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Sociology 101

by: Jane Notetaker

Sociology 101 SOCY 101

Jane Notetaker
Virginia Commonwealth University

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About this Document

Class notes on chapters 10-16 and study guide material for Test 3
Zachary Goodell PhD
Study Guide
sociology, Soc 1, Introduction to Sociology, soc, Sociology101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Zachary Goodell PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chapter 10: Social Stratification • Social Stratification: Any system based on rank and reward: class, global, gender, race, age -Four types of stratified systems: Slavery, castes, estates, class system • Caste system- Closed: SS based on ascription (birth) Allows little change • Class systems- Open: SS based on birth and meritocracy (individual achievement) -Permits social mobility, Status consistency is low due to increased social mobility • Ideology: Religious, political and scientific beliefs that justify social arrangements/inequality -Reflects economic system and its level of technology Plato: Fate it inherent in you. Skills and abilities dictate your fate. • Structural-Functionalist Theory: Macro, Points to ways SS helps society operate. -The Davis Moore Thesis: SS is universal because of its beneficial consequences for the operation of society. Believes the poor are responsible for not adjusting to a new economy and pushes for market oriented solutions -If it exists in every society it must be serving a function -Class systems, unequal rewards attract able people to jobs and encourage effort • Social Conflict Theory: Macro, SS divides societies in classes, benefitting some people at the expense of others causing social conflict Karl Marx: Capitalism places economic production under the ownership of capitalists, who exploit the proletarians who sell their labor for wages -Prejudice is used as a tool by powerful people to justify privilege and to oppress others -Rich benefit when prejudice divides workers along racial and ethnic lines and discourages them from working together for their own common interest -Inequality is rooted in one's relationship to means of production and is the source of human conflict, believes that society is responsible for inequality/poverty Often called exploitation theory. Max Weber: Three dimensions of SS: Class, Status, Power -Conflict exists between people at various positions on a multidimensional hierarchy of socioeconomic status (SES): ranking based on dimensions of social inequality. *Education, income, occupational prestige • Symbolic-Interaction Theory: Micro, Sizing people by looking for clues to their social standing -Oscar Lewis's culture of poverty theory, believes that poor welfare recipients are labelled as lazy while wealthy welfare recipients are labelled more positively • Conspicuous consumption: Buying products that make a social class “statement” • Stratification and Technology: -Gerhard Lenski: Technology increases SS, most intense in agrarian societies -Industrialization reduces social stratification -SS increases in post-industrial societies Kuznet Curve: X axis: Degree of stratification Y axis: Hunting/gathering, horti., agr., indus., post-indus. • Four Principles of Stratification: 1st: It’s a trade of society, not a reflection of individual differences 2nd: Carries over from generation to generation. Most people match their parents. 3rd: It’s universal but inconsistent. Distance b/w individuals may vary but it's universally applied. 4th: It involves inequality and beliefs. Pyramid viewed as real and fair. Chapter 11: Social Class • Social Class: A category of people who share similar opportunities, economic positions, lifestyles, attitudes and behaviors. Weber: Close ranked people, Marx: Capitalists vs. Workers SS dimensions: Income, wealth, power, occupational prestige, schooling Differences class makes: Weber- SS affects peoples life chances. Social standing is linked to health, values, politics, and family life. Social position involves caste elements: Ancestry, Race and Ethnicity, Gender Social mobility: Common in US, changes occur one generation to the next, Functional Theory: Developed by Kinglesy Davis and Wilbert Moore. An explanation for the existence of social classes based on the idea that to attract talented individuals to each occupation, society must set systems of differential rewards Downward intergenerational mobility: Plumber whose father was a physician • Social Classes: Upper Class: 5% of population, CEO, elite schools, and a higher education. Middle Class: 40-45% of population, Skilled/semiskilled laborers, white collar, college degree Working Class: 30-35% of population, Blue collar work 1/3 children attend college Lower Class: 20% of population, Live below poverty line, 70% children high-school completion Mobility: Race/Ethnicity: Whites always in a more privileged position, 1990’s More African- Americans became wealthy, Overall income hasn’t changed in three decades, Latinos average income is 61% of whites Mobility: Gender: Women have fewer chances because of the type of jobs they hold, Earning gap between men and women is narrowing Mobility: Marriage: Married people accumulate twice as