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Genetics Test 1 Study Guide

by: Emmy Thornsberry

Genetics Test 1 Study Guide 2100

Marketplace > Georgia College & State University > Biology > 2100 > Genetics Test 1 Study Guide
Emmy Thornsberry

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These notes cover the class material and book material as specified by Dr. Weese. This study guide got me a 95 on this specific test.
Dr. Weese
Study Guide
Genetics, Biology, Heredity
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emmy Thornsberry on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2100 at Georgia College & State University taught by Dr. Weese in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Georgia College & State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
  Genetics Test 1 Study Guide   Chapter 1  Vocabulary  ­ Genome­ all genetic information in a cell (DNA or RNA)  ­ Model genetic organisms­ organisms used to test genetic traits and hypotheses  ­ Genes­ unit of heredity made of DNA that codes for proteins  Concepts  ­ Model organism traits  ­ Short generation time, abundance of offspring, ability to control crosses  Chapter 2  Vocabulary   ­ Prokaryote­ simple cell; no nucleus   ­ Eukaryote­ membrane bound organelles including nucleus  ­ Virus­ non living unit with RNA    ­ Chromosome­ DNA and proteins that carry information  ­ Chromatid­ one chromosome in a homologous pair  ­ Chromatin­ DNA coiled around histones in the nucleus of a cell  ­ Homologous pairs­ identical chromosomes attached at a centromere  ­ Telomere­ end of a chromosome with duplicates of DNA that allow the  chromosome to shorten without deleting genetic information  ­ Centromere­ the point of attachment between sister chromatids  ­ Submetacentric­ centromere slightly off center between the sister chromatids    ­ Telocentric­ centromere at the telomeres of the sister chromatids  ­ Metacentric­ centromere in the center between the sister chromatids  ­ Acrocentric­ centromere near the end of the sister chromatids   ­ Binary fission­ prokaryotic cell division   ­ Interphase­ G1, S, G2; time in which the cell grows, duplicates genetic material,  and prepares for duplication  ­ Mitosis­ eukaryotic cell division  ­ Meiosis­ eukaryotic cell sexual reproduction   ­ Fertilization­ fusion of gametes (sperm and egg)  ­ Crossing over­ occurs in metaphase I of meiosis; limbs of homologous  chromosomes overlap and exchange genetic information  ­ Random separation­ chromosomes in meiosis I randomly align and separate to  different sides of the cell  ­ Gametogenesis­ formation of gametes  ­ Spermatogenesis­ formation of sperm  ­ Oogensis­ formation of eggs  Concepts   ­ Mitosis  ­ Prophase­ nuclear envelope separates, spindle forms, chromosomes  condense  ­ Metaphase­ chromosomes line up on metaphase plate  ­ Anaphase­ sister chromatids are separated by the spindle fibers    ­ Telophase/cytokinesis­ actin filaments divide the cytoplasm, nuclear  envelope begins to reform, chromosomes relax   ­ Meiosis   ­ Same as mitosis except:  ­ Meiosis I­ homologous chromosome pairs line up, crossover, and  separate(random assortment)  ­ Meiosis II­ sister chromatids separate in anaphase; results in two  haploid cells  ­ Genetic variation methods   ­ Crossing over  ­ Random separation  ­ Random fertilization  Chapter 3  Vocabulary  ­ Gene­ inherited region of DNA that codes for a specific protein   ­ Allele­ variation of gene; one of two or more forms of a specific gene  ­ Locus ­ location on a gene where a trait is found  ­ Genotype­ set of alleles of an individual at a locus  ­ Phenotype­ expression of genes  ­ Monohybrid cross­ single trait crossed to determine possible outcomes  ­ Reciprocal cross­ switching the cross to determine if a trait is sex linked; if the  outcome remains the same, it is not sex linked    ­ Back cross­ mating F1 generation with P generation   ­ Test cross­ unknown genotype crossed with a known homozygous recessive  individual to determine the unknown genotype  ­ Independent assortment­ alleles segregate on their own  ­ X​ squared test­​ tests to see if hypothesis is correct with the expected and  observed proportions  ­ Dominant­ if the allele is present the trait will be expressed  ­ Recessive­ only individuals homozygous for the allele will express the trait  ­ Homozygous­ two identical copies of an allele  ­ Heterozygous­ two different copies of an allele  ­ Dihybrid cross­ a cross with more than one trait  ­ Wild type­ most common in nature  ­ Mutant­ not common in nature   Concepts  ­ Mendel’s laws  ­ Segregation­ diploid organisms possess two copies of each allele, both of  which are separated in the formation of gametes  ­ Dominant/recessive inheritance­ the dominant allele if present will be  expressed over the recessive allele; the organism must be homozygous  recessive to express a recessive trait  ­ Independent assortment­ genes act independently of one another due to  the separation of genes at different loci during gametic formation     Chapters 4 and 5  Vocabulary   ­ Complete dominance­ the dominant trait is expressed completely if present  ­ Incomplete dominance­ the two alleles are expressed in a combination of the  two, with neither trait fully expressed  ­ Codominance­ both