HIST101 Chapters 1 - 5 Study Guide
HIST101 Chapters 1 - 5 Study Guide HIST 101
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HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 1: Defining History and Civilization Mesopotamia meaning the land “between two rivers” History of the Persian Wars by Greek scholar Herodotus of Halicarnassus o This text focused on the war’s origins & the impact the war had on the Greeks and Persians Historians try to focus on the problem of change and continuity over time o Modern historians look at the bigger picture: studying daily lives of people who have played a role in shaping important past events Prehistory: is the period in time when there were no written records; info about this era of time comes from the archeological record o Without written records some archeological discoveries remain unclear Primary Source: A source of information (such as a document) that was created during the historical period that is being mentioned History = what we know + what it means Civilization—the Latin term civitas means city or community o –civis meaning citizen or subject Traditional historian definition of a civilization includes: o Urban settlements, complex political & legal systems, specialization of labor & economic activities, social hierarchies, religious resources, scientific resources, artistic resources, and the use of a writing system for communication o EX of a civilization: Mesopotamia and Egypt o If these features are not included it is called a community EX of a community: Greeks and romans Defined themselves instead by common features such as a shared language or religious traditions Chapter 1: Calendars and Chronology Most calendars are based on solar and lunar cycles The Georgian Calendar: o After Pope Gregory XIII o Was an attempt to align the holidays within the calendar as well as significant Christian holy days o Endorsed the use of the birth of Christ as a dividing line in calculating time HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion The practice of this method in time calculation dates back to the 6 century B.C. = Before Christ A.D. Anno Domini (The year of the lord) Calendars in the Christian community were based off of the Julian Calendar o After Julius Caesar Historians also commonly use (for time calculation) o B.C.E. = Before the common era o C.E. = Common era o The abbreviation “c.” is used to give an unknown or approximate date Of the Latin word “circa” meaning “about” or “around” Chapter 1: Prehistory and the Paleolithic Age Paleolithic Age shows early human activity o AKA The Old Stone Age Homo sapiens first emerged during this era o Latin meaning—“wise man” o They migrated from Africa into the Near East, Asia, & Europe Paleolithic people were hunter-gatherers o Traveled in groups of 20-30 o Men hunted animals & women gathered food The fact that both women and men were responsible for providing food insists a level of equality among genders o Carved sculptors have been found and thought to have some connection to fertility o Wall paintings in Spain and France depict different animals Chapter 1: The Neolithic Revolution and the rise of towns and villages The Neolithic Revolution describes significant changes of human life and society from the Paleolithic age o Neolithic Rev. meaning “New Stone Age” (10,000 BC – 3,000 BC) The revolution occurred over a vast amount of time and in many different locations but it is mainly recognized for the transformation of hunter-gatherers to farmers and town dwellers HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Agriculture emerged during this time and the domestication of animals for food and produce became popular amongst these towns These towns were able to harvest consistent amounts of food and furthermore flourish into sustainable communities o This was especially true in the Fertile Crescent which stretched form the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea amongst the Euphrates and Tigris rivers Environmental contribution toward the Neolithic Rev. o Climate became more mild and wet after the last stone age o This caused animals to move away from hunting grounds and to colder areas Raw materials were able to be transformed into manufactured goods (i.e. textiles) Some villages developed into towns o A town by definition included a high concentration of people who engage in craft and trade and have a complex government Jericho and Çatalhöyük o Some of the oldest towns of this period in time o Irrigation systems, mud-brick houses were often prevalent here o Houses sometimes built close together to allow citizens to walk across the roofs rather than using streets or sidewalks HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion Chapter 2: Early Near East and Egypt This section covers the Sumerian civilization Earliest evidence of civilization found in Egypt and Near east (Turkey) o Near East: Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Israel These cultures contributed to western development and growth Sumerian Religion o Polytheistic o Gods had human-like characteristics such as emotions— when bad things happened it was probably because the Gods were angry/jealous/frustrated etc. o Temples called Ziggurats were built across Mesopotamia Used for worship and offerings (sacrifices) They did this so that they could receive reciprocated security health and prosperity o Religion dominated politics Writing o Development of cuneiform One of the first ancient writing systems o Used for record keeping o Included pictographs o Eventually evolved into a series of pictographs and phonetic symbols for more complex records o Mixed script of letters, sounds, ideas o Priests, kings, and other elite members used their exclusive resources to learn cuneiform (further separated social classes) o Eventually used for preservation and distribution