much wealth compared to single and divorced…Divorce: Social standing goes down -47M people, 15% of the population are poor…48% under 25…67% are white but in realation to population size, blacks are more likely to be poor…1.6M homeless a year Feminization of poverty: Refers to the increasing poverty among female-headed households Culture of Poverty: Oscar Lewis- Assumption that values/behaviors of poor make them different from others. Factors are responsible for poverty and passes generations by passing behavior to their kids. William Wilson: Belief poverty is caused by society unequal distribution of wealth and lack of good jobs Chapter 12: Global Stratification • Global Stratification: Social inequality of wealth, power, prestige in the world as a whole High Income countries: 23% of humanity, 64% global income, high standard of living, 74 nations: US, Canada, Mexico, West Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Japan, S Korea, Australia Middle Income countries: 60% of humanity, 33% global income, average standard of living, 72 nations: East Europe, Peru, Brazil, Egypt, India Low Income countries: 17% of humanity, 3% global income, low standard of living, 49 nations: central/east Africa/Asia, Bangladesh • Factors Causing Poverty: -Lack of technology limits production (farm labor), High birth in poor countries, Cultural patterns resist change, gender inequality limit women opportunities Neocolonialism: Least industrialized nations (peripheral) are economically and politically dominated by the most industrialized nations (core) World's Poor: 28% of the world's population live in extreme poverty. Women: 60% of humanity, perform 2/3 of all working hours, receive 1/10 income, own less than 1% of the world's wealth. • Modernization Theory: Maintains that nations achieve wealth by developing advanced technology. This process depends on a culture that encourages innovation and change. -Known for unequal global development
 *Functionalist perspective. Suggests global inequality is a result of cultural differences and changes in values/beliefs/attitude toward work —Rich nations can help poor nations by providing tech. to control pop. size, food production, expand industrial, provide foreign aid —Critics: Rich nations do little to help poor countries. Low living standards are result from rich nations policies -Walt Rostow was most familiar proponent of theory. Believed countries went through 4 stages of economic development: *Stages Theory 1. Traditional: Cultural and economic of a society changes little 2. Take Off stage: Rapid economic growth belief of individualism, achievement, competition 3. Technological: Investing in new industry and acceptance of culture in high income nations 4. Mass Consumption: Begin a high standard of living • Dependency Theory: Immanual Wallerstein developed the World System Theory *Conflict perspective. -World System Theory: Explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones Factors: Narrow export economies, lack of industrial capacity, foreign debt Core: Highly income countries; benefit from the international market Peripheral: Poor countries, low cost labor, conditions may be dictated by core country Semi-peripheral: Characteristics of both; benefit from periphery, but lose profits to core —Poverty is the result of core nations extracting labor and natural resources from peripheral nations. Multinational Corporations: Dominated by foreign firms; profits go to core country. Core Nations affect Semi/Peripheral nation economy by good and bad investment decisions. Chapter 13: Gender Stratification Gender Stratification: Unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women. Men are taller, stronger and heavier but women live longer. Men are better in math but women show more verbal skills. —Gender stratification shapes: Workplace, family life, education, politics Gender in History: In 1848 people assumed women did not have intelligence or interest in politics. This view reflected cultural patterns of that time and place. Most of the differences between men and women are socially created. Life Expectancy: Men- 75.4 years, Women- 80.2 years Gender in Global Perspective : Societies do not consistently define tasks as feminine and masculine. Muscle-power declines and reduces gender differences. Matriarchy: Females dominate males. Rarely documented in human history. -Norway, Australia, and Iceland give women the highest social standings Patriarchy: Males dominate females. Pattern found almost everywhere in the world. Kibbutzim: Gender equality is stated goal Type A Personality: Recipe for heart disease, matches perfectly with the behavior for masculinity Gender and Socialization: Gender shapes human feeling, thoughts, and actions. Children learn quickly how society defines male and female by age 3. Gender Roles - Sex Roles: Attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex. Men expected to be leaders and women expected to be supportive. Margaret Mead: If gender is based in the biological differences between men and women people everywhere should define "feminine" and "masculine" in the same way Principles of Feminism: Working to increase equality, Expanding human choice, Eliminating gender stratification, Ending sexual