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Nurs 105 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Charissa Notetaker

Nurs 105 Final Exam Study Guide NURS 105

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Charissa Notetaker

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All the chapters covered for the final exam.
Professor Hutcherson
Study Guide
Nursing, MedicalTerminology
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Charissa Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NURS 105 at Liberty University taught by Professor Hutcherson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Nursing in Pre Nursing at Liberty University.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Study Guide for NURS 105 Final Exam The Final Exam consists of 100 multiple choice/matching questions. You will have two hours in which to complete the exam. Please bring a No. 2 pencil with you to the exam. Chapter 9: Cardiovascular System Anastomosis: surgical connection between blood vessels or the joining of one hollow or tubular organ to another Anastom: opening -Osis: condition Aneurysm: abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel Angina Pectoris: chest pain that occurs when diseased blood vessels restrict blood flow to the heart. It is often referred to as angina. The pain can radiate tot the neck, jaw, or left arm. It is often described as a crushing, burning, or squeezing sensation Angiostenosis: pathological condition of the narrowing of a blood vessel Angi/o: vessel Sten: narrowing -Osis: condition Antiarrhythmic Agent: drug used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms) Examples: Tambocor (flecainide acetate), Inderal (propranolol HCI), Calan (verapamil), and Cordarone and Pacerone (amiodarone) Anticoagulant: drug that prevents blood clots from forming. They are known as “blood thinners” and are used in primary and secondary prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarctions (MI), and cerebrovascular accidents (strokes) (CVA’s) Examples: Coumadin (warfarin sodium) and heparin Antihypertensive Agents: drugs used in the treatment of hypertension Examples: Catapres (clonidine HCI), Lopressor (metoprolol tartrate), Capoten (captopril), and Tropol-XL (metoprolol succinate Arrhythmia: irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat; also called dysrhythmia. A-: lack of Rrhythm: rhythm -Ia: condition Atherosclerosis: pathological condition of the arteries characterized by the buildup of fatty substances (cholesterol deposits and triglycerides) and hardening of the walls Ather/o: fatty substance, porridge Scler: hardening -Osis: condition Bradycardia: abnormally slow heartbeat defined as fewer than 60 beats per minute Brady-: slow Card: heart -Ia: condition Bruit: pathological noise; a sound of venous or arterial origin heard on auscultation Cardiac Catheterization (CC): medical procedure used to diagnose heart disorders. A tiny catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or leg of the patient and is fed through this artery to the heart. Dye is then pumped through the catheter, enabling the physician to locate by x-ray any blockages in the arteries supplying the heart Cardiac Enzyme Test: blood tests performed to determine cardiac damage in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Levels begin to ruse 6-10 hours after an AMI and peak at 24-48 hours. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Creatine Kinase (CK): used to detect area of damage. Level may be five to eight times normal. Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes: used to indicate area of damage; CK-MB heart muscle, CK-MM skeletal muscle, and CK-BB brain Cardiomegaly: enlargement of the heart Cardi/o: heart -Megaly: enlargement, large Cardiomyopathy (CMP): disease of the heart muscle that leads to generalized deterioration of the muscle and its pumping ability. It can be caused by multiple factors including viral infections Cardi/o: heart My/o: muscle -Pathy: disease Cardiotonic: a class of medication that is used to increase the tone (pumping strength) of the heart Cardi/o: heart Ton: tone -Ic: pertaining to Claudication: literally means process of lameness or limping. It is a dull, cramping pain in the hips, thighs, calves, or buttocks caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen to the muscles, due to narrowed arteries. It is one of the symptoms in peripheral artery disease (PAD) Claudicat: to limp -Ion: process Constriction: process of drawing together, as in the narrowing of a vessel Con-: together, with Strict: to draw, to bind -Ion: process Cyanosis: abnormal condition of the skin and mucous membranes caused by oxygen deficiency in the blood. The skin, fingernails, and mucous membranes can appear slightly blue or gray Cyan: dark blue -Osis: condition Echocardiography (ECHO): noninvasive ultrasound used to evaluate the heart for valvular or structural defects and coronary artery disease Ech/o: reflected sound Cardi/o: heart -Graphy: recording Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG): records the heart’s electrical activity. A standard electrocardiogram consists of 12 different leads. With electrodes placed on the patient’s arms, legs, and six positions on the chest, a 12-lead ECG can be recorded. Six unipolar chest leads record electrical activity of different parts of the heart. An ECG (EKG) provides valuable information in diagnosing cardiac abnormalities, such as myocardial damage and arrhythmias. Embolism: pathological condition caused by obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign substances or a blood clot Embol: a throwing in -Ism: condition Endarterectomy: surgical excision of the inner portion of an artery End-: within Arter: artery -Ectomy: surgical excision Endocarditis: inflammation of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart). It typically occurs when microorganisms, especially bacteria from another part of the body such as the gums/teeth, spread through the bloodstream and affect heart valves and other important structures of the cardiovascular system. Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics and, in severe cases, surgery Endo-: within Card: heart -Itis: inflammation Endocardium: inner lining of the heart Endo-: within Cardi: heart -Um: tissue Fibrillation: quivering or spontaneous contraction of individual muscle fibers, an abnormal bioelectric potential occurring in neuropathies and myopathies; disorganized pathological rhythm that can lead to death if not immediately corrected Fibrillat: fibrils (small fibers) -Ion: process Flutter: pathological rapid heart rate that may cause cardiac output (CO) to be decreased. With atrial flutter, the heartbeat is 200-400 beats per minute. With ventricular flutter, the heartbeat is 250 beats or more per minute. On an EKG recording, a flutter will demonstrate a “saw- tooth” appearance Hemangioma: benign tumor of a blood vessel Hem: blood Angi: vessel -Oma: tumor Hyperlipidemia: abnormal high levels of lipids (fatty substances) in the blood. Lipids include sterols (cholesterol and cholesterol esters), free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (glycerol esters of FFA), and phospholipids (phosphoric acid esters of lipid substances) Hyper-: excessive Lipid: fat -Emia: blood condition Infarction: process of development of an infarct, which is death of tissue resulting from obstruction of blood flow Infarct: infarct (necrosis of an area) -Ion: process Ischemia: condition in which there is a lack of oxygen due to decreased blood supply to a part of the body caused by constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel Isch: to hold back -Emia: blood condition Murmur: an abnormal sound ranging from soft and blowing to loud and booming heard on auscultation of the heart and adjacent large blood vessels. Murmurs range from very faint to very loud. They sometimes sound like a whooshing or swishing noise. Normal heartbeats make a “lub-DUPP” or “lub-DUB” sound. This is the sound of the heart valves closing as blood moves through the heart. Most abnormal murmurs in children are due to congenital heart defects. In adults, abnormal murmurs are most often due to heart valve problems caused by infection, disease, or aging Palpitation: an abnormal rapid throbbing or fluttering of the heart that is perceptible to the patient and may be felt by the physician during a physical exam Palpitat: throbbing -Ion: process Shock: a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. This can damage multiple organs. Shock requires immediate medical treatment and can get worse very rapidly. In cardiogenic shock, there is a failure to maintain the blood supply to the circulatory system and tissues because of inadequate cardiac output Tachycardia: rapid heartbeat that is over 100 beats per minute Tachy-: rapid Card: heart -Ia: condition Thrombolytic Agents: drug that acts to dissolve an existing thrombus when administered soon after its occurrence. They are often referred to as tissue plasminogen activators (tPA, TPA) and can reduce the chance of dying after an myocardial infarction by 50%. Unless contraindicated, the drug should be administered within 6 hours of the onset of chest pain. In some hospitals, the time period for administering thrombolytic agents has been extended to 12 and 24 hours. These agents dissolve the clot, reopen the artery, restore blood flow to the heart, and prevent further damage to the myocardium. Bleeding is the most common and potentially serious complication encountered during thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolytic agents are also used in ischemic strokes, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism to clear a blocked artery and avoid permanent damage to the perfused tissue Note: thrombolytic therapy in hemorrhagic strokes is contraindicated, because its use would prolong bleeding into the intracranial space and cause further damage Examples: Streptase (streptokinase) and Activase (alteplase) Thrombosis: a blood clot within the vascular system; a stationary blood clot Thromb: clot of blood -Osis: condition Triglyceride: pertaining to an organic compound consisting of three molecules of fatty acids Tri-: three Glyc: sweet, sugar -Er: relating to -Ide: having a particular quality Vasoconstrictive: active narrowing of a blood vessel Vas/o: vessel Con-: together Strict: to draw, to bind -Ive: nature of, quality of Vasodilation/Vasodilator: medicine that acts directly on smooth muscle cells within blood vessels to make them widen (dilate) Vas/o: vessel Dilat: to widen -Or: one who, a doer AED: automated external defibrillator CABG: coronary artery bypass graft CAD: coronary artery disease CHD: coronary heart disease CHF: congestive heart failure ECG/EKG: electrocardiogram PTCA: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty Chapter 10: Blood and Lymphatic System Agglutination: process of clumping together, as of blood cells that are incompatible Agglutinat: clumping -Ion: process Allergy: an