Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 103 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Sarah Meacham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
paleo era -period before 1100 ADNative Americans hunted caribou, sloths, horses, moose, mammoths. nomadic-nomadic- archaic era -1100-1700-environmental changes cause NA to become semi-permanent-livedplace basedmost of the larger animals became extinctIndians set up different camps throughout the year depending on cultivating food sources - building societies (ex) Missi water shield they were called mound builders. - created edge environments to attract deer. by burning forests -religious and trade systems. maize - 1500 earliest Indian corn . - - created more nutrients -More advanced than Europeans. - John Smith negotiated with Indians for it, cradle boards -NA women across many tribes developed a way to carry babies on their backs -raising children to be a part of the community-important to be tough and start taking part of community works. Matrilineal -Dominant role, more sexual equality than in Europe. - Rights and property descended from the mother after the father dies. - woman's council -women could divorce, have a democracy say. - did this because you could always know a child's mother unlike a man. Animism -The belief that objects (animals, plants) attain certain characteristics because of spirits - Believed in respecting the spirit. Pantheism -the worship of many gods. - Signiﬁcance: Christians were trying to convert Indians to having one god. Cahokia 1. emerged as a result of trade and contained a great complex of large earthen mounds. 2. It was a city before Columbus discovered the Americas. 3. This city was an example of the substantial permanent settlements and the large trading networks that existed in the Americas before the Europeans discovered the continents. 4 . Showed Indian were more advance. 5. Indians relied on Maize and became more weak. Columbian Exchange • Global exchange of people, goods, technology, ideas and diseases especially piggy back diseases. • Trade of raw materials to be processed and sold • After 1492-1800 Christopher Columbus • Bridged gap between old and new worlds • Between Europe and America • Europeans had built up immunity of the diseases they brought over. Indians were dying often piggyback disease -weakened by one disease so another (the ﬂu) kills you— Small Pox, yellow fever, measles The Atlantic World • Europe, Americas, and Africa. Contact with America's wasn't ﬁrst European international contact. Technological advances made it possible (bigger ships, better navigation, compasses, printing=better maps, multiple copies, hourglasses=accurate record of time). Spain, Portugal, and France were the major colonial superpowers and had access to Atlantic coast. • Based on large exchange boom in 17th-19th centuries Christopher Columbus -Finally Spain agrees to support expeditions -August 1492 sets sail w/ Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria -Accidentally discovered the Americans. The Catholic Church • Church was THE center of life in the Middle Ages • Its hierarchy system was copied from the gov. of the Roman Empire • Sent out missionaries • Monasteries developed - Benedict created rules for monasteries (to avoid worldly contact) - Provide some education for the people - Taught better agricultural methods - Cause Protestants to move to the Americas - vernacular purgatory According to the Roman Catholics, the state of puriﬁcation that takes place after death for those who need to be made clean and holy before meeting the all-holy God in Heaven. indulgences Buying yourself off sin Protestantism -16th century Reformation lead by Martin Luther, Calvin: thought church was corrupt. Caused the Protestant Reformation. -2 outcomes: insisted on accepting existence of God on faith alone;challenged authority of the Pope. - Idea that people are saved by faith and not works - Got rid of Latin, praying to saints, stained glass. Gold Coast -19th century -Name that European mariners and merchants gave to that part of West Africa from which gold was exported. -Area was conquered by the British -Became the British colony of the Gold Coast. - Slaves and gold were sold and traded The Lower Sort - Unskilled laborers, such as mariners, sailors and seamen.