violence, Promoting sexual freedom The female world: Revolves around cooperation and emotion The male world: Premium on independence and action Boy peer groups: Games aggressive and controlled Girl peer groups: Interpersonal communication and cooperation. Second Shift: Women’s second shift of household work Theories of Gender: Intersection Theory: Analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, which often results in multiple dimensions of disadvantage Social Conflict: Disadvantages women, important dimension of social conflict Symbolic-interaction: Gender shapes out everyday experiences Structural-functional: Talcott Parsons- Believed that gender forms a set of roles that links women and men into family units and gives each sex responsibility for certain tasks (men learn "instrumental qualities", women “expressive”) distinct roles for males and females Feminism: Liberal: equal opportunity, Socialist: Replacing capitalism with socialism, Radical: Gender-free society Glass ceiling: Barrier prevent women from reaching executive Pink Collar: Female dominated jobs Chapter 14: Race and Ethnicity: Assimilation: Process through which a person forsakes his or her cultural tradition to become part of a different culture. Changing style of dress, values, religion, language, and friends. Closely aligns with the term "melting pot” Affirmative action: Positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities Color-Blind Racism: The use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo. Discrimination: The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons. Unequal treatment of various categories of people. Ethnic Group: A group that is set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.   Exploitation Theory: A Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism. Institutional Discrimination: The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups of people that results from the normal operations of a society. Bias that is built into the operation of society's institutions (schools, hospitals, police, workplace). Pluralism: Mutual respect for one another's culture among the various groups in a society, which allows minorities to express their cultures without experiencing prejudice. Racial Formation: Racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed.  Segregation: Physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social events; often imposed on a minority group by a dominant group. De jure (law) segregation in the US has greatly reduced, but de facto discrimination is still a dominant factor. Race: Biologically transmitted traits that members of society consider important. People may classify one another on the basis of skin color, facial features, hair texture, and body shape. Trends in Racial Attitudes 1. Student opinion shows a trend toward greater social acceptance. 2. People see less difference between various minorities. 3. The terrorist attacks of 9/11 may have reduced acceptance of Arabs and Muslims. Scapegoat theory: A person or category of people with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles.  Authoritarian Personality Theory: People who show strong prejudice towards one minority group usually are intolerant of all minority groups. People who grow up developing authoritarian personalities also view society as naturally competitive, with better people (like themselves) dominating those who are weaker (all minorities) Conflict Theory: Prejudice is used as a tool by powerful people to justify privilege and to oppress others. All elites benefit when prejudice divides workers along racial and ethnic lines and discourages them from working together for their own common interest. Hyper-segregation: Having little contact with any kind of people beyond local community. In the US, many cities, especially in the north, continue to be heavily segregated. Unprejudiced Non-Discriminator: Do not hold prejudice attitudes nor do they discriminate. Unprejudiced Discriminator: Free from prejudice attitudes, but support discriminatory practices when it is easier or more profitable. -May refuse to hire minority workers because it is "bad for business" Prejudiced Non-Discriminator: Prejudicial attitudes but does not discriminate or fear sanctions. Prejudiced employer who discriminates until a Fair Employment Practice Commission puts the fear of punishment in him. Prejudiced Discriminator: Ideals proclaim the right even the duty of discrimination Structural barriers: Engendering process: womb, home, school, mass media, consumption • Poverty threshold (which is determined by the budgetary expense--food) • The engendering process and which variables play a role in affecting the engendering process • What does pink collar refer to? • What is the second shift? • The forms of feminism, specifically, which form is concerned with women in the workforce • What is assimilation • Scapegoating • In class, he brought up a website at Harvard...what did it measure? • Theoretical perspectives and issues of diversity -Plato & Socrates Chapter 10 Social Stratification • Any system based on rank and reward • Class • Global • Sex/Gender • Race/Ethnic • Age • Ideology- Religious, political, scientific • Davis Moore Thesis- -If it exists in every society it