individual hypersensitivity to a substance that is usually harmless. Allergic rhinitis is commonly known as hay fever. It is typically caused by the pollens of certain seasonal plants and occurs in people who are allergic to these substances. Symptoms include coughing, headache, sneezing, and itchy nose, mouth, and eyes. The same reaction occurs with allergy to mold, animal dander, dust, and similar inhaled allergens All: other -Ergy: work Anaphylaxis: unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign proteins or other substances. It can occur suddenly, be life threatening, and affect the whole body. During an anaphylactic allergic reaction, tissues in different parts of the body release histamine and other substances. This causes constriction of the airways, resulting in wheezing, difficulty breathing, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea Ana-: up -Phylaxis: protection Anemia: literally a lack of red blood cells, it is a reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells, the amount of the hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells (hematocrit). A normal red blood cell is biconcave with no nuclei and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. Symptoms of anemia are due to tissue hypoxia, or lack of oxygen. General symptoms include pallor, fatigue, dizziness, headaches, decreased exercise tolerance, tachycardia, and shortness of breath (SOB). There are many types and causes of anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia occurs when there is an increased iron requirement, impaired absorption of iron, or hemorrhage. Other types of anemias include hemolytic, pernicious, vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency, sickle cell disease, and thalessmia An-: lack of -Emia: blood condition Anisocytosis: condition in which the erythrocytes are unequal in size and shape Anis/o: unequal Cyt: cell -Osis: condition Anticoagulant: substance that works against the formation of blood clots; a class of medication used in certain patients to prevent blood from clotting; a chemical compound used in medical equipment, such as test tubes, blood transfusion bags, and renal dialysis equipment Anti-: against Coagul: clots -Ant: forming Antibody: protein substance produced in the body in response to an invading foreign substance (antigen) Anti-: against -Body: body Antigen: invading foreign substance that induces the formation of antibodies Anti-: against -Gen: formation, produce Autotransfusion: process of infusing a patient’s own blood. Methods used include harvesting the blood 1-3 weeks before elective surgery; salvaging intraoperative blood; and collecting blood from trauma or selected surgical patients for infusion within 4 hours Auto-: self Trans-: across Fus: to pour -Ion: process Embolus: blood clot carried in the bloodstream. A mass of undissolved matter present in a blood or lymphatic vessel and brought there by the blood or lymph current. Emboli can be solid, liquid, or gaseous Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): blood test to determine the rate at which red blood cells settle in a long narrow tube. The distance the RBCs settle in 1 hour is the rate. Higher or lower rate can indicate certain disease conditions Extravasation: process by which fluids and/or intravenous (IV) medications can escape from the blood vessel into surrounding tissue Extra: beyond Vas: vessel -At(e): action -Ion: process Hematocrit (Hct, HCT): blood test that separates solids from plasma in the blood by centrifuging the blood sample; the percent of solid components to the plasma (liquid) components of blood and varies with age and gender: men range 40-54%; women range 37-47%; children 35-49%; and newborn 49-54% Hemat/o: blood -Crit: to separate Hemochromatosis: genetic disease condition in which iron is not metabolized properly and accumulates in body tissues. The skin has a bronze hue, the liver becomes enlarged, and diabetes and cardiac failure can occur Hem/o: blood Chromat: colour -Osis: condition Hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb, HGB): blood protein; the iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues Hem/o: blood -Globin: globe, protein Hemolysis: destruction of red blood cells Hem/o: blood -Lysis: destruction Hemophilia: hereditary blood disease characterized by prolonged coagulation and tendency to bleed Hem/o: blood -Philia: attraction Hemorrhage: literally means bursting forth blood; bleeding Hem/o: blood -Rrhage: bursting forth Hemostasis: control or stopping of bleeding Hem/o: blood -Stasis: control, stop, stand still Hypoglycemia: condition of deficient amounts of sugar in the blood; low blood sugar Hypo-: deficient Glyc: sweet, sugar -Emia: blood condition Hypoxia: deficient amount of oxygen in the blood, cells, and tissues; also known as anoxia and hypoxemia Hyp-: deficient -Oxia: oxygen Leukemia: disease of the blood characterized by overproduction of leukocytes. Common types include chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) Leuk: white -Emia: blood condition Lymphadenitis: inflammation of the lymph glands Lymph: lymph Aden: gland -Itis: inflammation Lymphangitis: inflammation of lymphatic vessels Lymph: lymph Ang: vessel -Itis: inflammation Lymphedema: abnormal accumulation of lymph in the interstitial spaces Lymph: lymph -Edema: swelling Lymphoma: lymphoid neoplasm, usually malignant. Lymphomas are identified as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Radiation therapy is the primary treatment