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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Zachary Goodell PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chapter 16 Economy & Work: Political Socialization: Teaches us basic norms and expectations about political life and attitudes toward involvement in politics Spiral of silence: A theory that explains how people keep quiet about controversial issues when they think their opinions are not widely shared, in order to avoid social isolation Pluralist theory: Political power is fragmented among many different competing groups Power elite theory: Political power is concentrated in the hands of a small dominant group of business, government, and military leaders. Postindustrial economy: Based on service work and high technology Primary sector: Draws raw materials from the natural environment Secondary sector: Transforms raw materials into manufactured goods Tertiary sector: Involves services rather than goods Capitalism: Economic system in which natural resources and production are privately owned Socialism: Economic system in which natural resources and production collectively owned Welfare capitalism: Economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs State capitalism: Economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government Underground economy: Economic activity involving income not reported to the government as required by law Corporation: An organization with a legal existence, including rights and liabilities Conglomerate: Giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations Industrialization changed the economy in ﬁve fundamental ways: 1. new sources of energy (James Watt introduced the steam engine) 2. centralization of work in factories 3. manufacturing and mass production 4. specialization 5. wage labor How did industrialization raise the standard of living? —New products and services fueled an expanding market place What new kinds of products and forms of communication has the Information Revolution introduced? How has it altered the character of work? 1. from tangible products to ideas 2. from mechanical skills to literacy skills 3. from factories to almost anywhere Five consequences of the development of a global economy 1. a global division of labor (highest income/service sector v. lowest income producing raw materials) 2. an increasing number of products pass through more than one nation 3. national governments no longer control economic activity within their borders 4. a small number of businesses, operating internationally, control share of global econ. activity 5. raises concerns about the rights and opportunities for workers (critics say US is losing jobs) Capitalism— 1. economic productivity 2. economic equality 3. personal freedom Changes in Socialist and Capitalist countries—Work in the postindustrial U.S. economy 1. decline in agriculture 2. from factory work to service work 3. labor unions 4. professionalism How is diversity changing the workplace? —The nation's proportion of minorities is rising. The African American population is increasing more rapidly than non-hispanic white. Increase in the Asians and Hispanics is even greater. Chapter 17 Politics and Government: Politics: Social institution that distributes power, sets a society's goals, and make decisions Power: Ability to impose ones will on others 1. Inﬂuence 2. Authority Authority: Power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive Types of Authority— 1. Traditional Authority: Weber — Legitimized by respect and passed down generations, ex. monarchy 2. Rational-Legal Authority: Legitimized by legal rules/laws, votes people in/out of ofﬁce 3. Charismatic Authority: Legitimized by person’s quality, Inﬂuence Types of Political Systems— Open Closed <—————————————————————> -democracy -monarchy -authoritarian -totalitarian Inﬂuence public opinion <—————————————————————> Less More -chilling dissent -torture -propaganda -terrorism -censorship -genocide Routinization of Charisma: Transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and rational authority Monarchy: Single family rules from generation to generation Democracy: Political system that gives power to the people as a whole Authoritarianism: Denies the people participation in government Totalitarianism: Highly centralized, extensively regulates people's lives Models of Power— Pluralist Model: Power is spread widely so all group have some voice, open system, diverse, structural-functionalist Power-Elite: Power as concentrated among the rich, social-conﬂict Marxist political-economy: Power is directed by the operation of the capitalist economy, social- conﬂict Political Revolution: The overthrow of one political system in order to establish another Terrorism: Acts of violence or the threat of violence used as a political strategy War: Organized, armed conﬂict among two or more nations, directed by their governments Military-Industrial Complex: Association of the federal gov’t, military, and defense industries Nuclear Proliferation: Acquisition of nuclear weapons technology by more and more nations Chapter 18 Families: Endogamy: Marriage between same social category Exogamy: Marriage between different social categories Structural-functionalist: Identiﬁes family functions that help society operate smoothly Social-conﬂict: Ways families perpetuate social inequality Symbolic-interactionism: Families build emotional bonds every day Chapter 19 Religion: Liberation Theology: Combining of Christian principles with political activism, encourages social change, often Marxist in character Denomination: Church, independent of the state, that recognizes