Virginia Commonwealth University
Popular in Human Societies and Globalization 101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to INTL 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by John Froitzheim in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Culture: Set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, that encompasses, not only art and literature, but lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs," as deﬁned by UNESCO Culture shock: A physical and psychological response to cultural differences when traveling away from home Caste system: A division of society based on birth that originally developed from the Hindu religion Bourgeois: The owners of the means of production proletariat: The industrial workers Communism: A social movement that promoted the communal values of the worker class Sociology: A ﬁeld of study that focuses on people and their relationships to the societies in which they live Anthropology: A ﬁeld of study that examines the physical attributes of human beings as well as their social and cultural characteristics Psychology: A ﬁeld of study that seeks to understand the motivations behind the decisions people make in terms of their cognitive orientation Ethnography: The observation and description of people in their environment through in-depth analysis and interaction Enculturation: The process by which a society learns its culture Cultural relativism: Cultural understanding in terms of the environment in which it exists Cultural diffusion: The spreading of culture beyond a speciﬁc group to be embraced by a wider audience Assimilation: The submerging of cultural differences into a broader, dominant culture Cultural imperialism: When one culture is dominated by another culture to the point that the victimized culture is forced to change its cultural practices Deterritorialization: The weakening of cultural ties to speciﬁc locations Homogenization: The incorporation of a range of cultural forms into a uniform set of values and practices Hybridization: A blending of cultures that incorporates different aspects of each culture to create a new entity Glocalization: The adaptation of local forms of expression and identity to outside inﬂuences W curve: Represents the ups and downs of cultural adjustment, from the time of leaving one's home to that of returning UNESCO: A specialized agency of the United Nations devoted to the fostering of peace through intercultural dialogue The emergence of the nation-state: responsible for the rise and deﬁnition of social entities that are currently called ethnic groups Britain (David Hume and John Locke), France (Francois-Marie Arouet de Voltaire and Jean- Jacques Rousseau) and Germany (Immanuel Kant): The three countries of Enlightenment philosophes Enlightened view of the French, romantic or counter-Enlightenment view of the Germans, and the traditional views held by the English: What cultural anthropologist Adam Kuper identiﬁed as three schools of thought that emerged during Enlightenment Hukou: Chinese registration system based on ope's parents' birthplace Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Kshudras, Dalit: Order of India's Caste System Thomas Friedman - Writer of The Lexus and the Olive Tree Benjamin Barber - Writer of Jihad vs. McWorld Mediascapes - ﬂows of information through the mass media Financescapes - ﬂows of capital Technoscapes - ﬂows of technology Ethnoscapes - ﬂows of people Ideoscapes - ﬂows of ideas Ethnic cleansing: When one group forcibly removes another by violence or deportation Genocide: The extreme form of ethnic cleansing, where one group seeks to deliberately kill members of another group based solely on their national or ethnic differences Migration: The movement of people across borders that reshapes identities, both within states and nations and between them Ethnic conﬂict: When differences in identity are too great to reconcile within state boundaries Failed states: Nation-states whose governments can no longer provide political, economic, and social stability Sunni: Muslims who accept Abu Bakr as the rightful successor to the prophet Muhammad Shia: Muslims who support the prophet's son-in-law and cousin, Ali, as the true successor Sharia law: A legal system that relies on Islam and applies broadly to how Muslims should live their lives. It includes punishments for crimes that may not be acceptable universally Transitional justice: The many different types of judicial and nonjudicial actions used to address human rights abuses Truth and reconciliation commissions: Groups formed to bring together those who have suffered under ethnic conﬂict to resolve their differences and move forward Gacaca: An effort in Rwanda dating back to precolonial times when differences were addressed informally through "justice on the grass" to bring healing Sunni: What most Muslims are Hadd: Harsh Muslim punishments like stoning or amputation for serious crimes Hezbollah: Iranian-backed Lebanese militia that has exerted inﬂuence across the Middle East Josip Broz (Tito): The communist war hero who kept together the various ethnic groups that had been brought together under the Yugoslavian ﬂag after World War II Fund for Peace: Nonproﬁt organization based in Washington, DC that works to prevent violent conﬂict because 2 billion live in countries that cannot survive tensions Somalia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan, Chad, Yemen, Afghanistan, Haiti, Central African Republic, Zimbabwe: Ten most fragile states Civil society: NGOs that are active in public life through the expression of their members' values and interests International law: The regulation of relations among sovereign states emerging from customary practices Intergovernmental organizations: Formal, international public bodies whose members are nation-states Nongovernmental organizations: Formal, nonproﬁt, voluntary organizations whose memberships are composed of individuals organized around speciﬁc issues or common concerns Supranational entities: International organizations that operate beyond the national boundaries of their member states Positivism: The theory and development of international law based on the practice of states and conduct of international relations as evidenced by custom or treaties Concert of Europe: A formal collaborative group formed in 1815 to enforce the decisions reached at the Congress of Vienna Kellogg-Briand Pact: A multinational pact that outlawed war as a means of conﬂict resolution Atlantic Charter: A joint declaration by the United States and Great Britain that detailed the position of the two countries relative to World War II and their goals for postwar peace Complex interdependence: The interdependent