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HIST 103

by: Jane Notetaker

HIST 103 Hist 103

Jane Notetaker
Virginia Commonwealth University

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Key terms for test 2, and a study guide for all material covered in class for test 2
Survey of American History
Sarah Meacham
Study Guide
HIST103, history, AmericanHistory, hist, 103, surveyofamericanhistory
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 103 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Sarah Meacham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Consumer Revolution ·      Who: Americans ·      What: people in America began to buy English goods & the goods including novels where they were able to learn what the English were using when they begin to buy English goods that they read about th ·      When: 18 Century ·      Where: America ·      Why/Significance: Interests in sciences and mathematics take over the interests in religion and the economy strengthened Building revolution ·      Who: wealthy Americans ·      What: Going from wattle-and-daub to brick houses and making houses much larger with wallpaper, gardens and fancy furniture – taverns, theaters and other entertainment buildings are built ·      When: 17 century into the 18 century ·      Where: North America and England ·      Why/Significance: Still trying to be English in America Library Company of Philadelphia ·      Who: Benjamin Franklin ·      What: First library company ·      When:1731 ·      Where: Philadelphia ·      Why/Significance: No religious books, mostly about the newly emerging worlds of science and math Wattle-and-daub A quick way of building a house put up a foundation then clay or something else to keep the house warm. One room house with a dirt floor. John Singleton Copley ·      Who: John Copley ·      What: America’s first real artist ·      When: 18 Century ·      Where: Left America for England to gain respect as a portraiture ·      Why/Significance: Lining Out ·      Who: Ministers ·      What: Used to sing out a line of a hymn and people would respond with it but now there are books with hymns ·      When: 17 Century ·      Where: America ·      Why/Significance: Lost lining out after the popularity of books grew Coffles ·      Who: slaves in Africa ·      What: being tied together by the neck and being captured as entire communities and walking many miles from middle of Africa to the coastline // slavery raised from 11% to 20% of the populations ·      When: 18 Century - 1750 ·      Where: Africa ·      Why/Significance: you could not own land at this time and you could only “own” people according to law Lower South ·      Who: Slaves ·      What: Slaves growing rice who were given specific tasks ·      When: 18 century ·      Where: South Carolina and Georgia ·      Why/Significance: 2% of the slave population was enslaved in New England – most retention of African culture (less in upper south) o  Negro election day: something in New England but nowhere else – day of festivities and elections John Locke ·      Who: Enlightenment thinker ·      What: wrote book ‘Thoughts Concerning Education’ that argued that children are not born evil instead, tabula rasa which means ‘blank slate’ and their experiences are what turns them into a good or unruly person ·      When: Enlightenment Era – 17 century ·      Where: North America ·      Why/Significance: changed the ways societies thought of children The Enlightenment ·      Who: Newton, thinkers ·      What: Series of ideas that when put together, they say that man was endowed with reason and the ability to think so that he could figure out and improve the world ·      When: came to America circa 1725 ·      Where: began in Europe and came over to America ·      Why/Significance: 17 century men were not about reason – they were looking for signs that would explain what God wanted / 18 century wealthy people in the cities (East Coast) who have read things begin to get the idea that God does not control everything Jean Jacque Rousseau ·      Who: Enlightenment thinker ·      What: Another Enlightenment speaker o  God had people born into the royal family so that they would specifically go on to be kings and queens who would then choose the senate (this is the top to bottom thinking) o  People permit or allow a few people to make big decisions and have authority, power over us like senators, congressmen, president ·      When: circa 1725 ·      Where: France ·      Why/Significance: Created social contract theory (opposite of divine right of kings)—government should be from the bottom up The First Great Awakening ·      Who: George Whitefield ·      What: A series of religious revivals ·      When: 1739 (or 1730’s-1740’s) ·      Where: began in England and came over to America ·      Why/Significance: The Great Awakening take people away from the ‘old’ and ‘boring’ religions and turn them into Baptists Deism ·      Who: Deists (wealthy people with access to books) ·      What: the belief that there was a god but that god had wound up the world – he began the world but has now stepped back and was letting humans figure it out stopped intervening ·      When: 18 century-19 century ·      Where: ·      Why/Significance: most of the founding fathers were deists George Whitefield ·      Who: a minister ·      What: brought over the Baptist religion to