of culture and tradition o Earliest proof of cuneiform literature (aside from records) comes from work by Princess Entheduanna (daughter of King Sargon of Akkad) o Was eventually exclusive for males o Epic of Gilgamesh (another early discovery of cuneiform literature) Predicted to have a sense of pessimism most likely from unpredictable natural conditions Social Hierarchy o Successful military leaders eventually worked their way to kingship by conquering city-states These kings were known as lugal o Government was by divine rule (theocracy) o The kings (lugal) were seen as mortal beings who had derived power from the Gods HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion o Lugal had access to newest military technology i.e. Bronze & the wheel (hence the Bronze Age) Bronze replaced copper because it was stronger and easier to forge o The wheel motivated trade & created a military advantage (chariots) King Sargon of Akkad took control of the Sumerians due to a lack of unity causing vulnerability Chapter 2: Near East King Sargon united the Sumerian city-states into the first early Empire = Akkadian Empire Adopted cuneiform from Sumerians and some culture/technology Sargon identified Sumerian religion with that of the Akkadians in order to keep unity in the community C. 2200 BC the empire begins to slightly decline o Probably due to civil unrest The rise of the Sumerians becomes obvious due to the building of Ziggurats Hammurabi (1792 1750 BC) & the Babylonians o Hammurabi was chief of Amorite people o Came to power a strong military leader o He was the next person to unify Mesopotamia under single rule o Promoted peace, trade, & stability o Unified the empire with the first Codified Law System Code of Hammurabi o Set of 282 laws o Divided society into 3 categories Noblemen, commoners, slaves o Introduced crime and punishment Punishment varied depending on the culprits social status o Large # of laws focused on marriage and family o Women still subordinate to men o Introduced the power of writing as a political tool o The strict law allowed Babylonians to flourish Accomplishments in math and astronomy o Devised a sexagesimal (base 60) numeric system o Maintained celestial charts o Many of the developments were later adapted by Greeks Chapter 2: Egypt HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion Egyptian culture began flourishing at the same time the Sumerian culture was being developed in Mesopotamia o Shaped by the location of the Nile Relied on periodic flooding to fertilize soil Being surrounded by desert protected Egyptians from invasions o Longest stable civilization in world history o Divided into 3 time periods (old, middle new, kingdom) by historians and intermediate periods (times of civil unrest) o Divided into upper and lower Egypt o Egyptian communities called Nomes Each of these communities ruled by nomarchs (tribal chieftains) o It isn’t certain how Egypt developed into a unified political state under kings and social hierarchy Some claim King Menes Some claim King Narmus o Kings call themselves “king of the two lands” (signifies unification of upper and lower Egypt) o Writing system was hieroglyphs (developed c. 3300 BC) These are hard to decipher and make it hard to pin down exact dates of events o Other forms of writing included Demotic, Hieratic, & Coptic o Demotic eventually replaced hieroglyph because it was more efficient o C. 500 AD Egyptian hieroglyphs no longer used or remembered o Rosetta Stone discovered 1799 AD Allowed historians to decipher hieroglyphs Included same script in Demotic, Hieroglyphs, and ancient Greek Old Kingdom (2695 -2160 BC) o Stability, security, & kingship o Kingship evolved – pharaohs introduced Comes from per aa meaning “Great House” Considered to be gods manifested in human form Granted security and prosperity to the community Ma ‘at was Pharaohs main duty This was the idea of truth, justice, balance, order o 2 Class society: The pharaoh and everyone else o Gov. officials ruled over merchants, artisans agricultural peasants, slaves o Everyone was more than willing to serve the Pharaoh because he was divine HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion o Pharaoh identified as the God Horus o Polytheistic society Some gods part-man some part-animal Some as personified objects o Gods worshipped in hoe of peace and stability o Pyramids- tombs for pharaohs Built before the wheel was introduced o Afterlife Burial rituals—mummification (led to developments in medicine, anatomy, and surgery) Massive tomb complexes for safe transition to after life Sarcophagus – type of coffin Egyptian Book of the dead Provided specific instructions on how to peacefully move on to the afterlife Decline of old kingdom possibly due to the environmental changes (flooding of the Nile) also economic issues and civil war Period of chaos known as 1 intermediate period Ended w the rise of the middle kingdom Middle Kingdom (2025 – 1786 BC) o Pharaohs shared power w local nobility o Redistribution of wealth and power o King Mentuhotep II From Thebes (upper Egypt) Conquered lower Egypt and reunited the regions Prospered for 300 years o C. 1700 BC Egypt is successfully invaded by the Hyksos Hyksos = “rulers from Foreign Lands” Semitic people from Eastern Mediterranean Took over much of lower Egypt + Nile River Delta Centralized Gov. not entirely destroyed Results in 2ndintermediate period New Kingdom o Pharaoh Ahmose kicks Hyksos out of Egypt o Height of power and territory o Thutmose I succeeded Ahmose as a strong military leader With the help of horse-drawn chariots o Pharaohs of the new kingdom called “warrior pharaoh” o After Thutmose’s death his sister-wife takes power (Hatshepsut) HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion Bro-sis marriage was very common in order to keep the divine power o Hatshepsut is depicted on statues with masculine features that assert her power as a pharaoh Accomplished stabilization of trade routes Successful military campaigns Created massive building projects One of at least 7 other female pharaohs Egyptian women enjoyed more freedom than those living in Mesopotamia Could represent herself in a trial Could sue for divorce Some women even learned to read and write o Thutmose III succeeded her o The new kingdom arguably reaches its height when Amenhotep IV comes to power Initiated religious change and introduced a new way to worship the Sun God—this solar deity (Aten) could not be envisioned in a human/anima form like how the gods were previously worshipped. Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaten in order to assert his power and support of the new religious change he had made The religious change was abandoned as soon as Akhenaten died Historians have argued that his wife Nefertiti ruled after his death o They were both succeeded by Tutankhamen Famous because his tomb as found in 1922 Last Autonomy o 19 dynasty o Rule of Ramses II (1279 – 1213 BC) o Invading “sea peoples” (the Philistines) prevented Ramses + his successors to reestablish Egypt’s dominance and unification o Ended under 20 dynasty (1070 BC) o Invaded by Assyrians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans (all during different time periods) Chapter 2: History of the Hebrews Hebrews introduced Monotheism (believed to once be polytheistic) o Contributed religious legacy to western civilization more than any other society HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion Hebrew Bible o Known by Christians as the New Testament o Collection of laws, myth, religion, ritual, family trees that cover c. 2000 – 200 BC Written after 1000 BC o 3 major materials The Torah: means “The Teaching” AKA Book of Moses Includes 5 books of Hebrew bible The Prophets Books that cover God’s relationship with his people The Writings Includes the Psalms and Canticles Also proverbs and Wisdom o According to tradition Abraham + followers migrated from Ur to Canaan & became known as “Children of Israel” Semi-nomadic Terms Israelites & Hebrews interchangeable People divided into 12 tribes Lived under authority of Canaanites Civil unrest between Canaanites and Hebrews caused Hebrews to flee to Egypt Lived peacefully in Egypt until they were enslaved by the Pharaoh Moses led people out of Egypt in The Exodus with the help of God, Yeweh (sent 10 plagues to Egypt) Eventually went back to Canaan o Little archeological evidence supports the Biblical events o Canaan (promised land) After returning Israelites were threatened by Philistines o Saul (first King) o David (2 ndking) Defeated Philistines Solidified Jerusalem as capital o Solomon (succeeds David) Constructed Temple of Jerusalem Height of power + commercial wealth o After Solomon’s death the kingdom was divided Kingdom of Israel (North) Capital: Samaria 10 tribes Kingdom of Judah (South) HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion Capital: Jerusalem o Israel fell to Assyrians c. 722 BC o Judah fell to Neo-Babylonians in 586 BC Forced Babylonian captivity onto Jews o Western Civ. adopted many of the monotheistic values Scripture used to codify, disseminate, and preserve religious text Foundation for Christian New Testament + Qur’an Ethical monotheism = belief that Gods laws are the foundation for moral value/belief Chapter 2: Near East Expands Phoenicians o Residents in Canaan Cities here included Sidon, Biblos, Tyre o Semitic-speaking people o Excelled at maritime exploration and trade o Created on of the first great commercial empires Colonies including Carthage and Massilia Eventually became the Carthaginian Empire Defeated by romans in third century BC o Best known for simplified writing system Created a 22 letter alphabet which was used in combination to spell words First letter aleph second letter beth = alphabet Greeks eventually adapted their writing system from this one Origin of most writing systems o Eventually conquered by the Assyrians Assyrian Empire o Dominated near east after fall of Egyptians o Semitic speaking o Occupied the region of Assur o Eventually established an empire at the capital Nineveh (c. 900 BC) o Arguably greatest army the world had yet seen o Rule of Assurnasirpal (883 – 859 BC) Expanded annual military campaigns Developments in war technology Trained standing army Use of iron weapons Advanced engineering skills Use of siege warfare (siege towers and battering rams) HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion o Kings were said to be brutal ruled through military autocracy Thought of as representatives of the God Assur o Conquered all of Mesopotamia and Israel (deported the 10 lost tribes in 722 BC) o War connected with religion and culture = gods demanded worship through military conquest o King supported by other elites o Contributions from the capital city of Nineveh Official documents were preserved here ie Epic of Gilgamesh o Kings harsh rule led to rebellion and civil unrest o 7 century BC = Neo-Babylonians and the Medes revolted which causes the collapse of the Assyrian Empire Neo- Babylonians o AKA the Chaldeans o Originally from persian gulf o Short-lived power but significant none the less o King Nabopolassar (c. 626 – 605 BC) Son Nebuchadnezzar II )605 – 562 BC) o These kings claimed decent from the old Babylonian kingdom of Hammurabi o Empire expanded through Egypt and canaan o Captured Jerusalem and forced Hebrews of Judah into Babylonian exile o Rebuilding of Babylon Hanging Gardens of Babylon Supposedly built for Nebuchadnezzar’s wife (Queen Amytis) Gate of Babylon o Detailed star charts from mathematical and strological achievements Spread throught Greece and Egypt Persians o Indo-European-speaking o Originated from the western Iranian plateau o