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Chemistry 1410 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: David Bekoe

Chemistry 1410 Exam 1 Study Guide Chem 1410-008

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Chemistry > Chem 1410-008 > Chemistry 1410 Exam 1 Study Guide
David Bekoe

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About this Document

These notes cover what is going to be on the first exam.(Chapters 1-3) Certain concepts are still a little hard for me so I tried my best to explain but inserted links to videos for those particula...
General Chemistry for Science Majors
Dr. Petros
Study Guide
Chemistry, UNT, Stoicheometry, TheorieticalYield, ions, General / Freshman Chemistry II
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by David Bekoe on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1410-008 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Petros in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Science Majors in Chemistry at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chemistry 1410 ­Professor Petros­ Exam 1 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle            Highlight = Important Concept           Highlight = Key Term CHAPTER 1­KEYS TO THE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY  Metric System Conversions *Not an exhaustive list 1600m=1mi 1000m=1km 3600s=1hr Dimensional Analysis ­ Just a problem solving method Physical and Chemical ­ Physical Properties: Characteristics a substance shows by itself without another substance ­ Examples: Color, Temperature, Density, Electrical Conductivity ­ Chemical Properties: Characteristics a substance shows as it changes into or interacts with another  substance    ­ Examples: Rusting, Sparks, Wood Burning, Flammability ­ Physical Change ­ Change in Physical Property ­ Example: Ice to water ­ Chemical Change        Making or Breaking Bonds/ Reactants to Products Density ­Density=Mass/Volume Heat Capacity q=mc∆T q=thermal energy m=mass c= specific heat constant ∆T=Temperature Change (Final­Initial) Temperature *Always Positive ◦C+273.15+K/  (◦F­32) X 9/5=◦C (◦C x 9/5) +32=◦F CHAPTER 2­COMPONENTS OF MATTER Conversions ­ 1 x 10⁹nm=1m ­ 1000J=1KJ ­ 1000 Cal=1Kcal ­ 1 mole= mass # ­ 6.022E23=Avagadro’s number ­  Avagadro’s number=1 mole ­ 1 g= 1E9 ng/ 1ng=1E­9g  ­ Atoms­­­Moles­­­Grams ­ Grams­­­Moles­­­Atoms ­ 1µg=1E­6g Avagadro’s Number ­ Alt. Names ­ Particles ­ Atoms ­ Molecules ­ Formula Units ­ Use of Avogadro’s number ­ When you have many atoms, ions, particles, molecules, formula units Significant Figures ­ 1. Make sure the measurement has a decimal point ­ 2. Start at the left and move right until you reach the first non­zero digit ­ 3. Count that digit and every digit to its right as significant ­ Zeroes in between are significant ­ All non­zero values are significant ­ Preceding zeroes are not significant ­ Examples: ­ 1.1300­­ has 5 significant figures ­ 6500.­­ has 4 significant figures ­ 5300­ has only 2 significant figures ­ 500­­ has one significant figure ­ If you are multiplying/dividing, you use the lowest amount of significant figures ­ If you are adding/subtracting, you go with the least precise  ­ Detail ­ Matter Mixtures, Compounds, Elements  Compounds: Consists of two/more different elements that are divided chemically  Elements: The simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical  properties and made up of only one kind of atom. ­Atomic Theory  Law of Mass Conservation, Law of Constant Composition and Law of Multiple  Proportions  KCL is composed of the same element and same fraction by mass, regardless of its  source­­­­­>Law of Constant Composition  Mass of Substance inside the flashbulb did not change during the chemical rxn­­ Law of Mass Conservation  Oxygen and Arsenic can combine to form two different compounds that have different proportions of Arsenic present­­Law of Multiple Proportions Experiments  Milikan Oil Drop Experiment­ Discovered charge of an electron: ­1.6E­19 C  Thomson­Discovered the mass to charge ratio  Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment­ Discovered that the atomic nucleus is small and positively  charged  Chadwick­Discovered neutrons were neutral and had mass *#Protons=#electrons in neutral atom *Mass #=Protons+Neutrons Isotopes: H­2: The two is the mass number; How many protons and neutrons? 1 Proton and 1 neutron  H­3: The mass number is three, How many protons and neutrons? 1 Proton and 2 neutrons.  (isotopes abundance) (mass of that isotope) + (isotope abundance) (mass of this isotope)  =weighted average Example: Cl (35) =34.9689 Cl (37) =36.9659 Atomic mass=35.4527 (34.9689)(1­x)+(36.9659)(x)=35.4527 34.9689­34.9689x+36.9659x+35.4527 1.997x=.4838 =.242 x 100=24.2% 100%­24.2%=75.8% Ions  Know that they are charged particles caused by the adding of or taking away of electrons  Cations are positive while Anions are negative Li­ Lithium Atom (Neutral) Li (+) ­­ Lithium Ion(Positive) F­­ Fluorine Atom F (­) ­­Fluorine Ion (Negative)  Ionic Compounds consist of a metal and a nonmetal/polyatomic ion. Such as Tin(IV) Chloride   Covalent Compounds consist of two nonmetals. Such as Dinitrogen Dichloride *IN IONIC COMPOUNDS THE CHARGES EITHER CANCEL OUT OR ADD UP TO ZERO. Memorize Polyatomic Ions!!  Mass % Formula: mass of element over total mass X 100% CHAPTER 3­STOICHIOMETRY OF FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS  Balancing Equations ­ We balance equations because of the law of Mass Conservation ­ 2_Mg + _O2­­­­ _2MgO ­                2< ­­1 Mg 1­­­2 ­                2    O   1­2 ­ When Balancing  ­ You cannot add or take away ­ You cannot change formulas. ­ Trial and Error is OKAY Empirical and Molecular Formulas ­ Molecular to Empirical you divide by the subscript­reactions­stoichiome/empirical­molecular­ formula/v/empirical­molecular­and­structural­formulas ­ Mass % to Empirical  ­ Replace the % with g ­ Divide by the molar mass ­ Divide all moles by smallest value ­ Diatomic: Exist in nature as “twins: ­ H2 O2 F2 Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 Theoretical Yield, Limiting Reactant, Excess Reactant and Percent Yield ­ Theoretical Yield is the smaller amount of product ­ Limiting Reactant is the one you run out of/ use up completely given the conditions  *This gives you the theoretical yield ­ Excess Reactant: The leftover ­ Percent Yield is Actual yield over Theoretical Yield x 100%


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