for early-stage Hodgkin disease Lymph: lymph -Oma: tumor, mass, fluid collection Phagocyte/Phagocytosis: engulfing and eating of particulate substances such as bacteria, protozoa, cells and cell debris, dust particles, and colloids by phagocytes (leukocytes or macrophages) Phag/o: eat, engulf Cyt: cell -Osis: condition Platelet (Thrombocyte): disk-shaped cells about half the size of erythrocytes. They play an important role in the clotting process Polycythemia: increased number of red blood cells Poly-: many Cyt: cell Hem: blood -Ia: condition Red Blood Count (RBC): test performed on whole blood to determine the number of erythrocytes present. Increased and/or decreased amounts can indicate certain disease conditions Septicemia: pathological condition in which bacteria are present in the blood Septic: putrefying -Emia: blood condition Sideropenia: lack of iron in the blood Sider/o: iron -Penia: lack of Splenomegaly: abnormal enlargement of the spleen Splen/o: spleen -Megaly: enlargement Thalassemia: hereditary anemia occurring in populations bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in Southeast Asia Thalass: sea -Emia: blood condition Thrombin: blood enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin Thromb: clot -In: chemical Thrombus/Thrombosis: formation, development, or existence of a blood clot (thrombus) within the vascular system. In venous thrombosis (thrombophlebitis), a thrombus forms on the wall of a vein, accompanied by inflammation and obstructed blood flow. Thrombi can form in either superficial or deep veins. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is generally a complication of hospitalization, surgery, and immobilization Thromb: clot -Osis: condition ABO: blood groups CBC: complete blood count ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay PCP: pneumocystis pneumonia RBC: red blood cell (count) Chapter 11: Respiratory System Anthracosis: lung condition caused by inhalation of coal dust and silica; also called black lung Anthrac: coal -Osis: condition Apnea: temporary cessation of breathing. Sleep apnea is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. To be so classified, the apnea must last for at least 10 seconds and occur 30 or more times during a 7-hour period of sleep. Sleep apnea is classified according to the mechanisms involved. Obstructive apnea is caused by obstruction to the upper airway. Central apnea is marked by absence of respiratory muscle activity A-: lack of -Pnea: breathing Asphyxia: emergency condition in which there is a depletion of oxygen in the blood with an increase of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues; symptoms include dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, impairment of senses, and, in extreme cases, convulsions, unconsciousness, and death. Some of the more common causes include drowning, electrical shock, aspiration of vomitus, lodging of a foreign body in the respiratory tract, inhalation of toxic gas or smoke, and poisoning. Artificial ventilation and oxygen should be administered as quickly as possible A-: lack of Sphyx: pulse -Ia: condition Aspiration: the act of drawing in or out by suction using a device such as a syringe or needle; the process of drawing foreign bodies, such as food, liquid, or other substances, into the nose, throat, or lungs on inspiration Aspirat: to draw in -Ion: process Asthma: disease of the bronchi characterized by wheezing, dyspnea, and a feeling of constriction in the chest. Inflammation of the airways causes airflow into and out of the lungs to be restricted. During an asthma attack, the muscles of the bronchial tree constrict and the linings of the air passages swell, reducing airflow and producing the characteristic wheezing sound Atelectasis: the partial collapse of a segment of alveolus decreasing the surface area available for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange; condition of imperfect dilation of the lungs; the collapse of an alveolus, a lobule, or a larger lung unit Atel: imperfect -Ectasis: dilation, expansion Bradypnea: slow breathing Bronchiectasis: chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with a secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of a lung Bronchi: bronchus -Ectasis: dilation, expansion Croup: acute respiratory disease (ARD) characterized by obstruction of the larynx, a barking cough, dyspnea, hoarseness, and stridor (high-pitched noisy breathing) Cyanosis: abnormal condition of the skin and mucous membrane caused by oxygen deficiency in the blood. The skin, fingernails, and mucous membranes can appear slightly bluish or grayish Cyan: dark blue -Osis: condition Dyspnea: literally means difficulty in breathing Dys-: difficult -Pnea: breathing Emphysema: chronic pulmonary disease in which the alveoli become distended and the alveolar walls become damaged or destroyed, making it difficult to exhale air from the lungs. It is included in a group of diseases called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. The primary cause of emphysema is the smoking of cigarettes Empyema: pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity Epistaxis: nosebleed; usually results from traumatic or spontaneous rupture of blood vessels in the mucous membranes of the nose Epi-: upon -Staxis: dripping Eupnea: good or normal breathing Eu-: good, normal -Pnea: breathing Expectoration: process of coughing up and spitting out material (sputum) from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea Ex-: out