Related to the Medes o Cyrus the Great (c. 559 – 530 BC) Established the Achaemenid Empire o Persian influence into Lydia, Media, Mesopotamia, and Sogdia o Established satrapies = division of the empire into provinces ruled by governors (satraps) Allowed for local autonomy o 539 BC Cyrus captures Babylon and releases Israelites HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to The Age of Expansion o Introduced irrigation techniques – qanats Increase of wealth due to crop production o Diplomatic and benevolent king o Cambyses succeeded Cyrus o Darius succeeded Cambyses Undertook extensive building projects and canals Empire at its peak Changed administrative policies Expanded into Greek mainland Battle of Marathon (it was unsuccessful) o Zoroastrianism was main religion Comparable to monotheist Hebrew religion Zoroaster was given revelations about the religion Avesta = sacred text One benevolent God = Ahuramazda An evil opponent to Ahuramazda named Ahriman Explained struggle between good and evil One of the oldest ongoing religions in the world o Made contact with Greeks in the Aegean Sea HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 3: Archaic and Classical Greece Greek history begins around 2,000 BC Bronze Age Greece – The Minoans o Indo-Europeans settle around Aegean Sea on the island of Crete o Minoan civilization used metals such as bronze for tools/weapons (hence Bronze Age) o Minoan culture discovered 20 c. by Sir Arthur Evans English archaeologist Names the civilization after King Minos (Crete legend) Discovered a palace complex at Knossos o Relied heavily on sea trade (with Egypt and Greek mainland) o Invented a writing system; 2 distinct scripts were found as evidence Linear A: in use by 1800 BC. The un-deciphered script of Minoan Crete Linear B: appeared c. 300 years later. Script of the Mycenaean civilization o Palace at Knossos was for royal kings who ran the society o 1450 BC Collapse of Minoans (arguable cause) Tsunami triggered a volcano to erupt Mycenaeans invade Chapter 3: Bronze Age Greece – The Mycenaeans (c. 1600 – 1100 BC) o Site excavated in 1870’s on Mainland Greece o Supposedly ruled by King Agamemnon Commander during Trojan War o Created a commercial network (sea trade) o Warrior society o Conquered Crete and some Aegean islands o Unable to unify into an empire Because Greece is spread out Internal divisions of military leaders o Linear B was their main script and describes the supply lists for armies Other tablets include grain ration and armor allocations o Mycenaean culture seen within Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey Scholars have debated the historical significance of these poems o The society ended around 1200 BC HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Potentially invaded by sea peoples (Assyrians) or the Dorians Environmental factors Internal conflict Dark Age Greece (1200 – 800 BC) o After the collapse of the Mycenaeans o No evidence of writing o Greeks began migrating throughout the Aegean Settled throughout the coast of Asia Minor and modern day turkey o Many Mycenaean regions still occupied but no kings or central economies o Revival of agriculture/trade/commerce o Swithh from bronze to iron (cheaper) o 8 c. BC Greeks began writing again o Adoption of the Phoenician alphabet o Oral tradition kept Greek culture alive Chapter 3: Homer and Homeric Society o Homer wrote epic poems based on oral traditions passed down called the Iliad and the Odyssey Date of composition debated Demonstrate cultural values o Iliad Story of the Trojan War, Achilles demonstrates desired qualities in a man Kidnapping of the Queen of Sparta Helen Husband Menelaus tries to retrieve his wife and asks help from his brother Agamemnon (king of Mycenae) Agamemnon attacks troy for 10 years and finally sacks the city with the help of Odysseus and the creation of the Trojan Horse o Odyssey Tale of Odysseus after the war Takes 10 years to return to his wife in Ithaca o Arête = excellence Epic heroes display this characteristic The Polis o After the dark ages was the Archaic Age of Greece o Polis = Greek city-state Independent community of people HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Mountain regions and various islands promoted these communities Varied in size and power o New archaic military system based on Hoplites Hoplites = armed infantry men with a hoplon (shield) Would march into battle in the phalanx formation (an organized rectangle formation normally 8 men deep) o Usually was successful in battle o Greeks took original culture from the poleis o Between 750 and 500 BC Greeks massively colonized in search of fertile land o Greek colonies founded in Southern Italy Tarentum (Taranto), Neapolis (Naples), Syracuse This establishment of colonies was called Magna Graecia Caused diffusion of trade and industry Chapter 2: Culture of the Archaic Age Influence of art from the Near east in Greek Poleis o Kouros statues show striking similarities to Egyptian statues Greek Poetry during this time was mostly lyric o Lyric poetry concerns love/emotion o Sappho from Lesbos was a famous poet Rare successful woman with access to literary education and a career as a poet The word lesbian comes from Sappho’s isle of Lesbos Homosexuality was common and accepted and Sappho’s love poetry was dedicated to male and female lovers o Hesiod Famous poet who wrote Works and Days and Theogony Thogony describes the genealogy and origin of the Greek Gods This narrative solidified many beliefs of Greek Gods Tyranny o The word tyranny did not always have such a negative connotation and used to be defined as someone who simply took power by force o This was a common for of political rule HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion o Oedipus Tyrant of Thebes o Tyrants tended to pass down power unto their sons and grandsons