religious pluralism Fundamentalism: Conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, otherworldly religion Structural-functionalist: Durkheim—Religion unites people, obey cultural norms, gives purpose to life, promotes conformity Social-conﬂict: Social inequality, Marx—Religion diverts people from social injustice, discourages change toward an equal society Symbolic-interactionism: Religion gives everyday life sacred meaning, Berger—People seek religious meaning when faced with uncertainties Chapter 20 Education: Education: Social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values Schooling: Formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers Functional illiteracy: Lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living Mainstreaming: Integrating students with disabilities or special needs into the overall educational program Structural-functionalist: Ways schooling contributes to order of society—socialization, cultural innovation, social integration and placement Social-conﬂict: Links inequality involving class, race, and gender—standardized tests, tracking, differences in school funding Symbolic-interactionism: How we build reality in our daily interactions—self-image affect student performance, those who think they're superior perform better, inferior perform less well Chapter 21 Health and Medicine Social epidemiology: Study of how health/disease are distributed through a society's population Holistic medicine: Approach to health care that emphasizes the prevention of illness and takes into account a person's entire physical and social environment Socialized medicine: Medical care system in which the government owns and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians Direct-fee system: Medical care system in which patients pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals Health maintenance organization (HMO): Organization that provides comprehensive medical care to subscribers for a ﬁxed fee Structural-functionalist: Illness reduces abilities to perform their roles—Parsons: Society responds to illness by deﬁning roles: Sick role- Excuses ill person from responsibilities, Physicians role- Knowledge to take charge of recovery Social-conﬂict: Unequal distribution of health/medical care—Marist: U.S. over reliance on drugs/ surgery, proﬁt motive, emphasizes biological and not cause of illness Symbolic-interactionism: How health/medical care are constructed by daily interaction—Response to illness isn't always based on medical facts, how people deﬁne a medical situation may affect how they feel Chapter 22 Population, Urbanization, Environment: Demography: Study of human population Age-sex pyramid: Graphic representation of the age and sex of a population Demographic transition theory: Thesis that links population patterns to a society's level of technological development Tonnies: Built his analysis on concepts of: Gemeinschaft: Rural village, joins people to a primary group Gesellschaft: Modern city, people motivated by self-needs rather than improving community Durkheim: Agreed with Tonnies, but claimed that urban don't lack social bonds—Mechanical solidarity: social bonds based on common values, tradition, rural life Organic solidarity: social bonds based on independence, modern/urban life Simmel: Claimed overstimulation of city life produced uncaring attitudes Park: Cities permit greater freedom Chapter 23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements: Collective behavior: Activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes dangerous Theories of Crowd Behavior—Contagion: views crowds as anonymous, swayed by rising emotions Convergence: Crowd behavior reﬂects the desires people bring to them Emergent-norm: Crowds develop their own behavior as events unfold Stages in social movements: emergence, coalescence, bureaucratization, decline Chapter 24 Social Change: Tonnies: Modernization as the transition from rural to urban, loss of tradition and rise of individualism Durkheim: Modernization as society expanding division of labor. Mechanical solidarity is replaced by organic solidarity—Anomie: society provides little moral guidance to individuals Weber: Modernity as decline of traditional world and rise of rationality, in which specialization makes people interdependent Marx: Modernity as triumph of capitalism. Capitalism creates social conﬂict which would bring revolutionary change leading to egalitarian socialist society Structural-functional: Modernity increases scale of life, enlarges role of government, social change makes it difﬁcult to develop stable identities and to ﬁnd meaning in life Social-conﬂict: Modernity involves rise of capitalism into global economic system, resulting in social inequality Mass society: Industrialization/growth of bureaucracy; rise of the state and formal organizations— Riesman: Preind. societies exhibit tradition-directedness, Modern societies exhibit other- directedness Class society: Rise of capitalism; persistence of social inequality—Marcuse: Modern society is unrational bc fails to meets the needs of so many, tech. reduces controls of peoples own lives Structural strain theory: Identiﬁes six factors that encourage the development of social movements Structural conduciveness: Social movements begin to emerge when people come to think their society has some serious problems Structural strain: People begin to experience relative deprivation when society fails to meet their expectations Social Change >—————————————————————> Traditional Modern Post modern=Culture Agrarian Industrial Post Ind.=Economy Homogenous Heterogeneous
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