America using new marketing techniques ·      When: The First Great Awakening ·      Where: England ·      Why/Significance: Before George, the religions in America were ‘congregationalists’ or the Puritans, the Quakers and Episcopalians Feminization of religion ·      Who: women ·      What: Women began making up the majority of the congregations, raising money and paying for ministers and we see a shift in how we see women ·      When: 18 century ·      Where: ·      Why/Significance: we see a change in American culture from women being the passionate sex to the passionless sex and they are not closer to the devil but rather closer to God French and Indian War (Seven Years War) ·      Who: French and English, George Washington ·      What: French and English were having argument back in Europe where then England tells the governor of Virginia to go fight the French and claim Ohio not even for the fur trade but just so France couldn’t get it ·      When: 1754-1763 ·      Where: ·      Why/Significance: We may still be English if they didn’t win the war – more than doubled England’s debts Albany Plan or “Join or Die Plan” ·      Who: Ben Franklin and 2-4 representatives of each colony ·      What: “if one colony is threatened then the other colonies should go to their aid” ·      When: 1774??? ·      Where: Albany, NY ·      Why/Significance: first time that we see anybody in the colonies even considering any sort of alliance William Pitt the Elder ·      Who: A British Whig ·      What: had an idea that the Seven Years War was a fight in the colonies so why not help the colonists fight? The English promised to pay the soldiers who fought in the Seven Years War (40,000 signed up) ·      When: around 1758 ·      Where: England ·      Why/Significance: Proclamation of 1763 ·      Who: ·      What: Anything east of the Mississippi River is now English territory and West is Spanish territory ·      When: 1763 ·      Where: America ·      Why/Significance: Ends the Seven Years War Proclamation of 1783 ·      Ends the Revolutionary War Stamp Act ·      Who: Sir George Grenvile ·      What: Bigger than sugar act – from now on, every time you colonists buy (in a store) paper, dice, window glass, mugs, paint, almanacs, etc. you were going to have to pay a tax. If you do not, you would have to go to the vice-admiralty courts ·      When: 1765-1766 ·      Where: England and the Colonies ·      Why/Significance: This was a tax at the ‘point of sale’ for the first time Sugar Act ·      Who: Sir George Grenvile ·      What: New secretary of state (prime minister) who is looking at England’s debt and decides to revive an old law – The Molasses Act – if colonists bought things from England, they would not be taxed as high as if they bought it somewhere else ·      When: 1763 ·      Where: England and the Colonies ·      Why/Significance: The Colonists had been making their own decisions for 150 years and then all of a sudden England is poor and is finding these ways to get money from the Colonists Vice-Admiralty Courts ·      Who: ·      What: “assumed guilty until proven innocent” the judges would get 5% of whatever you were found guilty for if you were found guilty in vice ·      When: ·      Where: Nova Scotia ·      Why/Significance: Sons of Liberty ·      Who: men ·      What: A broad group – advertised in the newspapers during the cold Winters when people were unemployed ·      When: 1766 – Declaratory Act (England does have the right to put regulations against the Colonists) ·      Where: ·      Why/Significance: Ended the stamp taxes Daughters of Liberty ·      Who: women ·      What: boycotted British goods ·      When: 1766 during Stamp Act ·      Where: ·      Why/Significance: They’d make their own goods to avoid buying British goods and we saw the first spin wheels Boston Massacre ·      Who: Paul Revere? ·      What: 15 year old boy who was training to be a wig maker ran into a soldier on the street and began taunting and teasing (embarrassing) the soldier about not having paid his bill for his wig but the soldier had to go to work so their argument ended there – until later in the afternoon. Both men were off-duty when the boy and his friends packed snowballs with rocks and began throwing them at the soldiers. Someone shot Crispis Atticus and that began the massacre ·      When: 1770 ·      Where: Boston, Mass. ·      Why/Significance: England continued to have virtual representation in the colonies Tea Act ·      Who: ·      What: East India Tea Company – only people who had the right to sell tea under the name of England – they were getting their tea from East India (owned by England at the time) so anybody in the British empire has to buy their tea from this company ·      When: 1770?? ·      Where: ·      Why/Significance: The colonists got sick of England telling them what to buy – “you do not have the right to tell us what to drink” and they begin to stock up their ports and won’t allow ships in --Leads to the Boston Tea Party Boston Tea Party ·      Who: Sons of Liberty ·      What: Three ships with 90,000 lbs of British Tea enters the Boston port – 50 sons decide that they will destroy the tea – they dress like Indians and in a peaceful protest, they dump all of the tea overboard and then go home ·      When: 1773 ·      Where: Boston, Mass. ·      Why/Significance: They dress up as Indians to show that they’re