ARHS 3620 - Exam One Image Study Guide
ARHS 3620 - Exam One Image Study Guide ARHS 3620
Popular in Contemporary Art 1950 -
Popular in Art History
ARHS 1020 (Art History Survey II: Renaissance to Present)
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Catie Cullen on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHS 3620 at Tulane University taught by Michael Plante in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Art 1950 - in Art History at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
ARHS 3620 – Exam 1 Study Guide Required Images Picasso, Guernica, 1937 Picasso painted Guernica for the 1937 World's Fair in Paris in a response to the bombing of Guernica o Guernica was bombed by fascists who believed it was a center of military power, but actually was a small peasant village 12 feet long, 26 feet wide: big painting that made a big statement o Black and white image: conveys the somberness of the situation, but also makes the image "newspaper-ready," as if Picasso knew it was going to be mass produced o Gave it to the people of Spain, but it could not go there while the fascists were still in power; instead, it went on tour in the United States and quickly became one of the most famous paintings in the world o Massively influential Picasso, Girl Before a Mirror, 1932 Until around 1960, it was one of the most expensive paintings to ever sell from the modern period o Donated to the MoMA; because the center of the art world was shifting to NYC, many of the artists living and working there were very familiar with it o Became very influential Mondrian, New York City I, 1942 Piet Mondrian: Dutch painter who arrived in NYC around 1941; loved the city o Changed the style of his work upon his arrival New York City I was tested out with colored tape; once the tape was removed, he painted the stripes o Because the lines interlock, there is no depth; all of the colored lines lie on the surface of the white background o New York City made his art "crazy"; loved NYC because his art was in museums Hofmann, Spring, 1940 Hans Hofmann: German artist who was not great at art himself, but opened incredibly influential schools in Munich and New York City o "Knew everybody" and had great connections; very well studied in art "You could learn more about Picasso from Hofmann than you could from Picasso o Hofmann School in NYC (1935-1960): as a European, he came to NYC and trained generations of American artists Although he was a great teacher, he was not a great artist Spring, 1940: switch to non-objectivity; precursor to Pollock o Pouring and dripping paint, but it was the only painting of its kind by Hofmann Hofmann, Magenta and Blue, 1950 Krasner, Blue Square, 1939-43 Lee Krasner: one of Hofmann's best students; studied with him for 13 years Blue Square, 1939-43 o Black outlines with in-filling and texture shows her attempt to move away or past Picasso o Ambitiously trying to move forward, although because she was a woman, no career was available to her despite her talent Krasner, Noon, 1946-47 Noon, 1946-47 o When Krasner married Jackson Pollock, her paintings changed completely o Small painting: dense, thick, small in size Short, thick, gummy brushstrokes All-over painting: no depth, everything is on the surface; eyes cannot look in, but only across the image; every part of the painting is activated visually at the same time o Pollock tells her she cannot paint ('its either you or me') Krasner, Untitled, 1948 All-over painting de Kooning, Queen of Hearts, 1943 Willem de Kooning: Dutch born, went through 12 years of art school training o One of the main Abstract Expressionists Queen of Hearts, 1943 o Attempting to engage Picasso in a conversation (Girl Before a Mirror) and perhaps attempting to push past him with the putrid colors of his work o Violates every rule of color theory as all of his colors clash o Vulgarity in Art: subjects are crass, colors are too bright; Queen of Hearts can be viewed as vulgar de Kooning, Pink Angels, 1945 Pink Angels, 1945 o Done with engaging with Picasso, looking to move past him and explore his own ideas o Highly inventive: done out of his mind, no one modeled for it Done with charcoal o De Kooning doesn't necessarily know where the image will end when he begins to paint o Example of biomorphism: Bio "life" + morph "shape" = shapes of life The shapes within the image are biomorphic because they could plausibly be a biological shape de Kooning, Painting, 1948 Painting, 1948 o De Kooning has dispensed of color completely in an attempt to get figure and shape down without being distracted by color o Dispensed of oil paint and moves to enamel house paint and house painting brushes Large gestural works, dries quickly o Simply painting for himself because he has no market to show it in; rather, his own internal development and ambition are his main motivators o The paintings are intended to be a process (process-driven); the feelings of the artist can be traced in the brushwork EXPRESSIONISTIC brushwork: de Kooning expresses himself through the brushwork de Kooning, Excavation, 1950 Excavation, 1950 o Physically big and weighs about 400 pounds; frequently falls off the wall at the museum in Chicago where it resides So many layers of paint; worked and reworked o Non-objective, but biomorphic shapes emerge Completely flat, no depth; eyes can only look across, not in de Kooning, Woman I, 1950-52 Woman I, 1950-52 o Figural but still abstract; very expressionistic brushstrokes, very physical painting process Look wild now, looked even more wild in 1950 o No separation between the woman and the background (the woman IS the background); the image is compressed drastically Obsessive, compulsive, fetishistic Even in the 1950s, people called this image misogynistic o De Kooning was obsessed with Marilyn Monroe's mouth, so he cut out her mouth from one of her nude portraits and pasted it to the canvas before beginning to paint Her mouth became the inspiration to begin painting De Kooning had a hard time starting and finishing an image; goes through many different forms before the final product Very process-driven o What Woman I shows us: de Kooning was very anxious and tense "Art never makes me peaceful or pure. I always seem to be wrapped up in the melodrama of vulgarity." o Post-war philosophy of existentialism is important to de Kooning: questioning the validity of the self and the purpose of humanity The process and procedure of painting is more important than the final product de Kooning, Gotham News, 1955 By the mid-1950s, he goes back to painting abstractions rather than women Gotham News, 1955 o Named after newspapers because he would cover his canvases in newspaper to keep the paint wet, and in doing so some of the newsprint would transfer on to the canvas Parts of the NY Times visible in the paint de Kooning, Easter Monday, 1955-56 Easter Monday, 1955-56 o Larger canvases, larger brushstrokes o Expressionistic brushstrokes Pollock, Male and Female, 1942 Jackson Pollock: first American artist in history to be taken seriously on an international scale o Karl Jung's ideas of psychoanalysis and the mythic/collective unconscious were very influential to Pollock o All human beings are alike at the unconscious level, and because we are all the same, we respond to the same things equally As an artist, if you can come up with the right color or shape, any person can understand Male and Female, 1942 o Focus on communication systems o How do people respond to color, shapes, numbers, math? Pollock, Gothic, 1944 Gothic, 1944 o Very spontaneous, very thick layers of paint o Gestural and expressionistic brushwork o All-over composition: no depth, no looking into the work Pollock, Cathedral, 1947 Cathedral, 1947 o Painted with mostly silver car paint, so the surface of the painting is reflective "In the act of painting, I'm inside my painting": Pollock'spainting is so physical, he literally steps into his canvas on the floor Cheap house and car paints fade, so now the colors of the painting are "fugitive" because they have changed over time o Pollock was poor his entire life, and after his death his paintings were worth much more
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