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Sociology 101

by: Jane Notetaker

Sociology 101 SOCY 101

Jane Notetaker
Virginia Commonwealth University

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Test 2 Study Material and class notes on chapters 6-9
Zachary Goodell PhD
Study Guide
Socy, sociology, SOC1010
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Zachary Goodell PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Looking glass self def. and man Your conception of self is always distorted self-deprecating or trump (can't do anything wrong) C.H. Cooley Appropriated self Your self doesn't end with skin. We think of person/self as embodied in skin.As we clothe ourselves we extend/ appropriate self and belongings Extending to belongings though, family and friends Sense of loss (appropriated self) when in crisis (fire, flood) belongings destroyed  Appropriated self- Feelings of _________ when people look through your belongings violation Desocialization unlearn role/behavior that is associated with a relinquished status  Status Position held Role behavior expected of position  As you move through the day, _____ and ___ change @ work, home, etc status and role Unlearning social behaviors in cases of  divorce and spousal death (widow, widower) Resocialization fundamentally changing people Total institutions -2 groups and man -Dominate and subordinate groups -Goffman Dominate group -def. and ex. -total control of public and private life of subordinate group -Prison, military, mental asylums, etc. Subordinate group def. Agroup whose members have significantly less control or power over their lives than do the members of a dominant or majority group. degradation rituals def. We have to break you down/get rid of old self to get new self Central to resocialization process Depersonalization -def. and ex. -Subordinate group- take away individuality (uniformity) Dominate group does this to the subordinate group -uniforms, ranks, numbers, etc. Dehumanization -what happens to the dominate group -Enter with lots of emotion, sympathy/empathy-----> become callous after time, aloof (distancing self) -Wear sunglasses, hats, uniforms Infantilization -Relationship between dominate and subordinate group--- Codependency of 2 groups -When prisoners get out of prison they can't make it on their own---------> leads to recidivism (repeat offenses)-------> leading to more jail time In prison you are __________ to the ways of prison resocialized  Stanford prison experiment Random assignment of participants to prisoner and guard groups -no guidelines given- only lasted 6 days, out of planned 2 weeks Social structure micro/macro and def micro status and role- for every system there are status' and roles (ex. education- students and teacher) role set a range of behaviors that are appropriate for a certain status dramaturgy -man and def. -Erving Goffman -compilation of experiences, relationships, and history that makes up personality -Self vs virtual self virtual self things you will and will not share with others Presentation of self (impression management) we present ourselves with clothing, possessions, etc -sometimes we are truthful other times we are not how we judge others' presentations and our reaction to being judged  --we look at peoples faces, expressions, and body language -we get embarrassed when we don't make the impression we intend (blushing, flustered) frontstage vs backstage front stage- most of life and day we are front stage (continue drama as actors) *We know people are watching us backstage- you can be yourself- you don't think anyone is watching Role strain occurs when you have 1 STATUS that has too many roles attached to it, causing you to feel overwhelmed (ex. motherhood) Role conflict When you occupy more than 1 STATUS at the same time (roles create a conflict of interest) -ex. work relationships- boss wants employee level, not relationship level Role emersion When you become so immersed in a role, that it becomes reality -ex. Stanford prison experiment, mother, workaholic Role distance I am more than 1 role or mindset, a lot of different experiences that lead to decision making -ex. college student We enter into situations __________, ______ the situation accordingly, and _____ the appropriate status and role predictably, define, adopt Ethnomethodology -study of the "taken for granted" social world -Apeoples way of life (roles and habits) -Ethno=people, folks -breaching behaviors (experiments) Aligning actions -types and order >Disclaimers- prevent social order too much---- before something happens >Tact- trying not to acknowledge something that has happened- reduce the severity of the breach-------while something is happening >rationalizations of behavior, vocabulary of motives, justifying behavior (EXCUSESAND APOLOGIES)-------after something happens Justifications -Reject acknowledgment that behavior is bad -Acknowledge- accept responsibility for actions -Ex. war good vs evil- Want to save the world (bush and war with Iraq) Excuse -Acknowledge that behavior