Pector(at): breast, chest -Ion: process Hemoptysis: spitting up blood Hem/o: blood -Ptysis: to spit Hemothorax: blood in the pleural cavity Hem/o: blood Thorax: chest Hypoxia: condition of deficient amounts of oxygen in body tissues Hyp-: below, deficient Ox: oxygen -Ia: condition Inhalation: process of breathing in In-: in Halat: breathe -Ion: process Pertussis: acute, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis; characterized by a peculiar paroxysmal cough ending in a “crowing” or “whooping” sound; also called whooping cough Pneumonectomy: surgical excision of the left or right lung Pneumon: lung -Ectomy: surgical excision Pneumonia: inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants Pneumon: lung, air -Ia: condition Pneumonitis: inflammation of the lung Pneumon: lung -Itis: inflammation Pneumothorax: a pathological condition in which there is a collection of air between the chest wall and lungs, causing the lung to collapse. It may occur spontaneously or after physical trauma to the chest or as a complication of medical treatment Pneum/o: air Thorax: chest Respiration: the physical and chemical processes (as breathing and diffusion) by which an organism supplies its cells and tissues with the oxygen needed for metabolism and relieves them of the carbon dioxide formed in energy- producing reactions Respirat: breathing -Ion: process Tachypnea: rapid breathing Tachy-: rapid -Pnea: breathing Tracheostomy: new opening into the trachea (windpipe) Trache/o: trachea, windpipe -Stomy: new opening Tracheotomy: incision into the trachea (windpipe) Trache/o: trachea, windpipe -Tomy: incision ARDS: adult respiratory distress syndrome CF: cystic fibrosis RSV: respiratory syncytial virus Chapter 12: Urinary System Anuria: literally means without the formation of urine; lack of urine production An-: without -Uria: urine Ascites: abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen Cystectomy: surgical excision of the bladder or part of the bladder Cyst: bladder -Ectomy: surgical excision Cystitis: inflammation of the bladder, usually occurring secondarily to ascending urinary tract infections. More than 85% of cases of cystitis are caused by Escherichia coli, a bacillus found in the lower gastrointestinal tract Cyst: bladder -Itis: inflammation Cystolithectomy: surgical removal of a bladder stone; a vesical calculus Cyst/o: bladder -Lith: stone -Ectomy: surgical excision Cystoscope: medical instrument used for visual examination of the bladder Cyst/o: bladder -Scope: instrument for examining Dysuria: difficult or painful urination Dys-: difficult, painful -Uria: urine Edema: pathological condition in which the body tissues contain an accumulation of fluid Enuresis: condition of involuntary emission of urine; bedwetting En-: within Ur: urinate -Esis: condition Glomerulonephritis: inflammation of the kidney involving primarily the glomeruli. There are three types: acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN), and subacute glomerulonephritis Glomerul/o: glomerulus, little ball Nephr: kidney -Itis: inflammation Hematuria: presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine. In microscopic hematuria, the urine appears normal to the naked eye, but examination with a microscope shows a high number of RBCs. Gross hematuria can be seen with the naked eye—the urine is red or the colour of cola. If white blood cells are found in addition to the red blood cells, then it is a sign of urinary tract infection Hemat: blood -Uria: urine Hemodialysis (HD): use of an artificial kidney to separate waste from the blood. The blood is circulated through tubes made of semipermeable membranes, and these tubes are continually bathed by solutions that remove waste Hem/o: blood Dia-: through, complete -Lysis: separation, loosening, dissolution Hydronephrosis: pathological condition in which urine collects in the renal pelvis because of an obstructed outflow, thereby forming distention and damage to the kidney; can be caused by renal calculi, tumour, or hyperplasia of the prostate gland Hydro-: water Nephr: kidney -Osis: condition Hypercalciuria: excessive amount of calcium in the urine Hyper-: excessive Calci: calcium -Uria: urine Incontinence: inability to hold or control urination or defecation In-: not Continence: to hold Meatus: opening or passage; the external opening of the urethra Micturition: process of urination Micturit: to urinate -Ion: process Nephrectomy: surgical excision of a kidney Nephr: kidney -Ectomy: surgical excision Nephritis: inflammation of the kidney Nephr: kidney -Itis: inflammation Nephroma: kidney tumour Nephr: kidney -Oma: tumour Nocturia: urination during the night Noct: night -Uria: urine Oliguria: scanty, decreased amount of urine. The decreased production may be a sign of dehydration, renal failure, hypovolemic shock multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, or urinary obstruction/urinary retention. It can be contrasted with anuria, which represents a more complete suppression of urination Olig-: scanty -Uria: urine Peritoneal Dialysis (PD): separation of waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis. Fluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity and wastes from the blood pass into this fluid. The fluid and waste are then removed from the body. Types of peritoneal dialysis are IPD—intermittent and CAPD—continuous ambulatory Peritone: peritoneum -Al: pertaining to Dia-: complete, through -Lysis: lysis Proteinuria: the presence of abnormal quantities of protein in the urine, which may indicate damage to the kidneys Protein: protein -Uria: urine Pyelitis: inflammation of the renal pelvis Pyel: renal pelvis -Itis: inflammation Pyelonephritis: inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis. It is usually caused by bacteria entering the kidneys from the bladder: Escherichia coli is a bacillus that is normally found in the large intestine. These infections usually spread from the genital area through the ureters to the bladder Pyel/o: renal pelvis Nephr: kidney -Itis: inflammation Pyuria: pus in the urine Py: pus -Uria: urine Renal Failure: pathological failure of the kidney to function. There are two types of renal (kidney) failure: acute and chronic. Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs when the filtering function of the kidneys changes so that the kidneys are not able to maintain healthy body function. People who have preexisting kidney disease or damage are at higher risk for acute renal failure. Some common symptoms of acute renal failure include excess fluid in the abdomen (ascites) and swelling of the extremities (edema). In chronic renal failure (CRF), there is a gradual and progressive loss of kidney function. It most often results from any disease that causes gradual loss of kidney function Renal Transplant: surgical procedure to implant a donor kidney into a patient Residual Urine: urine that is left in the bladder after urination Retrograde Pyelography (RP): x-ray recording of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder following the injection of a contrast medium backward through a urinary catheter into the ureters and the calyces of the pelvis of the kidneys. Useful in locating urinary stones and obstructions Sterile: state of being free from living microorganisms; asepsis Stricture: abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage such as the esophagus, ureter, or urethra Strict: to tighten, contraction -Ure: process Uremia: excess of urea, creatine, and other nitrogenous end products of protein and amino acid metabolism accumulated in the blood; also referred to as azotemia. In current usage, it refers to the syndrome associated with end-stage renal failure Ur: urine -Emia: blood condition Urethritis: inflammation of the urethra Urethr: urethra -Itis: inflammation Void: to empty the bladder AGN: acute glomerulonephritis ARF: acute renal failure CRF: chronic renal failure UTI: urinary tract infection Chapter 13: Endocrine System Acidosis: condition of excessive acidity of body fluids Acid: acid -Osis: condition Acromegaly: characterized (in the adult) by marked enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw and extremities. It is caused by an overproduction of growth hormone and is treated by x-ray or surgery Acr/o: extremity -Megaly: enlargement, large Addisons Disease: results from a deficiency in the secretion of adrenocortical hormones; also called hypoadrenocorticism. The most common cause of this condition is the result of the body attacking itself (autoimmune disease). For unknown reasons, the immune system views the adrenal cortex as a foreign body, something to attack and destroy. Other causes include infections of the adrenal glands, spread of cancer to the glands, and hemorrhage into the glands Adenectomy: surgical excision of a gland Aden: gland -Ectomy: surgical excision Adenoma: tumor of a gland Aden: gland -Oma: tumor Adenosis: any disease or condition of a gland Aden: gland -Osis: condition Adrenopathy: any disease of an adrenal gland Adren/o: adrenal gland -Pathy: disease Cretinism: congenital condition caused by deficiency in secretin of the thyroid hormones and characterized by arrested physical and mental development. Treatment consists of appropriate thyroid replacement therapy Cretin: cretin -Ism: condition Cushing Disease: results from hypersecretion of cortisol; symptoms include fatigue, muscular weakness, and changes in body appearance. Prolonged administration of large doses of ACTH can cause Cushing syndrome. A buffalo hump and moon face are characteristic signs of this condition Diabetes Mellitus: type 1 diabetes mellitus is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and was previously known as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 DM, the body does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar (glucose), starches, and other food into energy needed for daily life. The classic symptoms of DM— polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (excessive thirst), and polyphagia (extreme hunger)—appear rapidly in children. DM is the most common endocrine system disorder of childhood. The rate of occurrence is higher among 5- to 7-year-olds and 11- to 15-year-olds. It is noted that childhood obesity predisposes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity in children is a complex disorder. Its prevalence has increased so significantly in recent years that many consider it a major health concern of the developed world Dia-: through -Betes: to go Mellitus: honey Dwarfism: condition of being abnormally small. It is a medical disorder characterized by an adult height less than 4 feet 10 inches (147 cm) and is usually classified as to the underlying condition that is the cause for the short stature. Dwarfism is not necessarily caused by any specific disease or disorder; it can simply be a naturally occurring consequence of a person’s genetic makeup Dwarf: small -Ism: condition Euthyroid: normal activity of the thyroid gland Eu-: good, normal Thyr: thyroid, shield -Oid: resemble Galactorrhea: excessive secretion of milk after cessation of nursing Galact/o: milk -Rrhea: flow, discharge Gigantism: pathological condition of being abnormally large Gigant: giant -Ism: condition Glandular: pertaining to a gland Glandul: little acorn -Ar: pertaining to Goiter: a swelling of the neck resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland Graves’ Disease: generalized diffuse over activity ("toxicity") of the entire thyroid gland which becomes enlarged into a goiter. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism Hirsutism: abnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of hair, especially as occurring in women Hirsut: hairy -Ism: condition Hypergonadism: condition of excessive secretion of the sex glands Hyper-: excessive Gonad: seed -Ism: condition Hyperkalemia: condition of excessive amounts of potassium in the blood Hyper-: excessive Kal: potassium (K) -Emia: blood condition Hypophysis: literally means any undergrowth; also called the pituitary gland Hypo-: deficient, under -Physis: growth Hypothalamus: a collection of specialized cells that are located in the lower central part of the brain, is the primary link between the endocrine and nervous system Hypothyroidism: pathological condition in which the thyroid gland produces inadequate amounts of thyroid hormone. It can affect many body systems Hypo-: deficient Thyr: thyroid, shield -Oid: resemble -Ism: condition Lethargic: pertaining to drowsiness; sluggish Letharg: drowsiness -Ic: pertaining to Myxedema: literally means condition of mucous swelling; it is the most severe form of hypothyroidism, characterized by marked edema of the face, a somnolent look, and hair that is stiff and without luster. Without treatment, coma and death can occur Myx: mucous -Edema: swelling Pineal Gland: helps regulate the release of gonadotropin and controls body pigmentation Pituitarism: any condition of the pituitary gland Pituitar: pituitary gland -Ism: condition Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis): master gland; has regulatory effects on other endocrine glands Polydipsia: excessive thirst Polyphagia: extreme hunger Polyuria: excessive urination Progeria: pathological condition of premature old age occurring in childhood Pro-: before Ger: old age -Ia: condition Somatotropin: growth-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Somat/o: body Trop: turn -In: chemical Thymitis: inflammation of the thymus gland Thym: thymus -Itis: inflammation Thyroidectomy: surgical excision of the thyroid gland Thry: thyroid, shield -Oid: resemble -Ectomy: surgical excision Thyrotoxicosis: literally means a poisonous condition of the thyroid gland; pathological condition caused by an acute over secretion of thyroid hormones Thyr/o: thyroid, shield Toxic: poison -Osis: condition Virilism: pathological condition in which secondary male characteristics, such as growth of hair on face and/or body and deepening of the voice, are produced in a female, usually as the result of adrenal dysfunction, hormonal imbalance, or taking medications (androgens) Viril: masculine -Ism: condition Chapter 14: Nervous System Akathisia: inability to remain still; motor restlessness and anxiety Akinesia: loss or lack of voluntary motion A-: lack of -Kinesia: motion, movement Amnesia: condition in which there is a loss or lack of memory A-: lack of Mnes: memory -Ia: condition Analgesia: condition on which there is a lack of the sensation of pain An-: lack of -Algesia: condition of pain Anencephaly: congenital condition in which there is a lack of development of the brain An-: lack of Encephal: brain -Y: condition Anesthesia: literally means loss or lack of the sense of feeling; a pharmacologically induced reversible state of amnesia, analgesia, loss of responsiveness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, and decreased stress response An-: lack of -Esthesia: feeling Aphagia: loss or lack of ability to eat or swallow A-: lack of -Phagia: to eat, swallow Aphasia: literally means a lack of the ability to speak. It is a language disorder in which there is an impairment of producing or comprehending spoken or written language due to brain damage. It can be caused by a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other brain injury; tumor or progressive neurological disease, such as in Alzheimer or Parkinson diseases A-: lack of -Phasia: to speak, speech Apraxia: loss or lack of the ability to use objects properly and to recognize common ones; inability to perform motor tasks or activities of daily living, such as dressing or bathing A-: lack of -Praxia: action Asthenia: loss or lack of strength A-: lack of -Sthenia: strength Ataxia: literally means loss or lack of order; neurological sign and symptom consisting of lack of coordination of muscle movements. It implies dysfunction of parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum A-: lack of -Taxia: order coordination Bradykinesia: abnormal slowness of motion Brady-: slow -Kinesia: motion, movement Cephalalgia: head pain; headache Cephal: head -Algia: pain Chorea: abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesia’s; characterized by episodes of rapid, jerky involuntary muscular twitching of the limbs or facial muscles Coma: unconscious state or stupor from which the patient cannot be aroused Concussion (Brain): head injury with a transient loss of brain function; may also be called mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), mild head injury (MHI), and minor