Chemistry 1410 Exam 1 Study Guide
Chemistry 1410 Exam 1 Study Guide Chem 1410-008
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by David Bekoe on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1410-008 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Petros in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Science Majors in Chemistry at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chemistry 1410 Professor Petros Exam 1 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term CHAPTER 1KEYS TO THE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY Metric System Conversions *Not an exhaustive list 1600m=1mi 1000m=1km 3600s=1hr Dimensional Analysis Just a problem solving method Physical and Chemical Physical Properties: Characteristics a substance shows by itself without another substance Examples: Color, Temperature, Density, Electrical Conductivity Chemical Properties: Characteristics a substance shows as it changes into or interacts with another substance Examples: Rusting, Sparks, Wood Burning, Flammability Physical Change Change in Physical Property Example: Ice to water Chemical Change Making or Breaking Bonds/ Reactants to Products Density Density=Mass/Volume Heat Capacity q=mc∆T q=thermal energy m=mass c= specific heat constant ∆T=Temperature Change (FinalInitial) Temperature *Always Positive ◦C+273.15+K/ (◦F32) X 9/5=◦C (◦C x 9/5) +32=◦F CHAPTER 2COMPONENTS OF MATTER Conversions 1 x 10⁹nm=1m 1000J=1KJ 1000 Cal=1Kcal 1 mole= mass # 6.022E23=Avagadro’s number Avagadro’s number=1 mole 1 g= 1E9 ng/ 1ng=1E9g AtomsMolesGrams GramsMolesAtoms 1µg=1E6g Avagadro’s Number Alt. Names Particles Atoms Molecules Formula Units Use of Avogadro’s number When you have many atoms, ions, particles, molecules, formula units Significant Figures 1. Make sure the measurement has a decimal point 2. Start at the left and move right until you reach the first nonzero digit 3. Count that digit and every digit to its right as significant Zeroes in between are significant All nonzero values are significant Preceding zeroes are not significant Examples: 1.1300 has 5 significant figures 6500. has 4 significant figures 5300 has only 2 significant figures 500 has one significant figure If you are multiplying/dividing, you use the lowest amount of significant figures If you are adding/subtracting, you go with the least precise Detail Matter Mixtures, Compounds, Elements Compounds: Consists of two/more different elements that are divided chemically Elements: The simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical properties and made up of only one kind of atom. Atomic Theory Law of Mass Conservation, Law of Constant Composition and Law of Multiple Proportions KCL is composed of the same element and same fraction by mass, regardless of its source>Law of Constant Composition Mass of Substance inside the flashbulb did not change during the chemical rxn Law of Mass Conservation Oxygen and Arsenic can combine to form two different compounds that have different proportions of Arsenic presentLaw of Multiple Proportions Experiments Milikan Oil Drop Experiment Discovered charge of an electron: 1.6E19 C ThomsonDiscovered the mass to charge ratio Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment Discovered that the atomic nucleus is small and positively charged ChadwickDiscovered neutrons were neutral and had mass *#Protons=#electrons in neutral atom *Mass #=Protons+Neutrons Isotopes: H2: The two is the mass number; How many protons and neutrons? 1 Proton and 1 neutron H3: The mass number is three, How many protons and neutrons? 1 Proton and 2 neutrons. (isotopes abundance) (mass of that isotope) + (isotope abundance) (mass of this isotope) =weighted average Example: Cl (35) =34.9689 Cl (37) =36.9659 Atomic mass=35.4527 (34.9689)(1x)+(36.9659)(x)=35.4527 34.968934.9689x+36.9659x+35.4527 1.997x=.4838 =.242 x 100=24.2% 100%24.2%=75.8% Ions Know that they are charged particles caused by the adding of or taking away of electrons Cations are positive while Anions are negative Li Lithium Atom (Neutral) Li (+) Lithium Ion(Positive) F Fluorine Atom F () Fluorine Ion (Negative) Ionic Compounds consist of a metal and a nonmetal/polyatomic ion. Such as Tin(IV) Chloride Covalent Compounds consist of two nonmetals. Such as Dinitrogen Dichloride *IN IONIC COMPOUNDS THE CHARGES EITHER CANCEL OUT OR ADD UP TO ZERO. Memorize Polyatomic Ions!! Mass % Formula: mass of element over total mass X 100% CHAPTER 3STOICHIOMETRY OF FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Balancing Equations We balance equations because of the law of Mass Conservation 2_Mg + _O2 _2MgO 2< 1 Mg 12 2 O 12 When Balancing You cannot add or take away You cannot change formulas. Trial and Error is OKAY Empirical and Molecular Formulas Molecular to Empirical you divide by the subscript https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemicalreactionsstoichiome/empiricalmolecular formula/v/empiricalmolecularandstructuralformulas Mass % to Empirical Replace the % with g Divide by the molar mass Divide all moles by smallest value https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_V1WCel5MeADetail Diatomic: Exist in nature as “twins: H2 O2 F2 Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 Theoretical Yield, Limiting Reactant, Excess Reactant and Percent Yield Theoretical Yield is the smaller amount of product Limiting Reactant is the one you run out of/ use up completely given the conditions *This gives you the theoretical yield Excess Reactant: The leftover Percent Yield is Actual yield over Theoretical Yield x 100% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OV7UMogfg5sDetail
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