o Tyranny did not last because the people didn’t really favor it Mostly abandoned by 6 c. BC o Aristocratic oligarchies were demolished and different types of Gov. were established in different polis Expanded oligarchies Democracies Sparta o Polis located in region of Laconia o Grew to be a dominant military society o Helots = citizens who were captured and worked as slaves bound to the land which allowed others to form a professionalized military o According to legend Spartans were given their political, economic, military system by Lycurgus (who received it from the Gods) o Military dominated the Peloponnese for centuries o Militarization of Spartiates began at birth Elders would decide whether the child was unhealthy or weak (and therefore exposed on a mountainside) or healthy Children were returned to their mothers until age 6 o Agoge = education system of Sparta (begins at age 6) Boys are sent to live in community Barracks with men Endured intense and harsh training & education for military discipline At age 20 boys would be enrolled in the army At age 30 men are allowed to vote and marry Served until age 60 Females remain with their mothers Maintained the household Educated and encouraged to exercise to promote health/fertility Allowed to compete physically like the men o Community > individuality o Marked graves were only for those who died for the sake of the state o Well organized politics HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Oligarchy Dual kingship (two kings from diff. families: the Agiads and Eurypondids Responsible for military and religious affairs Council of elders = gerusia 28 citizens >60 years old Apella = matters presented to all male citizens for a vote Ephors = male citizens > 30 elected as judges that would supervise the education and conduct of everyone o Rejected outside influence i.e. Trade, foreigners Discouraged from travel and art Athens o Dates back to the Neolithic age th o United polis within Attica by 7 c. BC o Ekklesia = state assembly All freeborn male citizens could vote o Archons = judges in court o Philosophy, art, and literature flourished Reforms of Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes o Economic/political crisis begins at the end of the 7 c. BC Farmers sold into debt-slavery, not able to pay loans Protest of lower class o Draco 1 attempt to fix the crisis Enforced the death penalty for nearly every unlawful infraction Caused the issues to worsen The word draconian comes from Draco o Solon was appointed archon (leading magistrate) in 594 BC Instituted the Seisachteia = “the shaking-off of burdens” He cancelled private debts and debt-slavery which helped the lower class but not the rich aristocrats So he redistributed land to make the rich people happy too Let more people be involved in politics The system before Solon enforced everyone to be born into their political status therefore not allowing for much political variation Solon changed it to be based on wealth instead This eliminated the aristocratic monopoly on politics HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion He created the boule = a council of 400 men who decided the agenda for meetings of all citizens The change of process in election and participation of Gov. reformed the traditional rule of the elite Solon empowered individual citizens promoting democratic ideas People had the right to appeal in court Citizens had some control over their own justice After enacting these reforms Solon left Athens This resulted in a power vacuum o 546 BC Pisistratus seizes control and becomes a tyrant of Athens He embarked on a large scale building project Promoted cultural economic and architectural advancement Gave many poor people jobs which helped the economy When his sons Hippias and Hipparchus gained power they ruled harshly and unjustly; they were overruled by the Alcmaeonids o Cleisthenes (member of the Alcmaeonid family) gained power in 508 BC Developed democracy – he is known as the “father of Athenian democracy” Democracy allowed full political participation to a small percent of the population They weren’t allowed to vote or be in office He divided the society into regions of neighborhood and villages called demes Each deme elected council members The council members were then randomly picked in a place drawing He expanded the boule from 400 to 500 Political participation was no longer based on wealth but instead based on where the citizen lives Chapter 3: Classical Greece Clash between Persians and Greeks By 6 c. BC Persians conquered and controlled the SW portion of Asia minor where Greek colonies resided Lonians = citizens in SW portion of Asia Mino o They revolted unsuccessfully in 499 BC 490 BC Persians invade Greece HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion The Battle of Marathon o Persian invasion against the Athenians and Platean allies o Greeks won the battle due to the phalanx formation strategy o Greek troops led by Miltiades and forced Persia out of Greece o Story of Pheidippides Ran 155 miles to Sparta to Athena to Marathon to Athens and declaring “Nike!” (“Victory”) and then dying Themistocles was elected as a new archon leader o Developed a navy and built c. 200 triremes (ships with banks of 3 oars) 480 BC The Persian King Xerxes invades Greece o Led about 150,000 ground troops and 700 ships o c. 300 Spartans and 900 Greeks led by King Leonidas to meet the Persians at Thermopylae o The Athenian navy met the Persians off the coast of the straights of Artemisium -- held off the Persians for 2 days Were betrayed the Greek Ephialtes o Athenians abandoned Athens and fled to the island of Salamis o Themistocles reorganized his navy and met the Persians once again o The battle of Salamis was a Greek victory Xerxes retreated but left a Persian force in Thessaly 479 BC Spartans defeated a Persian force at