Virginia Commonwealth University
Popular in Human Societies and Globalization 101
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to INTL 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by John Froitzheim in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Bourgeois: Owners Proletariat: Workers Communism: Social movement promoted the communal values of the worker class Marx and Engels sought creation of communism Sociology: Focuses on people and their relationships to the societies they live in Anthropology: Examines physical attributes of humans and social and cultural characteristics Psychology: Understanding the motivations behind decisions people make Ethnography: Observation and description of people in their environment, in-depth analysis Enculturation: Process which a society learns its culture, native societies Cultural relativism: Cultural understanding in terms of the environment in which it exists Cultural diffusion: Spreading of culture to be embraced by wider audience, ex. spread of Chinese cuisine to other regions Assimilation: Submerging of cultural differences into broader, dominant culture Cultural imperialism: When one culture is dominated by another and is forced to change Cultural diffusion, assimilation, and cultural imperialism are mechanisms of cultural learning- Rely on cultural relativism (meaning is relative to the environment) Deterritorialization: Weakening of cultural ties, general trend Homogenization: Range of cultural forms into a uniform set of values and practices Hybridization: Blending of cultures, difference aspects of each culture to create new entity, ex. blending of english and hindi into new language Glocalization: Adaptation of locals forms of expression to outside inﬂuences, tailoring famous foods to different tastes around the world *Adam Kuper: Trends emerged into 3 schools, justifying territorial expansion— English tradition, German romantic/counter-enlightenment, and French enlightened view *Manning Nash: Nation state is responsible for rise and deﬁnition of ethnic groups *Vladir Lenin: Led working people of Russia in a revolution, 20th century *John Tominson: Asserts greater mobility results in progressive deterritorialization of the world * Samuel Huntington: Envisioned future conﬂicts based on cultural differences—The Clash of Civilians and Remaking World Order * Ben Barber: Jihad v. McWorld- tendencies of globalization * Arjun Appadural: “Global scapes” increasing ﬂows released by globalization * Thomas Friedman: Lexus and Olive Tree Hukou: Chinese registration system based on ope's parents' birthplace Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Kshudras, Dalit: Order of India's Caste System Mediascapes - ﬂows of information through the mass media Financescapes - ﬂows of capital Technoscapes - ﬂows of technology Ethnoscapes - ﬂows of people Ideoscapes - ﬂows of ideas Sunni: Accept Abu Bakr as the rightful successor to Muhammad, majority of Muslims Shia: Muslims who support the prophet's son-in-law and cousin, Ali, as the true successor 1979 Iranian Revolution: Political division b/w Sunni and Shia Sharia law: A legal system that relies on Islam and applies broadly to how Muslims should live their lives. It includes punishments for crimes that may not be acceptable universally Transitional justice: The many different types of judicial and nonjudicial actions used to address human rights abuses Truth and reconciliation commissions: Groups formed to bring together those who have suffered under ethnic conﬂict to resolve their differences and move forward Gacaca: An effort in Rwanda dating back to precolonial times when differences were addressed informally through "justice on the grass" to bring healing Hadd: Harsh Muslim punishments like stoning or amputation for serious crimes Hezbollah: Iranian-backed Lebanese militia that has exerted inﬂuence across the Middle East Lao-tzu: Hinduism *King Leopold II: European leader Belgium-Congo late 1800’s *Josip Broz (Tito): Communist war hero who kept together the various ethnic groups that had been brought together under the Yugoslavian ﬂag after WWII Conrad: Heart of Darkness (Leopolds crimes), Ford Coppola: Apocalypse Now(Vietnam)- experience of Central African Republic 2 billion people live in countries they can’t survive tensions— Fund for Peace: developed fragile states index to rank states on 12 indicators for stability— No legit gov’t, no public service or safety **Somalia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan, Chad, Yemen, Afghanistan, Haiti, Central African Republic, Zimbabwe: Ten most fragile states Civil society: NGOs that are active in public life, through expression of members' values and interests Intergovernmental organization: Formal, international public bodies, members are nation-states League of Nations created after WW1, lacked American participation Nongovernmental organizations: Formal, nonproﬁt, voluntary organizations whose memberships are composed of individuals organized around speciﬁc issues or common concerns Kellogg-Briand Pact: Pact that outlawed war as a means of conﬂict resolution *US attempt to support the League of Nations Atlantic Charter: Foundation for IGO— Joint declaration US and Great Britain that detailed the position of the two countries relative to WWII and their goals for postwar peace Supranational entities: International organizations that operate beyond the national boundaries of their member states Positivism: Theory and development of international law based on the practice of states and conduct of international relations as evidenced by custom or treaties Concert of Europe: 1815, formed to maintain balance of power and peace— enforce the decisions reached at the Congress of Vienna *European powers that had defeated Napoleon- Russia, Prussia, Britain, and Austria—gathered to negotiate the peace Complex interdependence: The interdependent relationship that exists between states such that variation in one state's behavior signiﬁcantly affects the other Peace building: The UN and humanitarian NGOs, organizes elections and police forces, provides relief services, and any other activities that are needed to create a viable state Hague peace conference: Court of Arbitration—to ﬁnd resolutions b/w state conﬂicts *Hugo Grotius: Father of international law— De sure belli- separated int. law from ethics/ theology—ﬁrst treatise on international law and served as basis of positivism *Trygve Lie: First UN secretary general Secretariat: UN administers daily business UN general assembly- Supervise UN activity, ﬁnancial matters Global governance: Voluntary international cooperation to manage transnational issues through a system of governance agreed upon by all interested parties *threat to nat. sovereignty? Vulnerable employment: Work done by unpaid family workers or the self-employed Millennium Development Goals: 8 goals adopted by UN to improve lives globally—Primarily health, child mortality(4), maternal, HIV/AIDS, malaria(6)** global pandemic (San-saharan Africa) **3.4billion live in malaria transmitted areas (Hunger and money, education, women's rights, children, mothers, diseases, environment, globe) SS Africa- moderate improvement didn't meet target, North/East Africa and Asia cut poverty in half by ‘15 Millennium Challenge Corporation: Congress response to MDGs—Economic assistance to developing countries: relieving debt burdens, and improving governance, infrastructure, healthcare, and education Universal norms: Human rights as described in the Universal Declaration that most countries can agree upon Relative norms: Rights that are unique to an individual society, dictated by its religion, cultural practices, level of development, and acceptable criminal punishments International regimes: Cooperation among states based on custom and practice, without formal agreement Transnational Advocacy Networks: Networks that provide opportunities for cooperation and collaboration for people across borders to channel their inﬂuence in the international arena Int. Labor Org.: Set standards for the global workplace, 1919 European Union: 13% total aid ﬂow, biggest donor 1.4 billion live >$1.25/day Self-actualization (Achieving one's full potential, including creative activities) <- Esteem needs (Prestige and feeling of accomplishment) <- Belongingness and love needs (intimate relationships, friends) <- Safety needs (security, safety) <- Physiological needs (food, water, warmth, rest) — Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 9.4% undergrad. study abroad, 3.5% students at US univ. are international Think Tanks: Privately funded research- and policy-oriented institutes Intercultural Competence: The ability to communicate effectively with people from different backgrounds and with different interests Afghanistan - Country of Taliban Pakistan - Country of Lashkar-e-Taiba Malaysia, Philippines - Country of Abu Sayyaf Algeria - Country of Armed Islamic Group Bosnian Genocide - The secession of Yugoslav states after the death of Tito in 198. The Muslim population of Bosnia declares independence in 1992. The Serbians respond with violence, killing 200,000 people
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