different, they’re American. Coercive (Intolerable) Acts ·      Who: People of Massachusetts / English officials ·      What: Until Massachusetts pay for the damage done, English is not going to let any ships out or in – England puts in officials into the city until the tea is paid for. ·      When: 1774 ·      Where: Massachusetts ·      Why/Significance: Quebec Acts ·      Who: French people in Quebec? ·      What: England is going to decide who their elected officials will be in Massachusetts -- ·      When: 1774 ·      Where: Quebec ·      Why/Significance: The first Continental Congress is started from this act Olive Branch Petition ·      Who: ·      What: Post-Quebec Bill -- “There seems to be a misunderstanding, Parliament has been doing things we don’t think you would approve of. Parliament is blocking our ports, ending elections, putting in officials who have not been elected, placing taxes. King please fix it. Love, Congress” King never replies so they call a second Continental Congress meeting the following year. They write another petition. ·      When: ·      Where: ·      Why/Significance: first time that the colonists have all worked together Common Sense ·      Who: Thomas Paine ·      What: A political pamphlet ·      When: 1776 ·      Where: Philadelphia ·      Why/Significance: He didn’t just criticize the current government / he proposed a new way, a solution and it was in an everyday language Declaration of Independence ·      Who: Thomas Jefferson ·      What: second Olive Branch Petition denied ·      When: April 1776 ·      Where: Philadelphia ·      Why/Significance: Who was the declaration of independence written to? The World Another name for Loyalists? Tories Coffles caravans of long chains of slaves; often chained by the neck What: being tied together by the neck and being captured as entire communities and walking many miles from middle of Africa to the coastline // slavery raised from 11% to 20% of the populations When: 18 Century - 1750 Why/Significance: you could not own land at this time and you could only “own” people according to law Middle passage th -an extensive trade network within the Triangular Trade in the 18 century that was particularly concerned with the trading of slaves. -Slaves would be captured in Africa and shipped across the Atlantic to the New World where they would be traded for raw materials. -Slaves were treated very poorly in this journey to the New World, and most wished for death over slavery and believed that they would be rewarded with a return to Africa in their afterlives. Negro Election Day The Negro Election Day Festival began in 1741 in several towns of New England as part of the local election of the black representative of that community. The festival incorporated aspects of West African culture and ritualistic celebrations such as traditional dancing, African feasting and parades Task System A method of organizing enslave labor wherein workers were given a specific set of jobs to accomplish every day, after which they were allowed to spend their time as they chose.Less supervision, more free time. Lowcountry Gullah Gumbo Resistance Consumer Revolution Period between 1740-1770 when English exports to the American colonies increased by 360 percent to satisfy Americans' demands for British goods. Library Company of Philadelphia -Founded by Benjamin Franklin Almanacs Lining out A call and response style of hymn singing whereby a minister or song leader sings one line at a time and the congregation sings it back, usually adding embellishments and often at a much slower tempo. Derived from rural folk traditions. British Isles Hymnals A collection of religious songs, usually in the form of a book. Used during Church services. Wattle-and-daub Twigs and rods plastered with mud to make walls or floors Brick 1 John Singleton Copley U.S painter and member of a loyalist Boston family. Earned his reputation as a portrait painter. He painted Paul revere and Hancock. novels The Enlightenment emphasizing individualism and reason rather than tradition Deism The view that god created the universe but does not supernaturally intervene in the universe which runs by fixed natural laws. John Locke British philosophy Where: Britain When: 1623-1704 A.D. Why Significant: Son of large land owner. Supported Glorious Revolution and limited monarchy. Influenced Thomas Jefferson. Believed in Natural Law (everyone has rights, not privileges - except slaves and women). Wrote Essay on Human Understanding in 1690, which introduced Tabula Rasa (which opposes original sin). Says governments are a form of social contract to protect: life, liberty, and property (so governments are empowered by people). Tabula rasa Locke's psychological theory that the human mind is a "blank slate" before experience inscribes ideas and attitudes on it Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations, the father of modern economics. He criticized mercantilism and proposed a free market economy in which the "invisible hand" determined prices. Thought government should stay out of the market economy except to prevent coercion/fraud, provide money, provide basic transportation/ communication, define property rights, and enforce exchange agreements.  