the Battle of Plataea NW of Athens A Greek force followed the Persians to Mycale and expelled the Persians from expanding into Greece The Delian League = a confederation of Greek poleis who prepared for another Persian invasion o Headquarters at the sacred island of Delos o All officers/commanders were Athenian o Defeated Persia fleet army in 469 BC Some poleis withdrew from the League after this battle o Athens attacked these cities o The Delia League became an instrument of Athenian imperialism Athens was under leadership of Pericles o Democracy thrived o This time period often called “Golden Age of Athens” or “Age of Pericles” Theatre and philosophy flourished Radical democracy HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Ecclesia = sovereign entity of the state Passed all laws and made all decisions on peace/war policies o Ostracism = temporary banishment from city by popular vote Exiled for 10 ears System of check and balance This system spread throughout other poleis in the Delian League o Athenian influence spread to Sparta o 454 BC moved treasury of the league from Delos to Athens o Pericles built new temples and buildings most famously the Parthenon o Athens built an empire and spread democracy throughout the poleis in the Delian League without consent of allied states History of Peloponnesian War by Thucydides Sparta dominated an group of poleis called the Peloponnesian League Sparta feared Athens and this led to a prolonged war between the two Chapter 3: The Peloponnesian War The war lasted 27 years (longest war in ancient Greece) Lead to the decline of the autonomy of poleis Athens = superior naval power Sparta = superior ground military Athens avoided land battles with the Spartans y building “long walls” o This worked until a plague struck in 430 BC o Killed thousands for 4 years including Pericles o Cleon succeeded Pericles and was more aggressive with Sparta Defeated the Spartans Killed inn 422 BC Both commanders of Sparta and Athens were killed the same year and then the two empires sued for peace 416 BC peace is broken and they resume fighting Athenian commander Alcibiades o 415 BC Athens invades Sicily in pursuit of rich land o Athens was defeated o Sicily was allies with Sparta so Athens was ultimately at the mercy of Sparta HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Sparta enforced an antidemocratic regime called The Thirty Tyrants o Between 404 and 403 BC oligarchs brutally killed all opposers and ruled with cruelty o Athens fought off the Tyrants – democracy was restored in Athens By 400 BC Athenian control in Greece was no more Culture in Classic Athens o History was a Greek discipline o Herodotus = “father of Western History” wrote History of the Persian Wars o Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War = his approach to history is similar to our own o Theatre was used to educate, persuade, and convince not simply entertain Only male actors Greek tragedy = Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides are most famous playwrights Greek Comedy included grotesque masks, over- emphasized themes, and obscenities = Aristophanes is most famous comic playwright o Philosophy = philos- (meaning love) and –sophia (meaning wisdom) “the love of wisdom” Pre-Socratic = philosophers before Socrates The role of Gods was removed in understanding the universe Sophists = 5 c. teachers who charged $$ for services and said that attempting to understand or rationalize the universe was foolish Stressed the discipline of rhetoric (persuasive speech) Socrates Most of what we know comes from his pupil Plato Didn’t write any of his work down Taught students the fundamentals of his doctrine Socratic Method - question-and-answer method that allows students to answer their own questions Accused of corrupting the youth by not worshipping the civic gods People of Athens often felt upset because they felt ignorant HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Condemned to death in 399 BC Plato Epistemology – how do we know what is real Forms = pure, unchanging ideas Distaste for democracy Created the Academy – a philosophical institution o Aristotle studied here Aristotle Pupil of Plato Spent time analyzing and categorizing Created foundation for zoology, biology, and taxonomy Wrote treatises on politics and Gov. Tried to find the best form of Gov. through rational thought He supported a constitutional Gov. o Religion Greeks were polytheistic Civic and private sacrifices (I the form of animal, liquid, libation, incense, or votive gift Festivals and rituals dedicated to each god Western Civilization From Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 4 Hellenistic Greece 09/14/2016 ▯ Chapter 4: King Philip II of Macedonia Macedon rises as a solidified kingdom under the rule of King Archelaus Internal conflict after his death and until King Philip II King Philip II Reorganized the Macedonian army Silver/gold mines funded the military reconstruction The army became a career o Troops were paid regularly and were expected to be ready for combat at any moment in time o This was different from the Greeks who separated military life from personal life—those who served in the army were only really involved when the polis was threatened otherwise they pursued other careers of interest o More specialization and unification o New phalanx formation o Longer spear o Specialized training o Philip fought with his troops in order to strengthen the bond with his army Conquered Thracians and Illyrians (northern Greece) Expanded to southern Greece toward Athens o In Athens Demosthenes delivered speeches to Athenians criticizing Philip as a barbarian o At the battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) Philip conquered the united Greek force Philip strategically conquered city states as he expanded Rather than forcing them to