head trauma Concuss: shaken violently -Ion: process Craniectomy: surgical excision of a portion of the skull (the cranium, which incases the brain) Cran/i: skull -Ectomy: surgical incision Craniotomy: literally means surgical incision into the skull. It is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is removed from the skull to access the brain. Used to repair defects associated with traumatic head injuries or to repair a cerebral aneurysm Cran/i: skull -Otomy: incision Dementia: group of symptoms marked by memory loss and loss of other cognitive functions such as perception, thinking, reasoning, and remembering De-: down Ment: mind -Ia: condition Dyslexia: condition in which an individual has difficulty in reading and comprehending written language Dys-: difficult -Lexia: diction, word, phrase Dysphasia: impairment of speech that may be caused by a brain lesion Dys-: difficult -Phasia: speak, speech Encephalitis: inflammation of the brain. There are numerous types of encephalitis, many of which are caused by viral infection. Symptoms include sudden fever, headache, vomiting, photophobia (abnormal visual sensitivity to light), stiff neck and back, confusion, drowsiness, clumsiness, unsteady gait, and irritability Encephal: brain -Itis: inflammation Encephalopathy: any pathological dysfunction of the brain. HIV encephalopathy is called AIDS-dementia complex Encephal/o: brain -Pathy: disease Hemiparesis: weakness on one side of the body that can be caused by a stroke, cerebral palsy, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, and other brain and nervous system diseases Hemi-: half -Paresis: weakness Hemiplegia: paralysis of one-half of the body when it is divided along the median sagittal plane; total paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on the same side of the body. Stroke is the most common cause of this condition Hemi-: half -Plegia: stroke, paralysis Hydrocephalus: condition in which there is an increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain, causing the head to be enlarged. Treatment involves surgical placement of an artificial shunt, which drains the fluid into the abdominal cavity Hydro-: water Cephal: head -Us: pertaining to Meningitis: inflammation of the meninges of the spinal cord or brain. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, most patients recover from meningitis. Individuals with bacterial meningitis are usually hospitalized for treatment Mening: meninges, membrane -Itis: inflammation Microcephalus: abnormally small head; congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormal smallness of the head in relation to the rest of the body Micro-: small Cephal: head -Us: pertaining to Narcolepsy: chronic condition with recurrent attacks of uncontrollable drowsiness and sleep Narc/o: numbness, sleep, stupor -Lepsy: seizure Palsy: pathological loss of sensation or an impairment of motor function; also called paralysis. There are many types of palsy; one example is Bell palsy, a unilateral paralysis of the facial (VII) nerve. The facial expression is distorted and the patient could be unable to close an eye or control salivation on the affected side Papilledema: swelling of the optic disk, usually caused by increased intracranial pressure (ICP); also called choked disk Papill: papilla -Edema: swelling Paraplegia: paralysis of the lower part of the body and of both legs Para-: beside -Plegia: stroke, paralysis Paresis: slight, partial, or incomplete paralysis Paresthesia: abnormal sensation, feeling of numbness, prickling, or tingling Par-: beside -Esthesia: feeling Paroxysm: sudden recurrence of the symptoms of a disease, an exacerbation; also means a spasm or seizure Pheochromocytoma: chromaffin cell tumor of the adrenal medulla or of the sympathetic nervous system Phe/o: dusky Chrom/o: colour Cyt: cell -Oma: tumor Polyneuritis: literally means inflammation involving many nerves Poly-: many Neur: nerve -Itis: inflammation Quadriplegia: paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk due to injury to the spinal cord in the cervical spine; also called tetraplegia Quadri-: four -Plegia: stroke, paralysis Spondylosyndesis: surgical procedure to bind vertebra after removal of a herniated disk; also called spinal fusion Spondyl/o: vertebra Syn-: together -Desis: binding Stroke: death of focal brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get sufficient blood and oxygen; also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or brain attack. If the flow of blood in an artery supplying the brain is interrupted for longer than a few seconds, brain cells can die, causing permanent damage. The interruption can be caused either by bleeding (hemorrhagic stroke) or blood clots in the brain. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary interference in the blood supply to the brain. It sometimes is referred to as a mini-stroke, and symptoms can last for a few minutes or several hours Sundowning: increased agitation or restlessness that occurs in the late afternoon or early evening in patients with cognitive impairment; most common with Alzheimer-type dementia and Parkinson disease Syncope: temporary loss of consciousness caused by a lack of blood supply to the brain; also called fainting ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis CVA: cerebrovascular accident MS: multiple sclerosis MTBI: mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) TIA: transient ischemic attack


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