Invisible hand Adam Smith; process that turns self directed gain into social and economic benefits for all Jean-Jacques Rousseau Swiss/French writer 1712-1778 promotes democracy and personal freedom under the law in The Social Contract- opposed mercantilism- blames world's problems on uneven property distribution in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality- suggested that men can be molded with education, women should be subordinate to men Social contract theory The idea that individuals possess free will, and every individual is equally endowed with the God-given right of self-determination and the ability to consent to be governed. The First Great Awakening Religious revival that swept across the Protestant world in the 1730s. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were two prominent figures of the time. 2 Calvanism appeared- God chooses who will be saved and who will be damned. Christ died for those elected to be saved.  Evangelical Religion Feminization of religion Who: women What: Women began making up the majority of the congregations, raising money and paying for ministers and we see a shift in how we see women When: 18 century Where: Why/Significance: we see a change in American culture from women being the passionate sex to the passionless sex and they are not closer to the devil but rather closer to God French and Indian War / Seven Year’s War in North America, fought between France and britain and Brits won, and the transfer of French Canada to Britain -ended with the treaty of Paris  Ohio Company - 1749: Virginia and London capitalists get the British to give a land grant to this company- direct challenge to France: part of the struggle between Britain and France- A decisive English move in what would become the French and Indian War (over the Ohio country) George Washington When: Mid-late 1700's Where: 'Merica (Virginia) What: Son of a wealthy slave owner in Virginia; successful officer in the French-Indian War; made commander of Continental Army in 1775; first president from 1789-1797; oversaw drafting of Constitution Albany Plan a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader (age 45) and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress in July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York. “Join or Die” a well-known political cartoon, created by Benjamin Franklin and first published in his Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754. Treaty of Paris 1763 William Pitt the Elder -Head of Cabinet 1757 -England obtained Canada and India under his rule King George III passed the taxes that started the American Revolution-was king until the end of the war (1760s) Pontiac’s Rebellion Proclamation of 1763 -A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. Sugar Act -1764 3 -raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown -raised tax on imported sugar from west indies Stamp Act imposed tax on paper, you now needed special stamped British paper. which affected readership. it was a way to raise revenue and support new military force. also, they were trying to recover from the war they just fought.  Vice-Admiralty Courts Sons of Liberty -political group made up of American patriots that originated in the pre- independence North American British colonies. The group was formed to protect the rights of the colonists from the usurpations by the British government after 1766. Threw tea in harbor as a direct act against the Tea Act Daughters of Liberty -wore handspun clothing, made coffee instead of tea, and boycotted shops with British goods Tea Act -1773 -Tax tea in an effort to help the failing Easy India Company -Colonists wanted representation—> Boston Tea Party Boston Tea Party *December, 1773*Sons of Liberty dumped 432 cases of tea into the Boston Harbor in response to the Tea Act *Made King George annoyed and decided to be tougher with the colonist Quebec Act Who: French people in Quebec? What: England is going to decide who their elected officials will be in Massachusetts -- When: 1774 Where: Quebec Why/Significance: The first Continental Congress is started from this act -french guaranteed their catholic religion -permitted to keep old customs -canada could govern themselves Olive Branch Petition Pledged loyalty to the king and requested his intervention in curbing Parliament's abusive exercise of power. However he declined and the colonies became independent Common Sense Who: Thomas Paine What: stated that it was only "Common Sense" to break apart from England and the King When: Jan., 1776 Where: 13 Colonies Why: French King Louis XVI backs up American rebels Declaration of Independence 4 3 parts The Preamble which is the introduction, The List of Grivences or formal complaints, and Dissolving the Bonds between America and Great Britian Somerset Case -a celebrated 1772 English court decision that freed a West Indian slave and opened the way for 15 000 thousand blacks to claim freedom who were living in England, introduction of Granville Sharp Loyalists Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Empire and the British monarchy during the American Revolutionary War. At the time they were often called Tories , Royalists, or King's Men; Patriots colonists who chose to fight for independence from Great Britain. Battle of Saratoga U.S. army defeat british-1st big victory France (World power) on Americas side- turning point Treaty of Paris 1783 signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War. 5


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