Module 3 Study Smart Activity: Responses
Module 3 Study Smart Activity: Responses PSYC100
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Dasilva on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC100 at University of Maryland taught by Ryan Curtis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
http://ter.ps/openPSYC Module 03 Study Smart Activity Research Methodology Module 03 Study Smart Activity Question You need to recruit participants for an experimental test of this pill, so you post 1 advertisements around the building offering $100 to volunteers. Is this approach utilizing probability or non-probability sampling? How might a selection bias limit the external validity of our results using this approach? (03-C) The approach is utilizing non-probability sampling. With nonprobability sampling, people are selected on the basis of their availability because they volunteered. Consequently, a portion of the population is excluded (those who did not volunteer). This form of selection bias limits the validity of the results because it does not necessarily represent the entire population. Question When you study this pill we would also like to learn whether it is more or less effective depending on the level of stress students are under when tested. We 2 need to design an experiment where we manipulate the amount of stress students are under and then administer some measure of memory performance. Which conceptual variable is the DV and which is the IV? How would you operationalize each variable? (03-G, 03-E) -The dependent variable is the memory performance that is being administered and measured. The independent variable is the manipulated amount of stress that the students are under. -The dependent variable could be operationalized by inquiring, “What type of memory is being measured?” -The independent variable could be operationalized by asking, “What kind of stress is being manipulated?” Question To determine whether this pill actually causes an increase in academic performance you will need two groups of students – one that takes the pill and 3 one that does not. How would you go about creating the two groups for your experiment and why is that approach essential in order to conclude that it was the pill (and not some other variable) that caused any differences you measure? (03-H) After breaking students into two groups using a random system, I want to ensure that they are divided into two equal groups so that the comparison will be equal. Created by Dr. Scott Roberts and Dr. Ryan Curtis, University of Maryland, Department of Psychology OpenPSYC Study Smart Activity Question If you were to conduct a scientific experiment on the effects of this pill the results of your study might be influenced by methodological errors. For each of 4 the biases below explain how the error might occur and how you would prevent it. (03-F) Placebo effect: error might occur because the participants who take the pill will expect the pill to enhance their academic performance, this could be prevented by making the students oblivious to what kind of pill they are actually taking. Demand characteristics: error might occur because participants will think of what the researcher wants to happen; this could be prevented by making the students oblivious to what the real purpose of the study is. Rosenthal effect: error might occur because the researcher expects what the results of the study should be; this could be prevented with a blind study, in which a proctor conducts the study and the researcher is unaware of the specifics of the study (i.e. groups, names, ect.) Question No matter how careful we are in designing a study there is always a chance that our conclusion is incorrect. State the null hypothesis and the alternative 5 hypothesis. What is the difference between a Type I and Type II error? In this case, which do you think would be the worse error to make? (03-B) -A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that the researcher tries to disprove, and the alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis that proves the researcher’s prediction to be correct. -A type I error falsely rejects the null hypothesis, while a type two hypothesis falsely accepts the null hypothesis. -The type I error is considered to be the worst error to make because the type I error is more likely to be published to the public, and could be potentially dangerous if a drug were to be released as a result of incorrect information. Page 2 of 2
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