is bad -Reject accepting responsibility -Ex. Rapist abused as child themselves, asking for it Apologies  -Acknowledge that behavior is bad -Acknowledge and accept responsibility People often use apologies, excuses, and justifications (CORRECT ORDER) excuses, justifications, and then apologies (maybe) Society is objective- apriori micro/macro macro Society is subjective micro/macro micro Social order is temporary, fragile, and constantly in negotiation Sociology of emotions (feelings vs emotions) feelings- private emotions- public, words given to inner feelings----Socially constructed, exchanged, and maintained over time Continuum of feelings- moves from comfortable---> uncomfortable Calm (set)-----> anxious (upset) examples of continuum of feelings Upset- Love and hate Conman- confidence man- tells you what you want to hear Stewardess- makes you feel comfortable as you fly Car salesman- tries to find an emotion connection (even if they have to lie) Rules- how to feel and behave at a wedding, funeral, graduation, divorce Primary groups very close, at times intimate, relationships (family and friends) Unstructured/dynamic Secondary groups  Business-like relationships--work, school, institutions Structured Leadership- Instrumental vs Expressive Instrumental- strict, no-nonsense, goal-oriented Expressive- like subordinated to feel good about what they're doing, expressive, emotional Leadership styles Authoritarian- closest to instrumental role Democratic- seek democracy---> input from others Laissez faire- not a lot of guidance to consensus needed Conformity- Asch experiment Experiment 8 out of 9 people were confederates (told to lie and pick wrong choice) -33% of subjects conformed to group pressure Conformity: Milgram experiment -2 groups of people (teachers and students) Authority Pressure -Will the fear of painful punishment induce quicker learning?---What teachers thought -Students were confederates-- would teacher increase voltage Confederate Someone who is in on the experiment No one knows this but the researcher(s) Dyad 2 person group connected by a very strong bond Triad 3 person group 3rd person serves as an outlet- can diffuse problems 3 types of formal organizations  Utilitarian, Normative, and Coercive  Utilitarian  instrumental, work-oriented, means to an end Self- interest Normative elevate values, get people to embrace certain values higher good Coercive  For better or for worse (prison, hospitalization (mental asylum)) *Could also be involuntary prisons and treatment centers Characteristics of a Bureaucracy  Problems- Alienation "cog in machine" Mcdonaldization Evolution of the formal organization  1st scientific management- how to organize environment to increase productivity -Work was skill based --Assembly line -1980's Japanese cars surpassed american cars in quality and and sales -People in the assembly line did;t see final product- no investment (Saturn came up with production teams in order to rectify this) Post-industrial age  Tech and info age -work not based on certain skills---Less physical, more intellectual Post-industrial age participated in shift in _______ and _______ charts economy, industrial charts Mcdonalization- effects and examples -Improved efficiency -Predictability -Uniformity -Control Ex.- Doc-in-box, Schooling (large class size and online), cubicles Sex vs Gender sex- biological state gender- social attitudes, behaviors, and feelings (masculinity vs. femininity) How much of the population is made up of inter sexual people less than(<) 1%  Primary sexual characteristics  reproductive parts Secondary sexual characteristics other physical characteristics  Deviant sex any sex for reasons other than for procreation  Sexual Revolution refers to the widespread changes in men's and women's roles and a greater public acceptance of sexuality as a normal part of social development 1960's-now Deviance- 2 kinds of law Instrumental and symbolic law  Instrumental law any kind of law created/est. to protect individuals or society from harm (victims involved) Means to an end Symbolic law not always enforced , created to send a message- try to capture and elevate certain values in society -breaking moral code -Not always physically harmful 3 types of victimless crimes Sex-related crimes (prostitution, call girl, stripper, brothel, sugar daddy), drug use and gambling  What does C.O.Y.O.T.E. stand for and what does this group do? -Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics -Group of professional prostitutes petitioning right to work -Amsterdam prostitution is legal- women run their own businesses Rape- you are more likely to be victimized by _____________ than by _________. someone you know, a stranger Structural functionalism view on sexual behavior -Sex serves one purpose- procreation -Guidelines for sexual behaviors -Believe that prostitution is immoral but serves a hidden (latent) society function Conflict perspective  looks at how laws are created and enforced--unequal enforcement of the law double standard- people of lower classes can't