traits are fully expressed in a patchy mosaic form  ­ Penetrance­ the percent of individuals with a genotype that express the  phenotype   ­ Incomplete penetrance­ not all individuals with the genotype express the  phenotype  ­ Expressivity­ the degree to which a phenotype is expressed  ­ Lethal allele­ if two copies are inherited, the individual dies  ­ Lethal dominant­ any individual with the allele dies, homo or heterozygous  ­ Lethal recessive­ any individual homozygous for the trait dies  ­ Epistasis­ one allele affects the expression of an allele on a different locus  ­ Gene interactions­ multiple loci determine a single phenotype  ­ Recessive epistasis­ if an individual is homozygous for an allele, it will affect an  allele on another locus; 9:3:4 ratio  ­ Dominant epistasis­ if an individual possesses and allele for a trait, it will affect  an allele on another locus; 12:3:1 ratio  ­ Double recessive epistasis­ if an individual is homozygous for either trait at the  two loci, the trait will be expressed; 9:7 ratio    ­ Double dominant epistasis­ if the individual possesses the trait at either locus,  the trait will be expressed; 15:1 ratio  ­ Sex linked trait­ any trait that is passed down on the sex chromosomes  ­ Homogametic­ two identical copies of sex chromosomes; XX or ZZ   ­ Heterogametic­ two different copies of sex chromosomes; XY or ZW  ­ Haploidy­ haploid set developes male, diploid set developes female   ­ Nondisjunction­ failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis I  ­ Dosage compensation­ the ways that organisms make up for females having  more genetic information than males  ­ Barr bodies­ dark areas of cell nuclei that result from the turning off of X  chromosomes  ­ Sex influenced trait­ autosomal trait that can be inherited by both sexes but is  expressed differently in each sex  ­ Sex limited trait­ autosomal trait that is only expressed in one sex  Concepts  ­ Lethal allele examples  ­ Dominant­ Huntingtons   ­ Recessive­ Tay­Sachs  ­ Multiple alleles­ more than two alleles may be present at one locus, resulting in  multiple combinations and types of trait. Ex. Blood type­ there are three alleles  for blood type, which result in four possible combinations. Equation for possible  genotypes is N(N+1)/2     ­ Sex chromosomes  ­ XX/XY Syndromes  ­ Turner syndrome­ XO, missing one X; sterile and underdeveloped  women  ­ Klinefelter­ XXY, XXXY, XYY, etc abnormal number of X or Y  chromosomes; results in sterile, underdeveloped men  ­ Poly X­ XXX, XXXX, etc mostly normal women, abnormalities arise  with more X chromosomes   ­ ZZ/ZW­ male are homogametic, female heterogametic; seen in some birds  and reptiles  ­ Hapoidy­ male are haploid, female diploid; seen in ants  ­ Environmental factors­ some organisms develop depending on the  environment   ­ Sex linked traits  ­ Hemophilia  ­ Color blindness  ­ Dosage compensation  ­ Different numbers of X chromosomes results in different amounts of  genetic information which is bad for reproduction and survival so many  organisms have found ways around it aka dosage compensation  ­ Fruit flies­ male X chromosomes have double the activity of female X’s  ­ C. elegans­ females halve the activity on their X chromosomes    ­ Mammals turn off one X in every cell completely at random, which results  in Barr bodies   ­ Calico cats are all female because of the different X chromosomes  that are turned off result in different color patterns that cannot occur  in males due to the lack of extra X chromosome  Chapter 6  Vocabulary   ­ Pedigree­ family tree depicting the inheritance patterns of a gene  ­ Consanguinity­ mating between close relatives   ­ Autosomal recessive­ trait that skips a generation, males and females equally  affected  ­ Autosomal dominant­ all generations affected, males and females equally  affected, affected parents usually have affected offspring  ­ X­ linked recessive­ more males than females, female must have affected father  ­ X­ linked dominant­ more females than males, cannot skip generations  ­ Holandric­ y­linked, males only   ­ Dizygotic twins­ two zygotes result in nonidentical twins  ­ Monozygotic twins­ identical twins  ­ Concordance­ the percentage of twins that both have a disease or syndrome,  aka are concordant for a trait  ­ Genetic counseling­ tests to reveal whether or not family history will affect the  offspring of a couple, a person later in life, etc     ­ Amniocentesis­ pulling fluid from the amniotic sac to test the DNA for genetic  traits  ­ Ultrasound­ can tell if a child has certain visible genetic defects, such as cleft lip  or polydactyly  ­ Chorionic villus sampling­ tissue from the outside of the amniotic sac taken to  test for genetic defects  ­ Fetal blood sampling­ blood taken from the placenta or fetus to test for genetic  defects  ­ Maternal blood sampling­ mothers blood oftern has fetal tissues circulating and  those tissues can be tested for genetic defects  Concepts  ­ Pedigree analysis  ­ Symbols  ­ Square­ males  ­ Circle­ females  ­ Shaded­ affected  ­ Half shaded­ carrier  ­ Line through­ dead  ­ Genetic tests  ­ Amniocentesis  ­ Ultrasound  ­ Maternal blood testing    ­ Fetal blood testing  ­ Chorionic villus sampling       


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