abide by his laws only and discard their political tradition and culture Philip made an alliance with the Greek poleis o This was called the Corinthian league under his leadership ▯ Chapter 4: Alexander The Great After King Philip II died Alexander the great continued his father’s legacy Became king of Macedonia at 21 y/o Tutored by Aristotle Followed his fathers footsteps and invaded Persia By 334 BC Alexander had control of Asia Minor By 332 BC he had control of Levant and Egypt In Egypt Alexander visited an oracle and was declared divine This helped him established credibility as a king in the eyes of the Egyptians He established power in the new city of Alexandria The Battle of Issus Alexander conquered Persia and executed The Great King of Persia: Darius III Burned down the city of Persepolis A symbol of revenge for the destruction of Athens by the Persian Invasion in 490 BC Over the next five years alexander conquered land throughout Parthia all the way to India By the time his troops convinced him to end his campaign before attempting to conquer India he was King of Macedonia Pharaoh of Egypt Lord of Asia The Great King of Persia He died in Babylon in 323 BC at 33 y/o Alexander placed a satrap in each new conquered territory—this was a provincial governor Named many conquered territories after himself These locations promoted trade between Europe and Asia Hellenism is defined as the spread of Greek culture throughout Alexander’s conquest Particular spread of Greek language The most common Greek language became the lingua franca of the ancient world Language of the new testament and other religious works Founded many libraries throughout different cities Information of biology, botany, and geography Promoted the spread of knowledge Alexander died without an heir to his throne which caused the empire to divide Alexander married Roxane who was still pregnant by his death It is not known if the baby survived After his death there was a lot of civil unrest and 3 kingdoms emerged and brought back monarchy: The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt The Seleucid dynasty in Asia The Antigonid dynasty in Macedonia They were dominate for the next 300 years There was a lot of conflict over territory/authority Some kings tried to unite and enforce their rule by incorporating local customs Greeks were forced to follow policy with a little bit of room for autonomy Hellenistic warfare got bigger and more professionalized War elephants Naval ships Catapults Hellenistic kingdoms were reliant on urban center where trade flourished Cosmopolitanism emerged No longer emphasis on identity to ONE polis Alexandria was one of the most popular and thriving cities Constant wars between kings Unpredictable rule Chapter 4: Hellenistic Culture Sculptors o Introduced emotions to the art of sculptors o Hellenistic art focused on personalization o Idea of the individual Philosophy o Individualism o Questioning the best way to be happy and attain tranquility o Stoicism: followers believed in the inevitability of fate and that thru logic and reason one could attain virtue Comes from the Greek word for “painted porch” (where doctrines would be discussed) Founder Zeno of Citium Virtue for the stoics: involved in politics to better society Stoics did not fear death Believed that people lived the same life over and over again in a neverending cycle o Epicureanism: in order to achieve ideal happiness one must live a life of pleasure Founded by Epicurus Pleasure defined as: not the absence of pain but free from passions and desires Pleasure in moderation o Philosophy of the Cynics Rejection societal notions Cynic = meaning “like a dog” Dogs have no shame Most famous cynic was Diogenes (Socrates gone mad) Apparently he defecated, masturbated, and fornicated in public to abandon restrictions of society Hellenistic Philosophy differed from classical because it focused on the individual rather than the community Science o Kings motivated scholars to teach and research o Separation of science and philosophy o This era has been called the Scientific Revolution of Antiquity Mathematics o Famously taught by Euclid o Archimedes of Syracuse – calculation of pi Developed mechanical devices Astronomy o Aristarchus of Samos Proposed first heliocentric model of the universe with the sun in the center o Eratosthenes Calculated circumference of the earth Cstesibius invented pneumatics o Innovative advancements weren’t for the practical application to society Many of these helped strengthen the Hellenistic military Greek Religion o Diversity o The Olympian Pantheon Consisted of 12 Greek gods and goddesses o Gods were thought to live on mount Olympus o Gods: Zeus, Apollo, Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Dionysus o Goddesses: Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, Demeter, Artemis, Hestia o Ancestors were worshipped o Festivals held in honor of the Pantheon o Olympic Games held for Zeus every 4 years o Contact with the gods through oracles and sanctuaries Hellenistic Religion o Greek practices continued and other rituals were added o More personal religious aspects o Mystery Cults: secret groups who’s followers were directed how to proceed into the afterlife and find salvation Eleusinian Mysteries One of the longest lasting mystery cults o New Greek gods incorporated into religion o Identifying different religious gods as the same but with different names Hellenistic Judaism o Conflict in region of Judaea under rule of Antiochus IV o Troops seized the temple of Jerusalem which sparked a rebellion led by Judas Maccabaeus o Jews reclaimed their temple in 164 BC o Celebrated with Hanukah o Jews established the Hasmonean Dynasty and ruled independently until Rome ▯ Chapter 4: Hellenistic Culture Part II Women in the Greek world Status depended on when and where a woman lived