get away with sex crimes, while higher classes and politicians can (Clinton) Ways to communicate sexuality Suggestive clothing and body language (flirting) Identities for people not willing to define their sexuality Heteroflexible and bicurious Deviance vs. Deviants Deviance- Behaviors that fall outside of normative behaviors Deviants- people who fall outside of normative boundaries (kleptomaniac, pervert, rapists) also (genius or hero/heroine) Norms- 4 types folkways, mores, laws, and taboo can conform or deviate from all of these (crime, mental illness, and physical illness) Explanations of deviance (3) Biological, Psychological, and Sociological factors Biological explanation of deviance people in power try to control citizens thru incurable diseases--best way to manage is physical punishment Drapetomania- an alleged mental disease that afflicted slaves, attempted to escape William Sheldon- what was his study study on body types- endo (skinny), ecto (fat), and mesomorphs (muscles/strong) Caesar Lombrosso Phrenology- study of the shape of skull and violence -The more your skull resembled that of a neanderthal- the more violent you are (where you are on the "evolutionary ladder") Piaget's stages of development • The sensorimotor stage, from birth to age 2 • The preoperational stage, from age 2 to about age 7 • The concrete operational stage, from age 7 to 11 ◦ The formal operational stage, which begins in adolescence and spans into adulthood. Mead: stages of socialization (role-taking) Imitation : significant other Play : interacting with others- imagination Games : role-taking, co-present Minding : generalized other  stage of self-control I (superego)  and the me (Id)             → I am ashamed … form an opinion about yourself Freud → ego social self (how we project ourselves to others) = result of two inner verses fighting = identity (impulsive animal) egocentric vs. superego selfless  perennial and perpetual human struggle 3 critical stages that we go through in childhood that shapes us (freud) -oral stage (weened mother’s breast. will have issues if you were not weened at the right time. - too late : oral fixation like smoking drinking eating disorder. ) -anal stage (not well enough or too well → very orderly, uptight) -psychosexual stage (appropriate sexual orientation) → oedipus conflict: kill father to marry mother → Elektra castrition complex penis envy The Social Self- man and quote/mindset -William James -“Properly speaking, a man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him" The "looking glass” self- man and mindset -Charles Cooley -We see ourselves by the reflection of others (when other people smile at you, you feel good about yourself) -imagine how we appear to other people -we pick up on others’reactions -other people’s judgement = self-esteem -school takes over education 9/18/15 Socialization **Herbert Mead= reflexive mind role-take -imitation (significant others) -play (framily) -games (framily) -minding (generalized other) Frued social Ego (self)- Outer-self Id vs Superego Id- Selfish impulses, child in you Superego- the effect of being well socialized Feral children have a social self You know you have a social self when both the “i” and “me” is inside of you Charles Cooley- The (looking glass) self We see our selves reflected in other people We imagine how we appear to other people (liked/disliked,attractive?) Adopt a self feeling that is consistent with that judgement If you're breastfeeding a child 3+ years they'll develop an oral fixation Smoking, drinking Anal stage: Potty trained, clean, control freaks, OCD develop an anal fixation Psycho-Sexual Stage- Oedipus stage- Men Electra-Complex Stage- Women Its normal for boys to become sexually attracted to girls Its normal for boys to seek the affection and attention of their mother by “killing her” Girls have penis-envy, since they don't have one they have to date one 9/28/15 Feral children have a sense of self, but it is not social 1. Socialization- { H. Mead- I & me The social self { W. James- { C.H. Cooley- Looking-Glass self *Appropriated self- Take it and make it your own Your clothes, what is outside your skin is a statement of yourself Material things When our appropriated stuff is harmed in some way, we feel harmed 2. Desocialization- The process of unlearning a set of behaviors (roles) that are associated with a relinquished status (Adjusting) **Status & Role- Status is a position Role is a set behavior assigned to that position (Status in a classroom: Professor & students) Erving Golman- Total institutions (ex. prison, mental hospital, military) 2 groups of people: Dominant- Totally controls the public and private life of subordinate group (Degradation rituals) Subordinate group- Three Consequences of Degradation Rituals (ex. hazing, cults): 1. Depersonalization- Dominant depersonalizes members of subordinate group (S.O.) 2. Dehumanization- Becoming “aloof” detached and un-personal (Dominant) ex. drill sergeant 3. Infantilization (Relationship b/w groups)- “Parent-child relationship” ex. ex-military