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Cognitive Neuroscience Exam 1

by: Monica Rinderle

Cognitive Neuroscience Exam 1 Psych 3513

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Psychology (PSYC) > Psych 3513 > Cognitive Neuroscience Exam 1
Monica Rinderle
GPA 3.4

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Chapters 1-4
Cognitive Neuroscience
Melissa Buelow
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Rinderle on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3513 at Ohio State University taught by Melissa Buelow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
Cognitive Neuroscience Exam 1 Study Guide (Ch. 1­4) Cognition – “the faculty of knowing,” a set of processes that allows us to perceive external stimuli, extract key information, and generate thought/ actions to meet a goal.  The processing that is carried out by the mind  Cognition occurs without conscious experience  Cognitive Functions Neuroscience – a branch of science that deals with the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, or molecular biology of nervous and nervous tissue and especially their relation to behavior and learning.  Animal based Neuropsychology – a science concerned with the integration of psychological observations on behavior and the mind with neurological observations on the brain and nervous system. Behavioral Neuroscience – the application of principles of biology (neurobiology) to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human animals. Cognitive Neuroscience – a scientific discipline that seeks to create models that explain the interrelations between brain function and cognitive function. Neurosciences tend to focus more on imaging techniques, where Neuropsychology focuses more on behavioral predictors and outcomes as well as assessments. Neuron – the basic cell making up the nervous system  Action potentials – the electrical signal conducted along neuronal axons by which information is conveyed from one place to another in the nervous system  Neurotransmitter – a chemical agent released at synapses that mediates signaling between nerve cells  Synapse – a specialized point of contact between the axon of a neuron and a target cell  Neurotransmitters are released by the terminals of neuronal axons then the transmitter binds to receptor molecules and the signal is on its way. Early Attempts to determine Brain Function:  Roman physician Galen, with no tools, recognized that damage to the brain could have effects on cognition. th  By the 19 century, scientist became interested in the cerebral cortex  Franz Joseph Gall, phrenology – someone who describes the brain in nonscientific terms. Introduced idea that different parts of the brain contribute to different sorts of information processing.  Brain injury: Phineas Gage  Intracranial Electrical Stimulation – allows neurosurgeons to map the functions of the brain, find a tumor, etc. Areas of cognition assessed with a neuropsychological assessment:  Orientation  Attention  Language  Visuospatial Skills  Motor Skills  Memory  Executive Functions  Mood The Homunculus – a map of the relationship of brain regions to particular body parts Natural Events / Lesions:  Pros: Strong link between behavior and structure  Cons: Not specific, few participants Directed Lesions:  Pros: Very specific, allows for before and after testing  Cons: Ethics Major Neuroimaging Techniques and Their Pros and Cons: CT  Pros: Sensitive to acute injuries  Cons: Less sensitive to more distant injuries MRI  Pros: Greater detail allowed, more sensitive to distant injuries  Cons: Less sensitive to acute injuries EEG  Pros: Good at state specific events, not invasive  Cons: Not specific for cognitive functions MEG  Pros: Not invasive, well localized  Cons: More expensive, more susceptible to inference PET  Pros: Identification of regions / networks  Cons: Injection of radioactive material FMRI  Pros: Not invasive, good resolution  Cons: Indirect measurement of neuronal activity, may not detect most needed region for task The Eye Pupil – allows light to enter Cornea – transparent, covers pupil / Iris Lens – works with cornea, changes focal distance Retina – back of eye, collects visual inputs Fovea – center of retina, blank spot in vision Rods – sides of retina Cones – center of retina, sensitive to color Visual Pathway or Geniculostriate Pathway Eye > Optic Nerve (2) > Optic Chiasm > Optic Tract > Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Thalamus > Optic Radiation > Primary & Secondary Visual Cortex (Occipital Lob) Visual information crosses at the Optic Chiasm, but not all the information crosses. Information from the left side of both eyes travels to the left side of the brain and the same happens with information from the right side. The Occipital Lobe is divided into four visual regions, V1 receives messages from the Thalamus, and V2, V3, process one or more of the qualities that define visual perception. V4, the most important, processes information related to color. Ventral Stream (What Pathway) – from the visual cortex to the inferior part of the temporal lobe. Information carried in this pathway appears to be responsible for high-resolution vision and object recognition. Dorsal Stream (Where Pathway) – from the striate cortex and other visual areas into the parietal lobe, responsible for spatial aspects of vision. Visual Disorders Color Blindness – Inability to see color, impairment in the cones.  Level of blindness depends on number of pigments missing  Primarily affects men, 1/10 Achromatopsia – Severe form of color blindness, can only see shades of grey.  Prosopagnosia  Degeneration of cones  Rapid eye movement Homonymous Field Defects – Lesions after the decussation at optic chiasm.  Symptoms: Field cuts, optic atrophy begins to degenerate, afferent pupillary defect.  Types: Hemianopia ½, Quadrantanopia ¼ Damage to the retina causes spots. Damage to the optic nerve causes total loose of eye sight. Blind-sight – Allows an individual who is cortically blind to perceive motion and light. These people will deny sight even though they can see. Anton’s Syndrome – Occurs when there is bilateral damage to the occipital lobe, the individual will believe they can see but they cannot. Visual Agnosia – Inability to recognize objects by sight.  Apperceptive – Cannot perceive the object correctly  Associative – Can describe the object but cannot give it a name Alexia – Unable to recognize words Prosopagnosia – Inability to recognize faces, not limited to human faces, have to use things like haircut, glasses, personality, and voice to distinguish one person from another. Balint Syndrome – Must have all three symptoms  Simultanagnosia – Difficulty with spatial attention  Optic Ataxia – Difficulty with hand eye coordination  Ocular Motor Apraxia – Difficulty with eye movement Synesthesia – One sense simultaneously perceived by other senses, two senses active at one time.  Colors have smells When conducting a Cancellation Task, participants are asked to cross out al of one object. If participants only cross out the objects on one side, then there is obviously a visual disorder. How Do We Hear? Resonance – The tendency of surfaces to vibrate as air moves over them depending on physical details. Pinna (Funnels sound to inner ear) > Ear Drum > Middle Ear Bones > Semicircular Canals > Cochlear (where the fluid picks up the vibrations, sends to hair cells) > Eustachian Tube (where hair cells form the auditory nerve) Auditory Nerve > Medulla > Midbrain > Thalamus > Primary Auditory Cortex (Heschl’s Gyous) Loudness – Sound intensity Pitch – Higher / Lower tones based on frequencies of sound waves. Timbre - Allows to detect differences when loudness and pitch are identical. Cochlear Implants  Surgically implanted devices that aid those with deafness or hearing loss  Especially helpful to those with damage to hair cells Somatosensory Perception – Touch Tactile Perception – Cutaneous / Subcutaneous systems; touch, vibration, pressure, and cutaneous tension. Nociceptive System – Includes pain and temperature Pain / Touch Sensation > Spinal Cord > Crosses the Brain > Thalamus > Primary Somatosensory Cortex Gerstmann’s Syndrome – Damage / lesion to angular gyrus in language dominant hemisphere.  Acalculla  Agraphia  Finger Agnosia  Left-Right Disorientation


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