- Minimal standard of living- Limited mobility in society (peasants) Hugh Makeshift era -17th century England - poor man going place to place to ﬁnd food -series of economic Enclosure Movement • 18th century • In England, Use to be that people were just scattered out, people began to fence in land and farm on their own. When people ran out of meat or veggies that they couldn't rely on the outside land • Couldn't hunt or grow on the land anymore • switches from subsistence economy to cash economy • improves the efﬁciency of agriculture Black Legend -16th century -conquistadors tortured and killed indians, stole their gold, infected them with small pox and left. European's though that since the Spanish were so bad to the Indians that the Indians would be happy to have them. The Lost Colony • 16th century • Roanoke Island ◦ Fighting with Spain hampered English efforts in returning • Finally returned in 1590 ◦ Settlement was abandoned ◦ CROATOAN was carved in a door Jamestown - Led by John Smith -17 century -expansion. -First permanent Englishsettlement founded by Virginia Company of London -purpose was to ﬁnd goldand make $ -planted tobacco and other crops. -only sent men at ﬁrst, they were helpless because they couldn't cook. Thought N/A would feed them. Powhatan Chief of Powhatan/ father or Pocahontas -eager to force alliances to obtain supplies (corn) -helped english colonists survive long winters John Smith - Late 16th century early 17th -leader of Jamestown/saved it - enforced No work= no food rule. -rescued from Powhatan tribe by Pocahontas Pocahontas (c.1595–1617) American Indian princess, John smith said in his book that she saved the life of John Smith when he was captured and sentenced to death by the Powhatan. She was later taken prisoner by the English, converted to Christianity, and married colonist John Rolfe. Tobacco 200% proﬁt Who: John smith/ Puritans What: somehow obtained tobacco seeds from South America and was able to grow several plants. said that America was founded on tobacco. produced 30 million pounds a year in When: 1600 Where: James Town Why Signiﬁcant: Allowed James Town to survive and became one of the largest exports in America slowed US to ﬂourish. Said that America is founded from tobacco. Open book Credit -Form of trade credit in which sellers ship merchandise on faith that payment will be coming During the seventeenth century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies for these reasons: • An English person who works for a number of years in exchange for a trip to America • families procreated too slowly.Spain stopped sending slaves to new world.in some areas families formed too slowly.African slaves cost too much money .the Indian population proved to be an unreliable work force because they died quickly after contact with whites Bacon’s Rebellion -Governor Berkley was raising taxes,stopped holding elections, raising property requirements to vote. Indians were bothering white in west, Berkley didn't want to end ties with N/A so Bacon convinces indentured servants that they should be mad at Berkley instead. -They demand rights and Berkley caves in b/c if England ﬁnd out he will be over thrown - Marks the end of class based servitude and race based slavery coes about. -BBQ's- Poor people could socialize with everyone so celebrate white supremacy. Nathaniel Bacon -lands in James Town in late 17th century -He wants to prove himself and thinks VA is lucky to have him -He wants a seat on the council but governor B said no -Bacons rebellion - Marks beginning of slavery Puritans - Religious dissidents who left England for America in search of a "purer" church, heavily inﬂuenced by Calvin & predestination- Settled Plymouth in 1620 and Massachusetts bay Colony in 1630-Wanted to create a perfect community--Did not like vain things, no gloves wigs or anything that showed status, thought people were becoming too secular.-Women were under their husbands.Children cant become puritans b/c they must know if they are saved.-Mr. and Mrs. were only for the rich.-Invention of grandparents, health care-women inherited at least 1/3 of mans wealth after death. Bundling Board Board that goes between man and woman to keep them from having sex. Intimacy with out sex. "helpmeets" The Deputy husband is the wife that takes over when the husband dies. Anne Hutchinson A dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community…Was expelled from the colony —> Rhode Island • Trying to make It more protestant and make it faith based — tried to say you didn't have to go minister to talk to god. Salem -City in Massachusetts in 1692-site of mass hystera associated with witchcraft -Salem witch trials -Twenty people were executed for allegedly being involved in witchcraft in some way -Forever damaging the reputation of the traditional Puritan clergy -lead to spectral evidence Shipbuilding -17 century -In the New England region .Was an important industry for many reasons. The area was covered with plenty of forests giving the area plentiful supplies, ships were used to trade slaves and food making ships vital to the colonists income.
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