adjusting back to a normal citizen 3. Resocializaion- Completely transforming the self (Transformative) 10/2/15 Chapter 5 and 6 are micro level sociology chapters -Social structure: -Social systems (macro) you have statuses and roles or role set (micro) -Dramaturgy: Erving Goffman (total institutions: 2 statuses: dominant and subordinate group) • Front stage vs Back stage: The ways we act when we know were being watched Virtual self (front stage) vs Self (back stage) • • Presentation of self and impression management • Role conflict (when you are occupying two statuses at the same time and their role sets create a conflict of interest like dating someone at work) / role strain • Role emersion vs Role distance • —Ethnomethodology- people’s habits Study of the taken for granted social world in which we live in • • You assume it’s always there • Breaching of the social order: aligning actions has 3 broad categories: Pre, during (tact to ignore), and post 10/5/15 Dramaturgy=Select the appropriate status/role Ethnomethodology=Study of the taken for granted world Breading exp.——> Aligning actions 3 broad categories: Pre (disclaimers) , During (tact, lie, humor), After (rationalize, vocabulary of motives) Justifications-Reject that behavior is bad, accept responsibility Excuses-Accept the behavior is bad, but reject responsibility Apologies-Accept the behavior is bad, accept responsibility Sociology of Emotions (public) vs Feelings (private): Emotions are socially constructed, socially exchanged, and socially maintained -Humor (male/female) 10/7/15 Chapter 7 Groups/Social Organizations (meso) • Primary groups: close, personal, intimate relationships, unpredictable vs Secondary: structure relationships, in-personal, work relationship, predictable • Group leadership -Roles (2) Instrumental: goal oriented vs Expressive: emotional oriented -Styles (3) Authoritarian: Implements goals, buy in or get out Democratic: Seeks consensus, seeks contribution Laissez-Fare: Hands free, works with self motivated groups • Conformity Asch (p.183): Confederate is in on the experiment **Group conformity: Asked first 7 “subjects” to lie, 33% of group conformed Milgram: **Authority figure 2 groups of people: students and teachers Student hooked up to electros Will the fear of electric shock enhance learning 5 categories/subcategories: (cars: lexus, toyota, furniture: lamp, chair) They were studying whether the teacher would turn electro up Student is the confederate Teacher thought student was hooked up but they weren't Student was told to get answers wrong and simulate pain Teachers continued to increase voltage Milgrams presence led to the conforming of teachers (when not present they’d lie about turning it up) •Janus: group think •Group size: Dyads vs Triads Dyads: Strong bond b/w two, bond grows stronger over time, the stronger a bond gets the more brittle it becomes Triads: More durable relationships, not as strong •Types of Formal Organizations (3): -Utilitarian: goal oriented, any place you work/get paid/education -Normative: Group serving larger social good ex: planned parenthood, government org. serving public -Coercive: Membership in involuntary ex: prison, military, mental hospital •**Bureaucracies (6): characteristic and problems with •Evolution of Formal Organizations 1st Industrial era (1900s) 2nd 3rd Post industrial economy, computer age efficiency predictability uniformity and control- McD’s 10/9/15 Chapter 8 Sex and Gender Biology: Male or female…intersexual Socially constructed: Masculinity, femininity (feelings, attitudes, behavior) Androgyny Sex ID vs Sexual orientation 10/12/15 Instrumental laws vs Symbolic laws Victimless— sex laws, gambling laws, drug use Prostitution: Call girls (top level), Brothel workers/massage parlors (middle), Coyote- making business oriented Theoretical Analysis: Micro: How we express sexuality: Clothing, body language, wedding rings Chapter 9 Behavior- Deviance vs Conformity Id- Deviants vs Conformist -Behavior falls outside of the normative boundaries -Folkways, Mores, Laws, Taboo Drapetomania William Sheldon- Prisons 1900’s, noticed majority prisoners have similar body types: mesomorph ectomorph-skinny endomorph-overweight mesomorph-muscular Caser Lomborsao: Phrenology- Skull structure 10/14/15 How do norms become laws: Norms ——> Laws 1. Social Injury (Functional) 2. Consensus Model- Represent the consensus of the people at the time 3. Conflict Model- Reflect the values and interests of the dominant group Strain Theory- Robert Morton 1. Conformist- Accepts goals and means 2. Innovator- Accepts goal, rejects the means 3. Ritualist- Rejects the fact they’ll ever get the goal, accepts the means anyways 4. Retreatist- Reject the goals, reject the means, withdraw from society 5. Rebellers- Reject the goals, reject the means, drag society with them Micro=Labeling Howard Becker - Primary deviance (Public witness and label applied) - Secondary deviance (Result of misinterpretation bc of the label)


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