relationship that exists between states such that variation in one state's behavior signiﬁcantly affects the other Peace building: The UN, in conjunction with humanitarian NGOs, organizes elections, reorganizes police forces, provides relief services, and participates in any other activities that are needed to create a viable state Concert of Vienna: Where the European powers that had defeated Napoleon-Russia, Prussia, Britain, and Austria-gathered to negotiate the peace Treaty of Versailles: Negotiation for peace during World War I, which included the creation of the League of Nations Millennium Development Goals: Eight goals adopted by the UN to address inequity in the international system with the objective to improve people's lives globally by 2015 Hugo Grotius: Father of international law in 16th century in the Netherlands who rejected divine authority in favor of universal reason US, UK, France, China, and Russia: "The Big Five" countries in the United Nations Security Council Germany, Japan, Brazil, and India: The 4 countries that want to be included in the United Nations Security Council United Nations Secretariat: Run by the secretary general, professionalized by Dag Hammarskjold. It oversees UN's day-to-day business and moves UN forward as an institution of peace United Nations General Assembly: Representative body consisting of all states that have ratiﬁed UN Convention. It supervises UN activities, decides on ﬁnancial matters, elects nonpermanent members of the Security Council and the secretary general, amends the Charter but lacks policymaking power International Court of Justice: Legal branch composed of 15 judges on 9-year terms Trusteeship Council: Administer trust territories as they transitioned to independence, work completed in 1994 Political advocacy (i.e., Amnesty International) Economic development (i.e., CARE International) Environmental (i.e., World Wildlife Fund) Humanitarian (i.e., Doctors without Borders) - 4 types of NGOs Global governance: Voluntary international cooperation to manage transnational issues through a system of governance agreed upon by all interested parties Poverty: Want of food, clean water, shelter, health care, education, employment, and general well-being Human rights: The fundamental rights and freedoms based on the premise that all people are inherently equal and must be treated as such, regardless of their nationality or ethnic origin, race, religion, language, or other status Vulnerable employment: Work done by unpaid family workers or by those who keep their own accounts—that is, the self-employed Millennium Challenge Corporation: Created by the US Congress to administer economic assistance to developing countries in response to the MDGs Pandemics: The widespread outbreak of diseases Universal norms: Human rights as delineated in the Universal Declaration that most countries can agree upon Relative norms: Rights that are unique to an individual society, dictated by its religion, cultural practices, level of development, and acceptable criminal punishments International regimes: Cooperation among states based on custom and practice, without formal agreement Transnational Advocacy Networks: Networks that provide opportunities for cooperation and collaboration for people across borders to channel their inﬂuence in the international arena Social contract: Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 18th-century philosophical notion Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, develop a global partnership for development (Hunger and money, education, women's rights, children, mothers, diseases, environment, globe) - The 8 Millennium Development Goals $1.25 - 1.4 billion people globally live on this amount of money Self-actualization (Achieving one's full potential, including creative activities) <- Esteem needs (Prestige and feeling of accomplishment) <- Belongingness and love needs (intimate relationships, friends) <- Safety needs (security, safety) <- Physiological needs (food, water, warmth, rest) - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs compact grants - Relatively large sums of money given to countries that clearly meet the eligibility criteria Threshold grants: Small sums of money that are awarded to those nearing the standards but needing a bit more time ILO: Sets the standards for the global workplace founded in 1919 Global Governance Watch: The movement toward global governance is a threat to national sovereignty. It monitors transparency and accountability of IGOs and NGOs. It's particularly concerned with: economics, environment and health, human rights, and security Global Governance 2025: A study prepared by the US National Intelligence Council and the EU Institute for Security Studies. It examines changes in international system that require global governance, limiting factors. There are four possible scenarios for meeting challenges Study Abroad: To attend an educational institution in another country Service Learning: Programs that combine classroom education with opportunities that engage students directly in service activities Internships: Positions that offer practical training in workplace settings Exchange Agreements: Arrangements that enable students to study abroad at foreign universities for the same tuition that they would pay to the home institution Employability Quotient: The extent to which a course of study provides sufﬁcient preparation for gainful employment Transferable skills: Talents and abilities that may be applied to a range of settings and job environments Foreign Service Ofﬁcers: Diplomats employed by the US Department of State Peace Corps: A US government agency that sends volunteers to assist other countries in order to promote friendship and mutual understanding Think Tanks: Privately funded research- and policy-oriented institutes Intercultural Competence: The ability to communicate effectively with people from different backgrounds and with different interests Beneﬁts to study abroad: Exposure to foreign culture, Opportunity to make contacts and forge relationships , Base for additional travel, Advantages in employment, Language skills, Curriculum available to foreign students, Instructional language, Thematic focus Living arrangements - What to consider about studying abroad program Afghanistan - Country of Taliban Pakistan - Country of Lashkar-e-Taiba Malaysia, Philippines - Country of Abu Sayyaf Algeria - Country of Armed Islamic Group Bosnian Genocide - The secession of Yugoslav states after the death of Tito in 198. The Muslim population of Bosnia declares independence in 1992. The Serbians respond with violence, killing 200,000 people
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