADH o Transport hydrogens and their electrons to be used later for ATP generation  2 pyruvate or lactate o Pyruvate into lactate is called the Cori Cycle and takes place in the liver  After 2 minutes: Aerobic glycolysis o Slowest production of ATP but produces the most o If oxygen is present in the mitochondria, pyruvate can go on to participate in the aerobic production of ATP  Kreb’s Cycle  Acetyl CoA (2 carbon molecule) is formed from pyruvate  Remaining one carbon is given off to CO2  Acetyl CoA cmobines with oxaloacetate (4 carbon molecule) to form citrate (6 carbons)  Each molecule of glucose results in TWO turns of Kreb’s Cycle (2 molecules of pyruvate and each have to go through)  Purpose of Kreb’s cycle  remove hydrogens and energy associated with the hydrogens from carious substrates involved in the cycle  Each cycle produces 3 NADH and 1 FADH that then release their electrons within the electron transport chain  Kreb’s cycle also produces one ATP  Total production of 2 rounds of Kreb’s cycle: 6NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP  SUMMARY OF KREB’s CYCLE: completes oxidation of CHO, fats, or proteins; produces CO2; supplies electrons to be passed through ETC o Electron Transport Chain  In the mitochondria  NADH from glycolysis and the Kreb’s Cycle go to the Electron Transport Chain  Electrons that are carried with the NADH provide energy to pump H+ across the membrane into the intermembrane space  A concentration gradient is create  ADP and Pi are on the other side of the gradient from H+  Endergonic reaction  need energy to get them to bind  Energy comes from H+  ADP + Pi + H+  ATP  Oxygen is the final electron carrier  Picks up electrons so the chain can keep going  2H+ + O2  H2O o Total aerobic production of ATP: 32 ATP  Glucose uptake into the cell o Insulin  The pancreas secretes insulin into our blood  Insulin binds to the sarcolemma (muscle cell membrane) and stimulates a GLUT4 receptor  A GLUT4 receptor travels to the membrane and allows glucose to travel through into the muscle where it becomes glycogen o Muscle contraction  Signals GLUT4 receptor Other important pathways  Glycogenolysis o Individual muscle cells break down glycogen into glucose and use the glucose as a source of energy for contraction o Also occurs in the liver with the free glucose being released into the bloodstream and transported to tissues throughout the body o Enzymes  Glycogen phosphorylase catalyzes the breakdown of glycogen  Lypolysis o The process of breaking down triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol o Regulated by enzymes lipases o Glycerol released is not a direct energy source for the muscle but can be used by the liver to synthesize glucose  Gluconeogenesis o Process by which glucose is synthesized from smaller simpler molecules such as lactate and pyruvate  reversal of glycolysis o Helps keep blood glucose levels within critical limits o Converts non-carb sources (like amino acids, lactate, pyruvate) in our liver into glucose o Our body then takes that glucose and uses it to maintain our blood sugar at a constant, healthy level  How do fats and proteins undergo aerobic metabolism? o Fats (triglycerides) are broken down to form fatty acids and glycerol  The fatty acids then undergo a series of reactions to form acetyl-CoA and then enter the Kreb’s cycle o Proteins are first broken down into its amino acid subunits  What happens next depends on what amino acid is involved  Some amino acids can be converted to glucose or pyruvate, some to acetyl CoA, and others to Krebs-cycle intermediates


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