Hesiod = Greek poet Portrays women as the root of all evil (myth of Pandora) Homer depicts women as both the cause of war and the element that’s worth fighting for Spartan women had greater freedoms than Athenian women Women saw a rise in visibility = still viewed as inferior though Freedoms in marriage, land ownership, lifestyle, wealth Women could SIGN MARRIAGE CONTRACTS! o Meaning they were given LEGAL RIGHTS Proof of this through preserved information The wealth in and economy allowed breathing room from traditional constraints THEIR FREEDOMS DEPENDED ON WHERE THEY LIVED ▯ ▯ Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 5: Roman Republic 09/16/2016 Mythological foundation of Rome Most sources are late & legendary Livy wrote c. 700 years after the foundation of Rome which is claimed to be April 21, 753 BC The legend of Romulus and Remus Out of fear of the these twin brothers’ rise to power, their uncle threw them into the Tiber River They were found by the shewolf (lupa in Latin) and taken care of before they were found by a shepherd who raised them as his own When the twin eventually discover their identity they return to the banks of Tiber Romulus kills Remus and founds Rome on top of Capitoline Hill Romulus becomes first king of Rome Rome was born through struggle and violence Not enough evidence to support this legend Archeologists found evidence of prehistoric IndoEuropeans called Latins (in Italian peninsula) they settled Latium Italy geography Protected at 3 sides by the sea The alps on the north create a barrier from central Europe Po Valley – a fertile plain in the north helped Italy strive agriculturally Situated on banks of Tiber river – allows for trade and commerce Between the eastern and western Mediterranean Other groups followed Latins and settled in Italy Etruscans established in north of Rome in Etruria Greeks in southern Italy known as Magna Graecia Settled around 750700 BC Cities Syracuse, Tarentum, and Naples were founded Influence on Roman culture Latin language shares similarities with Greek language Romans adopted Greek idea of alphabetic writing system Influence on Rome in agriculture, literature, religion Etruscans Sophisticated urban culture Unclear origin and history C. 650 BC dominant economic and cultural presence in Italy Controlled Rome and Latium at height of power Decline c. 400 BC Invaded by Gauls Language mostly forgotten Impact on Rome o Influenced creation of cities, architecture, religion Chapter 5: Kingdom of Rome First under control of 7 consecutive kings in 250year period The first was Romulus 2. Numa Pompilius (credit for a lot of religious tradition) 3. Tullus Hostilius 4. Ancus Marcius 5. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus 6. Servius Tulius 7. Lucius Tarquinius Sperbus After decline of Etruscan domination monarchy also ended These simultaneous events are attributed in Livy’s The Rape of Lucretia o Lucretia was a noble woman who was respected for her virtue o She was raped by the son of the last king o She commits suicide after telling her family o She becomes the ideal roman woman: she chose death over dishonor o To avenge her death romans drove the king and his family out of Rome o Romans then vowed never to have a king again o Birth of roman republic Roman republic Traditional date of establishment in 509 BC Called the res publica – the public thing Scholars agree the republic was established over a period of time appx. 250 years Political organization Consul 2 men annually elected to serve together as chief magistrate overseeing political and judicial proceedings Imperium – meaning “command” or “authority” this was the power the consul attained Aim of the consul was to prevent monarchies or dynasties from forming Kingship basically rested on 2 men instead of 1 o Nothing changed for lower class Consuls were allowed to veto o Later causes violence and civil unrest Fasces – an axe surrounded by a bundle of rods that symbolized Consular power For serious emergencies a dictator would be appointed for 6 months Senate – aristocrats who advised the consuls o Comprised of about 300 officials elected for life o Could adivse magistrates o BASICALLY had legislative power because the kings always did what they advised Quaestors – assisted in financial affairs Aediles – presided over public festivals and grain supply Praetor – in charge of civil law and maintaining imperium and justice Social hierarchy Society divided into 2 orders (ordo meaning rank) Patricians: small group of elite aristocrats; strictly hereditary Plebeians: General population; term became generalized for poorer classes Assemblies were essential and allowed citizens to participate in political affairs o Men met to decide on legislation, judicial decisions, elections, foreign/domestic policy o Sometimes would discuss slaves and women o Groups would vote on these issues but groups were divided by wealth and social status The Centuriate Assembly was dominated by patricians early on This caused plebeians to form their own assembly that they could actually participate in Forced romans to create a compromise o Through a series of struggles called The Struggle of the Orders o Resulted in the Plebian Assembly The plebian Assembly was allowed to vote on laws but Patricians were not allowed o Could hold office by 287 BC o Elected officials called tribunes – main job to ensure balance between classes The Tribal Assembly – both patricians and plebeians; one of the most important assemblies in Rome After the struggle of the orders The Twelve Tables were formed Chapter 5: Culture of The Republic Roman Family Interaction between men and Gods o Slave and master o Husband and wife o Rich and poor Mos maiorum – “the way of the ancestors” foundation of the roman family system; enforced to ensure peace and p
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