must be serving a function -Identify occupations that serve the public welfare • Hegemony- Create Social Systems and Ideologies that help you stay in power Plato- Fate is inherent in you, skills and abilities dictate your fate -The Nanny state- It knows what’s best for you Socrates- Kuz-Net Curve X axis- Degree of stratification Y axis- Hunting and gathering (Hort., Arg., Indus., Post-Indust.) Social= SES social economic status -education -income -occupational prestige Global Stratification Modernization theories *Rosttus Theory of Modernization **FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE 1. traditional stage 2. take off 3. technology 4. mass consumption vs Dependency theories *Wallerstein’s world system theory ** CONFLICT 1. Core-consumption 2. Semi periphery-ff & pm 3. Periphery- cash crops and herds Given that G.S. exists in all societies why? -Biological dimorphism Soci. Functionalism: Talcott Parsons Tradition gender roles functional and complimentary M=Instrumental W=Expressive Conflict: Man Made —> Maintain power Structural barriers -engendering process- womb, home, school, mass media, consumption -Wage gap -Glass ceiling -Second shift SI —> Feminism: Liberal- Choices and opportunities everywhere Marxist- Choices and opportunities- Should focus on one thing first, Workforce participation Womanism: Different than feminism, Getting men and women equality on par Race: Biological characteristics that are the result of being somewhat geographically isolated Implicit Scape goat theory Authoritarian Personality Deficiency theories Explaining bigotry Patterns of Interaction and Integration (stew) smelting pot<———————> Salad Bowl Assimilation Pluralism Segregation -DeJure: By law -Defacto: By choice Genocide Stratification the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society Slavery A system of enforced servitude in which enslaved individuals are owned by other people, who treat them as property CastesA hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile Estates A system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services. Also known as feudalism. Class system A social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can infuence social mobility Social MobilityMovement of individuals or groups from one position of a society's stratification system to another Intergenerational Mobility Involves changes in social position of children relative to their parents Intragenerational mobility Involves social changes within a person's adult life Capitalism The economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits Class A group of people who have similar level of economic resources Bourgeoisie The capitalist class, compromising of the owners of the means of production Proletariat The working class in a capitalist society who lack ownership of of the means of production Class Consciousness A subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change False Consciousness Describes an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position The Shrinking Middle Class In 2006, only about 22% of American households qualified as middle class, compared to 28% in 1967 Cultural capital Our tastes, knowledge, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interaction with others according to Pierre Bourdieu Prestige The respect and admiration that an occupation holds in society Esteem The reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation Socioeconomic Status A measure of class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables Income Refers to wages and salaries measured over some period, such as per hour or per year WealthThe total of all a person's material assets, including savings, land, stocks, and other types of property, minus his or her debt at a single point in time Absolute poverty Refers to a minimum level of substinence that no family should be expected to live below Relative poverty A floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nations as a whole Slavery, Castes, Estates, Class system What are the 4 types of stratified systems? 50.3% 10.6% How much income and wealth does the top 20% in our society possess? Social inequality A condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power Downward intergenerational mobility Plumber whose father was a physician Class, status, and party Max Weber viewed this as distinct components of stratification Life Chances Term sociologists use to describe the opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences What does Global Stratification refer too? The unequal distribution of wealth, power, prestige, life chances, on a global basis. What is the three worlds approach? Gained currency as a way to distinguish between different nations , based on development and standards of living. First World Countries are characterized by? Rich and industrialized, Have political Democracies/ Capitalism. Second World nations are nations that? Are less industrialized, have moderate levels of development and standards. Socialist nations Third World Countries differ from first and second world countries in what way? They have the lowest standards of living, poor life chances for citizenship, they are usually autocratic dictatorship governments. What are the key shortcomings of the Three Worlds approach? -Distinctions between first and second world countries were derived from Cold War Policies. - Third World Countries heterogeneous Countries with wide divergent standards of living/ development. The Three Tiered Scheme used today by the United Nations looks at what in classifying countries. Developed, developing, and least developed countries What is the Three tiered scheme based on? A consensus of among cross- nation scholars in the social sciences. What is the preferred widely accepted approach in the distinction of different countries is? Based upon income. The World Bank provides? Aid to low and middle income Countries What does GNI stand for? Gross National Income. What is the World Bank category for a Country with a GNI of 1,005 US Dollars or less? Low Income Countries What are low income countries characterized according to the World Bank? Very poor country with Absolute Poverty. Prominently an illiterate Country What is The GNI of Middle Income Countries according to the World Bank. 3,976 and less than 12,275 What percentage of the world lives in middle income countries? 35 percent... What is the life expectancy of Middle Income Countries? Less than 70 years of age. GNI for High Income Countries is? Greater than 12276 Where are High Income Countries mostly located? Europe and North America Percentage of High Income Countries in the world is? 15 percent... What is the Literacy percentage rate of High World Countries? 90 Percent... Of the Three Tiered Scheme Countries, which was the first to start industrialization? High Income Countries High Income Countries focus on what poverty level? Relative Poverty HIC's define Relative Poverty as? People Lacking the resources to enjoy a minimally average standard of living for members of society. Why do the poor have less life chances in other Countries than they would in the U. S? - Absolute poverty is concentrated in Low/ Middle income Countries than in High income Countries like the U. S. -Poor Countries are less likely to have Life Chances due to the lack of resources like Police, Health care, education, clean air, and clean water. What has the avg. life expectancy and in what period of time? 35 percent over the past 35 years... Life expectancy in MIC's is ______ less than the avg? 7 years less Life expectancy of LIC's is roughly ________ less than the avg.? 15 years less Leading cause of shortened life span in poorer countries is? Infant Mortality What are two frequent causes of infant mortality in poorer Countries? -Malnutrition -Inadequate health care What does the World Health Organization define health as? A state of Complete mental, social, and physical well being. Not simply absence of disease. ___A_____ and ____B______ of infectious disease is more wide spread in ____C___ - ________ Countries. A. Control B. Prevention C. High-income What three factors contribute to the spread of disease in LIC/MIC's? - Overcrowded/ unsanitary living conditions - Toilets are rare - Clean drinking water is hard to secure What is fundamental in reducing both individual and national poverty? Literacy What is the Literacy rate in LIC's vs. HIC's? Illiteracy is 4 times greater in LIC's than in HIC's. What is the percentage of illiterate women in LIC's vs. HIC's? illiterate women are fifty percent higher in LIC's than in HIC's. Do women and children have as many life chances as men in LIC's? Explain No, Gender Inequality is more pronounced in LIC/s and MIC's Three indicators of extreme women subordination in poorer countries? - Female infanticide - Polygyny - Female circumcision John is ten years old and lives in an LIC, what must he do instead of going to school, that is widely supported in these type Countries. He must go to work and help support his family. What is one of the three main perspectives on global inequality that is most widely used. Modernization perspective Modernization Theory suggests that global inequality is a result of economic pressures and? Changes in citizen's values, beliefs, and attitudes toward work. What percentage is literacy rate for HIC's. 90% What theory is most widely known for unequal global development? Modernization Theory What perspective is Modernization Theory derived from. Functionalist What is the most widely accepted way used today that distinguishes between countries Classification of income. Who developed the World Systems Theory?Immanual Wallerstein What perspective is the World Systems Theory? Conflict How do Core Nations affect Semi/ peripheral nations economy? Good and bad investment decisions... Who was the most familiar proponent of Modernization Theory? Walt Rostow What did Walt Rostow believe about Modernization Theory? Countries went through four stages of economic development What were the Stages of Rostow' s Theory on Modernization? 1.Traditional- first stage cultural and economic of a society changes little. 2.Take Off stage- Second Stage, rapid economic growth belief of individualism, achievement, and competition... 3. Technological maturity Stage three, investing in new industry and further acceptance of culture in High Income nations 4. Mass Consumption Stage four, begin a high standard of living


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